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Walter Chauncey Camp (April 7, 1859 – March 14, 1925) was an American football
American football
player, coach, and sports writer known as the "Father of American Football". Among a long list of inventions, he created the sport's line of scrimmage and the system of downs.[1] With John Heisman, Amos Alonzo Stagg, Pop Warner, Fielding H. Yost, and George Halas, Camp was one of the most accomplished persons in the early history of American football. He attended Yale College, where he played and coached college football. Camp's Yale teams of 1888, 1891, and 1892 have been recognized as national champions. Camp was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame
College Football Hall of Fame
as a coach in 1951. Camp wrote articles and books on the gridiron and sports in general, annually publishing an "All-American" team. By the time of his death, he had written nearly 30 books and more than 250 magazine articles.

Part of the American football
American football
series on History of American football

• Origins of American football

• Early history of American football • First game • Walter Camp • First pro player • First pro league • Modern history of American football

• Close relations:

• Medieval football • Old division football • Rugby football • Association football • Canadian football

• Black players in professional American football • Homosexuality in American football • Concussions in American football • Rugby union comparison • Rugby league comparison • Canadian football
Canadian football
comparison • Pro Football Hall of Fame • College Football
College Football
Hall of Fame • Years in American football

• NFL season-by-season • College football
College football
season-by-season • Glossary of American football

American football
American football
Portal

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Contents

1 Life

1.1 Early years 1.2 Playing career 1.3 Family 1.4 Coaching career

2 Father of American football 3 Writing

3.1 Eastern bias

4 The Daily Dozen exercise regimen 5 Head coaching record 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Life[edit] Early years[edit] Camp was born in the city of New Britain, Connecticut, the son of Leverett Lee and Ellen Sophia (Cornwell) Camp. Walter Camp
Walter Camp
was of English descent. His first immigrant ancestor was the English colonist Nicholas Camp, who came from Essex, England and arrived in colonial New England in 1630, arriving first in Massachusetts and then moving to Connecticut that same year.[2] He attended Hopkins Grammar School in New Haven, entered Yale College in 1875, and graduated in 1880.[3] At Yale he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon
Delta Kappa Epsilon
fraternity, the Linonian Society, and Skull and Bones.[3] He attended Yale Medical School from 1880 to 1883,[1] where his studies were interrupted first by an outbreak of typhoid fever and then by work for the Manhattan Watch Company. Playing career[edit] In 1873 Camp attended a meeting where representatives from Columbia, Rutgers, Princeton, and Yale universities created the intercollegiate football association (IFA). The representatives created the rule that each team is only allowed 15 plays per drive. Camp played as a halfback at Yale from 1876 to 1882. Harvard
Harvard
player Nathaniel Curtis took one look at Camp, then only 156 pounds, and told Yale captain Gene Baker "You don't mean to let that child play, do you? ... He will get hurt."[4][5] Camp worked for the New Haven Clock Company beginning in 1883, working his way up to chairman of the board of directors.[3] Family[edit] On June 30, 1888, Camp married Alice Graham Sumner, sister of sociologist William Graham Sumner. They had two children: Walter Camp, Jr. (born 1891), who attended Yale as well and was elected as a member of Scroll and Key
Scroll and Key
in 1912, and Janet Camp Troxell (born 1897).[6] Coaching career[edit] Camp served as the head football coach at Yale from 1888 to 1892 before moving to Stanford University, where he coached in December 1892 and in 1894 and 1895. On Christmas 1894, he and Amos Alonzo Stagg's Chicago Maroons organized an early intersectional contest. Father of American football[edit] Camp was on the various collegiate football rules committees that developed the American game from his time as a player at Yale until his death. English rugby rules at the time required a tackled player, when the ball was "fairly held," to put the ball down immediately for scrummage. Camp proposed at the U.S. College Football
College Football
1880 rules convention that the contested scrimmage be replaced with a "line of scrimmage" where the team with the ball started with uncontested possession. This change effectively created the evolution of the modern game of American football
American football
from its rugby football origins. He is credited with innovations such as the snap-back from center, the system of downs, and the points system as well as the introduction of the now-standard offensive arrangement of players—a seven-man line and a four-man backfield consisting of a quarterback, two halfbacks, and a fullback. Camp was also responsible for introducing the "safety," the awarding of two points to the defensive side for tackling a ball carrier in his own end zone followed by a free kick by the offense from its own 20-yard line to restart play. This is significant as rugby union has no point value award for this action, but instead awards a scrum to the attacking side five meters from the goal line.

Camp as he appears at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.

In 2011, reviewing Camp's role in the founding of the sport and of the NCAA, Taylor Branch
Taylor Branch
also credited Camp with cutting the number of players on a football team from 15 to 11 and adding measuring lines to the field. However, Branch noted that the revelation in a contemporaneous McClure's
McClure's
magazine story of "Camp's $100,000 slush fund," along with concern about the violence of the growing sport, helped lead to President Theodore Roosevelt's intervention in the sport. The NCAA
NCAA
emerged from the national talks, but worked to Yale's disadvantage relative to rival (and Roosevelt's alma mater) Harvard, according to Branch.[7] Writing[edit] Despite having a full-time job at the New Haven Clock Company, a Camp family business, and being an unpaid yet very involved adviser to the Yale football team, Camp wrote articles and books on the gridiron and sports in general. By the time of his death, he had written nearly 30 books and more than 250 magazine articles. His articles appeared in national periodicals such as Harper's Weekly, Collier's, Outing, Outlook, and The Independent, and in juvenile magazines such as St. Nicholas, Youth's Companion, and Boys' Magazine. His stories also appeared in major daily newspapers throughout the United States. He also selected an annual "All-American" team. According to Richard P. Borkowski, "Camp was instrumental, through his extensive writing and lectures in attaching an almost mythical atmosphere of manliness and heroism to the game not previously known in American team sport."[8] By the age of 33, twelve years after graduating from Yale, Walter Camp had already become known as the "Father of Football." In a column in the popular magazine Harper's Weekly, sports columnist Caspar Whitney had applied the nickname; the sobriquet was appropriate because, by 1892, Camp had almost single-handedly fashioned the game of modern American football. Eastern bias[edit] The dominance of Ivy League players on Camp's All-America teams led to criticism over the years that his selections were biased against players from the leading Western universities, including Chicago, Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Notre Dame.[9][10][11] Many selectors picked only Eastern players. For example, Wilton S. Farnsworth's 1910 All-American eleven for the New York Evening Journal was made up of five players from Harvard, two from West Point, and one each from Yale, Princeton, Penn, and Brown.[12] The selectors were typically Eastern writers and former players who attended only games in the East. In December 1910, The Mansfield News, an Ohio newspaper, ran an article headlined: "All-American Teams of East Are Jokes: Critics Who Never Saw Western Teams Play to Name Best in Country -- Forget About Michigan, Minnesota and Illinois."[9] The article noted: "Eastern sporting editors must be devoid of all sense of humor, judging by the way in which they permit their football writers to pick 'All-American' elevens. What man in the lot that have picked 'All-American' elevens this fall, saw a single game outside the North Atlantic States? With a conceit all their own they fail to recognize that the United States reaches more than 200 miles in any direction from New York. ... Suppose an Ohio football writer picked 'All-American' teams. Ohio readers would not stand for it. But apparently the eastern readers will swallow anything."[9] The Daily Dozen exercise regimen[edit] Camp was a proponent of exercise, and not just for the athletes he coached. While working as an adviser to the United States military during World War I, he devised a program to help servicemen become more physically fit.

Walter Camp
Walter Camp
has just developed for the Naval Commission on Training Camp Activities a "short hand" system of setting up exercises that seems to fill the bill; a system designed to give a man a running jump start for the serious work of the day. It is called the "daily dozen set-up", meaning thereby twelve very simple exercises.[13]

Both the Army and the Navy used Camp's methods.[14] The names of the exercises in the original Daily Dozen, as the whole set became known, were hands, grind, crawl, wave, hips, grate, curl, weave, head, grasp, crouch, and wing. As the name indicates, there were twelve exercises, and they could be completed in about eight minutes.[15] A prolific writer, Camp wrote a book explaining the exercises and extolling their benefits. During the 1920s, a number of newspapers and magazines used the term "Daily Dozen" to refer to exercise in general.[16] Starting in 1921 with the Musical Health Builder record sets, Camp began offering morning setting-up exercises to a wider market.[17] In 1922, the initiative reached the new medium of radio.[18] Head coaching record[edit]

Camp as Yale's captain in 1878

Year Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl/playoffs

Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
(Intercollegiate Football Association) (1888–1892)

1888 Yale 13–0

1st

1889 Yale 15–1

1890 Yale 13–1

1st

1891 Yale 13–0

1st

1892 Yale 13–0

1st

Yale: 67–2

Stanford (Independent) (1892)

1892 Stanford 2–0–2

Stanford (Independent) (1894–1895)

1894 Stanford 6–3

1895 Stanford 4–0–1

Stanford: 12–3–3

Total: 79–5–3

      National championship         Conference title         Conference division title or championship game berth

See also[edit]

List of college football head coaches with non-consecutive tenure

References[edit]

^ a b Bishop, LuAnn (18 November 2013). "11 Historic Tidbits About The Game". Yale News. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2017-01-24.  ^ Des Jardins, Julie (2015). Walter Camp: football and the modern man. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 9. ISBN 9780199925636. Nicholas Camp, his earliest known ancestor, came to Massachusetts and settled in Connecticut in 1630.  ^ a b c "Obituary Record of Graduates of Yale University
Yale University
Deceased during the Year 1924–1925" (PDF). Yale University. 1925. pp. 1348–50. Retrieved March 24, 2011.  ^ "Camp Curbed the Carnage". Spokane Daily Chronicle. September 8, 1962.  ^ "Star-News - Google News Archive Search". google.com.  ^ "Yale 'Taps' in rain amid great tension; Nervousness of the Marshaled Juniors Reflects Owen Johnson's Attack on the System". New York Times. May 17, 1912. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-24.  ^ Branch, Taylor, "The Shame of College Sports," The Atlantic, September 14, 2011 (October 2011 issue). In 1905 in McClure's, Henry Beach Needham published two stories, "The College Athlete: His Amateur Code: Its Evasion and Administration." (July; 25:3 p. 260) and "The College Athlete: How Commercialism Is Making Him a Professional" (June; 25:2) with Yale content per "The early history of football at Yale: Contemporary sources", Critical Sport Studies. Retrieved 2011-09-27. ^ Borkowski, Richard P. (1979). The Life and Contributions of Walter Camp to American Football (Thesis). Temple University.  ^ a b c "All-American Teams of East Are Jokes: Critics Who Never Saw Western Teams Play to Name Best in Country -- Forget About Michigan, Minnesota and Illinois". The Mansfield News. December 8, 1910.  ^ Ross Tenney (December 31, 1922). "Much Dissatisfaction Over Camp's All-American Team: Football Dean Is Accused of Favoring East; Walter Camp Soundly Scored For 'Poorest Teams Ever Foisted Upon Public'". The Des Moines Capital.  ^ "Westerners Missed By Walter Camp: Football Wizard Puts Indian on 'All-American.'". The Decatur Review. December 7, 1911. p. 5.  ^ Farnsworth, W.S. (1910-12-04). "Picking All-Stars Is No Easy Task: Backfield
Backfield
Men Show Greater Individuality Then Men on the Line and Are More Easily Chosen". The Billings Daily Gazette.  ^ "A Daily Dozen Set-Up. Walter Camp's New Shorthand System of Morning Exercises", Outing, November 1918, p. 98 ^ "Walter Camp, Father of Football," Atlanta Constitution, September 19, 1920, p. 2D ^ "Camp's Daily Dozen Exercises", Boston Globe, July 11, 1920, p. 64 ^ Lulu Hunt Peters, "Diet and Health: The Daily Dozens—Take 'Em." Los Angeles Times, June 8, 1927, p. A6 ^ "Recent Acquisitions 2007", National Library of Medicine, Walter Camp Musical Health Builder (New York, 1921). Retrieved 2011-09-14. Archived 2015-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Getting the Radio
Radio
News by Telephone". Popular Mechanics: 636–638. 1925. 

Bibliography[edit]

Ronald A. Smith, Sports and Freedom: The Rise of Big-Time College Athletics, (1990) " Walter Camp
Walter Camp
Found All-American Eleven Selections and Originated the Daily Dozen." New York Times, March 15, 1925. p. 1.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Walter Camp.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: Walter Camp

Walter Camp
Walter Camp
at the College Football
College Football
Hall of Fame Works by Walter Camp
Walter Camp
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Walter Camp
Walter Camp
at Internet Archive Walter Camp
Walter Camp
at Find a Grave Walter Camp
Walter Camp
(1912). Condensed auction for the busy man. NY: Platt & Peck. 

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Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
head football coaches

No coach (1872–1887) Walter Camp
Walter Camp
(1888–1892) William Rhodes (1893–1894) John A. Hartwell
John A. Hartwell
(1895) Sam Thorne
Sam Thorne
(1896) Frank Butterworth (1897–1898) James O. Rodgers
James O. Rodgers
(1899) Malcolm McBride
Malcolm McBride
(1900) George S. Stillman (1901) Joseph Rockwell Swan (1902) George B. Chadwick
George B. Chadwick
(1903) Charles D. Rafferty
Charles D. Rafferty
(1904) Jack Owsley
Jack Owsley
(1905) Foster Rockwell (1906) William F. Knox (1907) Lucius Horatio Biglow
Lucius Horatio Biglow
(1908) Howard Jones (1909) Ted Coy
Ted Coy
(1910) John Field (1911) Art Howe (1912) Howard Jones (1913) Frank Hinkey
Frank Hinkey
(1914–1915) Tad Jones (1916–1917) No team (1918) Albert Sharpe (1919) Tad Jones (1920–1927) Mal Stevens (1928–1932) Reginald D. Root (1933) Ducky Pond (1934–1940) Spike Nelson (1941) Howard Odell (1942–1947) Herman Hickman
Herman Hickman
(1948–1951) Jordan Olivar (1952–1962) John Pont
John Pont
(1963–1964) Carmen Cozza (1965–1996) Jack Siedlecki
Jack Siedlecki
(1997–2008) Tom Williams (2009–2011) Tony Reno (2012– )

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Stanford Cardinal head football coaches

No coach (1891) Walter Camp
Walter Camp
(1892) C. D. Bliss (1893) Walter Camp
Walter Camp
(1894–1895) Harry P. Cross (1896) George H. Brooke
George H. Brooke
(1897) Harry P. Cross (1898) Burr Chamberlain
Burr Chamberlain
(1899) Fielding H. Yost
Fielding H. Yost
(1900) Charles Fickert
Charles Fickert
(1901) Carl L. Clemans (1902) James F. Lanagan (1903–1905) No team (1906–1918) Bob Evans (1919) Walter D. Powell
Walter D. Powell
(1920) Eugene Van Gent (1921) Andrew Kerr
Andrew Kerr
(1922–1923) Pop Warner
Pop Warner
(1924–1932) Claude E. Thornhill (1933–1939) Clark Shaughnessy
Clark Shaughnessy
(1940–1941) Marchmont Schwartz
Marchmont Schwartz
(1942) No team (1943–1945) Marchmont Schwartz
Marchmont Schwartz
(1946–1950) Chuck Taylor (1951–1957) Jack Curtice (1958–1962) John Ralston (1963–1971) Jack Christiansen
Jack Christiansen
(1972–1976) Bill Walsh (1977–1978) Rod Dowhower (1979) Paul Wiggin (1980–1983) Jack Elway (1984–1988) Dennis Green (1989–1991) Bill Walsh (1992–1994) Tyrone Willingham
Tyrone Willingham
(1995–2001) Buddy Teevens (2002–2004) Walt Harris (2005–2006) Jim Harbaugh
Jim Harbaugh
(2007–2010) David Shaw (2011– )

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Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
athletic directors

Walter Camp Albert Sharpe (1919–1921) John T. Blossom (1922–1926) Jack Cates (1927–1932) Malcom Farmer (1932–1940) Robert J. H. Kiphuth (1947–1949) Laurence G. Tighe # (1949–1950) Bob Hall (1950–1953) Clarence W. Mendel # (1953–1954) Delaney Kiphuth (1954–1976) Carmen Cozza (1976–1977) Frank Ryan (1977–1987) Tom Beckett (1994–2018) Victoria Chun (2018– )

# denotes interim athletic director.

Walter Camp—championships

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1876 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

Eugene V. Baker Walter Camp O. D. Thompson

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1877 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

Eugene V. Baker Walter Camp O. D. Thompson

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1879 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

Benjamin Wisner Bacon Walter Irving Badger Walter Camp Louis K. Hull John Moorhead Frederic Remington

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1880 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

Benjamin Wisner Bacon Walter Irving Badger Walter Camp Louis K. Hull John Moorehead Frederic Remington Robert Watson

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1881 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

Benjamin Wisner Bacon Walter Irving Badger Walter Camp Louis K. Hull Eugene Lamb Richards Ray Tompkins Henry Twombly

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1882 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

Benjamin Wisner Bacon Walter Camp Louis K. Hull William Hugh Hyndman Eugene Lamb Richards Wyllys Terry Ray Tompkins Henry Twombly

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1888 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

William T. Bull William Herbert Corbin Charles O. Gill William Heffelfinger Lee McClung William Rhodes Amos Alonzo Stagg George Washington Woodruff William Wurtenburg

Head coach Walter Camp

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1891 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

Frank Barbour Laurie Bliss C. D. Bliss Ben Crosby Harmon S. Graves John A. Hartwell William Heffelfinger Frank Hinkey Lee McClung Vance C. McCormick Eugene Messler Ralph Delahaye Paine William M. Richards George Sanford Alexander Hamilton Wallis Wallace Winter

Head coach Walter Camp

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1892 Yale Bulldogs
Yale Bulldogs
football—national champions

George Adee Bill Armstrong Laurie Bliss Pop Bliss Frank Butterworth Thomas Cochran Harmon S. Graves Bill Hickok Frank Hinkey Vance McCormick William M. Richards Sandy Sanford Phillip Stillman Alexander Hamilton Wallis Wallace Winter

Head coach Walter Camp

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 39771881 LCCN: n80015475 ISNI: 0000 0000 2485 4933 SN

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