Walpurgis Night (the English translation of Walpurgisnacht
[valˈpʊʁɡɪsˌnaχt]), also known as the Feast of Saint Walpurga,
is the eve of
Christian feast day of Saint Walpurga, an 8th-century
abbess in Francia, and is celebrated on night of 30 April and the day
of 1 May. This feast commemorates the canonization of Sant Walpurga
and the movement of her relics to Eichstätt, both of which occurred
on 1 May in the year 870.
Saint Walpurga was hailed by the Christians of
Germany for battling
"pest, rabies and whooping cough, as well as against witchcraft."
In Germanic folklore, Hexennacht (Dutch: heksennacht), literally
"Witches' Night", was believed to be the night of a witches' meeting
on the Brocken, the highest peak in the Harz Mountains, a range of
wooded hills in central
Germany between the rivers
Weser and Elbe.
Christians prayed to God through the intercession of
Saint Walpurga in
order to protect themselves from witchcraft, as Saint
Walpurga was successful in converting the local populace to
Christianity. In parts of Christendom, people continue to light
bonfires on Saint Walpurga's Eve in order to ward off evil spirits and
Local variants of
Walpurgis Night are observed throughout
the Netherlands, Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Sweden,
Lithuania, Latvia, Finland, and Estonia. In Denmark, the tradition
with bonfires to ward off the witches is observed as Saint John's
1.1 Saint Walpurga
2 Regional variations
2.1 Czech Republic
2.6 The Netherlands
3 See also
5 External links
Christian gonfalon depicting
Saint Walpurga used in liturgical
processions on the Feast of Saint Walpurga
The relics of
Saint Walpurga are housed at Saint Peter's Church in
Munich, where they are venerated, especially on February 25 (Saint
Walpurga's death date) and May 1 (Saint Walpurga's canonization date),
both of which are observed as the Feast of Saint Walpurga, depending
Main article: Saint Walpurga
The daughter of Saint
Richard the Pilgrim
Richard the Pilgrim and sister of Saint
Saint Walpurga (also known as Saint Walpurgis) was born in
Devonshire in 710 A.D. An English princess,
Saint Walpurga studied
medicine and became a
Christian missionary to Germany, where she
founded an double monastery in Heidenheim. As such, Christian
artwork often depicts her holding bandages in her hand. As a
result of Saint Walpurga's evangelism in Germany, the people there
converted to Christianity from heathenism. In addition, "the
monastery became an education center and 'soon became famous as a
center of culture'."
Saint Walpurga was also known to repel the
effects of witchcraft.
Saint Walpurga perished in 777 and her
tomb, to this day, produces holy oil, which is said to heal sickness;
Benedictine nuns distribute this oil in vials to
who visit Saint Walpurga's tomb.
The current festival is named after the English
Saint Walpurga (c. 710–777/9). As Saint Walpurga's feast was held on
1 May (c. 870), she became associated with May Day, especially in
the Finnish and Swedish calendars. The canonization of Sant
Walpurga and the movement of her relics to
Eichstätt occurred on 1
May in the year 870 thus leading to the Feast of
Saint Walpurga and
its eve, Walpurgis Night, being popularly observed on this date.
When the bishop had Saint Walpurga's relics moved, "miraculous cures
were reported as her remains traveled along the route." The eve of
May Day, traditionally celebrated with dancing and bonfires to ward
off witches, came to be known as Walpurgisnacht ("Walpurga's night")
in the German language. The name of the holiday is
Walpurgisnacht in German, Valborgsmässoafton ("Valborg's Mass Eve")
in Swedish, Vappen in
Finland Swedish, Vappu in Finnish, Volbriöö in
Estonian, Valpurgijos naktis in Lithuanian, Valpurģu nakts or
Valpurģi in Latvian, čarodějnice and Valpuržina noc in Czech.
The Germanic term Walpurgisnacht is recorded in 1668 by Johannes
Praetorius as S. Walpurgis Nacht or S. Walpurgis Abend. An earlier
mention of Walpurgis and S. Walpurgis Abend is in the 1603 edition of
the Calendarium perpetuum of Johann Coler, who also refers to the
following day, 1 May, as Jacobi Philippi, feast day of the apostles
James the Less and Philip in the Western
Christian calendar of saints.
The 17th-century German tradition of a meeting of sorcerers and
May Day eve (German: Hexennacht, Dutch: Heksennacht
"Witches' Night") is influenced by the descriptions of Witches'
Sabbaths in 15th- and 16th-century literature. Given
that witches gathered on this Hexennacht, the Western
established the Feast of
Saint Walpurga on the same night in order
counteract witchcraft, given that the intercession of Saint Walpurga
was efficacious against evil magic. Across Christendom, people
continue to light bonfires on Saint Walpurga's Eve, now dedicated to
Christian saint, in order to ward off evil spirits and
30 April is pálení čarodějnic ("burning of the witches") or
čarodějnice ("the witches") in the Czech Republic. Huge
bonfires—up to 8 metres (26 ft) tall—are built and burnt in
the evening, preferably on top of hills. Young people gather around.
Sudden black and dense smoke formations are cheered as "a witch flying
away". An effigy of a witch is held up and thrown into a bonfire to
burn. As evening advances to midnight and fire is on the wane, it
is time to go search for a cherry tree in blossom. Young women should
be kissed past midnight (and during the following day) under a cherry
tree. They "will not dry up" for an entire year. The First of May is
celebrated then as "the day of those in love".
In Estonia, Volbriöö is celebrated throughout the night of 30 April
and into the early hours of 1 May, where 1 May is a public holiday
called "Spring Day" (Kevadpüha). Volbriöö is an important and
widespread celebration of the arrival of spring in the country.
Influenced by German culture, the night originally stood for the
gathering and meeting of witches. Modern people still dress up as
witches to wander the streets in a carnival-like mood.
The Volbriöö celebrations are especially vigorous in Tartu, the
university town in southern Estonia. For Estonian students in student
corporations (fraternities and sororities), the night starts with a
traditional procession through the streets of Tartu, followed by
visiting each other's corporation houses throughout the night.
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People at a Vappu picnic in
Kaivopuisto in 2008
In Finland, Walpurgis night (Vappu) ("Vappen") is one of the four
biggest holidays along with Christmas Eve, New Year's Eve, and
Midsummer (Juhannus - Midsommar). Walpurgis witnesses the biggest
carnival-style festival held in Finland's cities and towns. The
celebration, which begin on the evening of 30 April and continue on 1
May, typically centre on the consumption of sima, sparkling wine and
other alcoholic beverages. Student traditions, particularly those of
engineering students, are one of the main characteristics of Vappu.
Since the end of the 19th century, this traditional upper-class feast
has been appropriated by university students. Many lukio
(university-preparatory high school) alumni wear the black and white
student cap and many higher education students wear student coveralls.
One tradition is to drink sima, a home-made low-alcohol mead, along
with freshly cooked funnel cakes.
In the capital, Helsinki, and its surrounding region, fixtures include
the capping (on 30 April at 6 pm) of Havis Amanda, a nude female
statue in Helsinki, and the biennially alternating publications of
ribald matter called
Äpy and Julkku, by engineering students of Aalto
University. Both are sophomoric; but while
Julkku is a standard
Äpy is always a gimmick. Classic forms have included an
Äpy printed on toilet paper and a bedsheet. Often, the magazine has
been stuffed inside standard industrial packages, such as sardine cans
and milk cartons. For most university students, Vappu starts a week
before the day of celebration. The festivities also include a picnic
on 1 May, which is sometimes prepared in a lavish manner, particularly
in Ullanlinnanmäki in central Helsinki.
Vappu coincides with the socialist
May Day parade. Expanding from the
parties of the left, the whole of the Finnish political scene has
adopted Vappu as the day to go out on stumps and agitate. This isn’t
limited only to political activists; many institutions, such as the
Lutheran Church of Finland, have followed suit, marching and making
speeches. Left-wing activists of the 1970s still party on May Day.
Carnivals are arranged, and many radio stations play leftist songs,
such as The Internationale.
Traditionally, 1 May is celebrated by the way of a picnic in a park.
For most, the picnic is enjoyed with friends on a blanket with food
and sparkling wine. Some people arrange extremely lavish picnics with
pavilions, white tablecloths, silver candelabras, classical music and
extravagant food. The picnic usually starts early in the morning,
where some of the previous night's party-goers continue their
celebrations from the previous night.
Some student organisations reserve areas where they traditionally camp
every year. Student caps, mead, streamers and balloons have their role
in the picnic and the celebration as a whole.
Lewis Morrison as "Mephistopheles" in Faust!: "The Brocken". Poster
for a theatrical performance of Goethe's play showing Mephistopheles
conjuring supernatural creatures on the German mountain, the Brocken
(or Blocksberg), which according to the tale is the scenery for the
Walpurgisnight, from 30 April to 1 May.
In Germany, Hexennacht ("Witches' Night"), the night from 30 April to
1 May, is the night when witches are reputed to hold a large
celebration on the
Brocken and await the arrival of spring and is held
on the same night as
Walpurgis Night Walpurgisnacht.
Walpurgisnacht Night (in German folklore) the night of 30 April (May
Day's eve), when witches meet on the
Brocken mountain and hold revels
with the Devil...
Brocken is the highest of the
Harz Mountains of north central Germany.
It is noted for the phenomenon of the
Brocken spectre and for witches'
revels which reputedly took place there on Walpurgis night.
Brocken Spectre is a magnified shadow of an observer, typically
surrounded by rainbow-like bands, thrown onto a bank of cloud in high
mountain areas when the sun is low. The phenomenon was first reported
on the Brocken.
A scene in Goethe's Faust Part One is called "Walpurgisnacht," and one
in Faust Part Two is called "Classical Walpurgisnacht." The last
chapter of book five in Thomas Mann's
The Magic Mountain
The Magic Mountain is also
called "Walpurgisnacht." In Edward Albee's 1962 play Who's Afraid of
Virginia Woolf?, Act Two is entitled "Walpurgisnacht."
From Bram Stoker's short story, Dracula's Guest, an Englishman (whose
name is never mentioned) is on a visit to
Munich before leaving for
Transylvania. It is Walpurgis Night, and in spite of the hotelier's
warning not to be late coming back, the young man later leaves his
carriage and wanders toward the direction of an abandoned "unholy"
village. As the carriage departs with the frightened and superstitious
driver, a tall and thin stranger scares the horses at the crest of a
In some parts of northern coastal regions of Germany, the custom of
lighting huge fires is still kept alive to celebrate the coming of
May, while most parts of
Germany have a derived Christianized custom
Easter called "
Easter fires" (Osterfeuer).
In rural parts of southern Germany, it is part of popular youth
culture to play pranks such as tampering with neighbours' gardens,
hiding possessions, or spraying graffiti on private property.
In Berlin, traditional leftist
May Day riots usually start at
Walpurgis Night in the
Mauerpark in Prenzlauer Berg. There is a
similar tradition in the Schanzenviertel district of Hamburg, though
in both cases, the situation has significantly calmed down in the past
While the name Walpurgis is taken from the eighth-century English
Christian missionary Saint Walburga, Valborg, as it is called in
Swedish, also marks the arrival of spring. The forms of celebration
vary in different parts of the country and between different cities.
Walpurgis celebrations are not a family occasion but rather a public
event, and local groups often take responsibility for organising them
to encourage community spirit in the village or neighbourhood.
Celebrations normally include lighting the bonfire, choral singing and
a speech to honour the arrival of the spring season, often held by a
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
In the Middle Ages, the administrative year ended on 30 April.
Accordingly, this was a day of festivity among the merchants and
craftsmen of the town, with trick-or-treat, dancing and singing in
preparation for the forthcoming celebration of spring. Sir James
George Frazer in
The Golden Bough
The Golden Bough writes, "The first of May is a great
popular festival in the more midland and southern parts of Sweden. On
the eve of the festival, huge bonfires, which should be lighted by
striking two flints together, blaze on all the hills and knolls."
Walpurgis bonfires are part of a Swedish tradition dating back to the
early 18th century. At Walpurgis (Valborg), farm animals were let out
to graze and bonfires (majbrasor, kasar) lit to scare away predators.
In Southern Sweden, an older tradition, no longer practiced, was for
the younger people to collect greenery and branches from the woods at
twilight. These were used to adorn the houses of the village. The
expected reward for this task was to be paid in eggs.
A large crowd, mostly students in typical Swedish white student caps,
participating in the traditional
Walpurgis Night celebration with song
outside the Castle in Uppsala. The silhouette of the cathedral towers
may be seen in the background. To the right are banners and standards
of the student nations. Image from c. 1920.
Choral singing is a popular pastime in Sweden, and on Walpurgis Eve
virtually every choir in the country is busy. Singing traditional
songs of spring is widespread throughout the country. The songs are
mostly from the 19th century and were spread by students' spring
festivities. The strongest and most traditional spring festivities are
also found in the old university cities, such as
Uppsala and Lund,
where undergraduates, graduates, and alumni gather at events that last
most of the day from early morning to late night on April 30, or siste
april ("The Last Day of April") as it is called in Lund, or sista
april as it is called in Uppsala. For students, Walpurgis Eve heralds
freedom. Traditionally the exams were over and only the odd lecture
remained before term ends. On the last day of April, the students don
their characteristic white caps and sing songs of welcome to spring,
to the budding greenery and to a brighter future.
More modern Valborg celebrations, particularly among
often consist of enjoying a breakfast including champagne and
strawberries. During the day, people gather in parks, drink
considerable amounts of alcoholic beverages, barbecue, and generally
enjoy the weather, if it happens to be favorable.
In Uppsala, since 1975, students honor spring by rafting on Fyrisån
through the center of town with rickety, homemade, in fact quite
easily wreckable, and often humorously decorated rafts. Several
nations also hold "Champagne Races" (Swedish: Champagnegalopp), where
students go to drink and spray champagne or somewhat more modestly
priced sparkling wine on each other. The walls and floors of the old
nation buildings are covered in plastic for this occasion, as the
champagne is poured around recklessly and sometimes spilled enough to
wade in. Spraying champagne is, however, a fairly recent addition to
the Champagne Race. The name derives from the students running down
the downhill slope from the
Carolina Rediviva library, toward the
Student Nations, to drink champagne.
Linköping many students and former students begin the day at the
park Trädgårdföreningen, in the field below
Belvederen where the
city laws permits alcohol, to drink champagne breakfast in a similar
way to Uppsala. Later at 15:00 o'clock the students and public gather
at the courtyard of
Linköping Castle. Spring songs are sung by the
Linköping University Male Voice Choir, and speeches are made by
representatives of the students and the university professors.
In Gothenburg, the carnival parade, The Cortège, which has been held
since 1909 by the students at Chalmers University of Technology, is an
important part of the celebration. It is seen by around 250,000 people
each year. Another major event is the gathering of students in
Trädgårdsföreningen to listen to student choirs, orchestras, and
speeches. An important part of the gathering is the ceremonial donning
of the student cap, which stems from the time when students wore their
caps daily and switched from black winter cap to white summer cap.
In Umeå, there is a tradition of having local bonfires. During recent
years, however, there has been a tradition of celebrating Walpurgis at
Umeå University campus. The university organizes student choir
songs, there are different types of entertainment and a speech by the
president of the university. Different stalls sell hot dogs, candies,
soft drinks, etc.
Walpurgis night bonfires
As in all Germanic countries, Walpurgisnacht was celebrated in areas
of what is now the Netherlands. It has not been celebrated
recently due to the national
Koninginnedag (Queen's Day) falling on
the same date, though the new koningsdag (King's Day) is on 27 April.
The island of
Texel celebrates a festival known as the
'Meierblis (nl)' (roughly translated as 'May-Blaze') on that same
day, where bonfires are lit near nightfall, just as on Walpurgis, but
with the meaning to drive away the remaining cold of winter and
welcome spring. Occasional mentions to the ritual
occur, and at least once a feminist group co-opted the name to call
for attention to the position of women (following the example of
German women's organizations), a variety of the Take Back the
Still, in recent years a renewed interest in pre-
and culture has led to renewed interest in Heksennacht (Witch's Night)
as well. In 1999, suspicions were raised among local Reformed
party members in Putten,
Gelderland of a Heksennacht festival
celebrated by Satanists. The party called for a ban. Whether such a
festival even existed, however, and whether it was 'Satanic', was
doubted by others. It is known that Satanic sects celebrate
Heksennacht, and so the local Church in Dokkum,
Friesland organized a
Service in 2003 to pray for the
Holy Spirit to counter Satanic
^ a b c Williams, Victoria (21 November 2016). Celebrating Life
Customs around the World. ABC-CLIO. p. 217.
ISBN 9781440836596. During the Walpurgisnacht Walpurgisnacht, or
Walpurgis Night, is one of the names given to the night of April 30,
the eve of Saint Walpurga's feast day that falls on May 1. Since Saint
Walpurga's feast occurs on May 1 the saint is associated with May Day,
Finland and Sweden. access-date= requires url=
^ a b Melton, J. Gordon (2011). Religious Celebrations. ABC-CLIO.
p. 915. ISBN 9781598842050. Her feast day commemorates both
the movement of her relics to Eichstatt and her canonization, both of
which occurred on May 1. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix; Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von
(2005). Die erste Walpurgisnacht: Ballade von
Goethe für Chor und
Orchester. Yushodo Press Co. ISBN 9784841903966. The term
Walpurgis Night derives from the eighth-century Saint Walpurga. She
came from England to
Germany as a
Christian missionary, and was hailed
for her powers against epidemics such as pest, rabies and whooping
cough, as well as against witchcraft. access-date= requires
^ Miller, Jenni (May 6, 2016). "These Witches
Dancing to German Reggae
Are Having More Fun Than You". The Cut. Retrieved 25 October
^ a b c Chapru, Doleta (1977). A Festival of the English May. Folklore
Village Farm. p. 3. The Catholic Church chose May eve to honor
St. Walpurga, protectress against magic arts. Walpurga was an English
Germany in the eighth century. access-date=
requires url= (help)
^ a b c Canaday, John (2000). The Nuclear Muse: Literature, Physics,
and the First Atomic Bombs. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 98.
Walpurgis Night falls on the eve of the feast
day of St. Walpurga, an English missionary who was celebrated in the
Middle Ages as a protectress against magic. It was a night when
witches were believed to ride freely through the land.
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Upton, George Putnam (1912). The Standard Concert Guide. A.C.
McClurg & Company. p. 294. In his separate poem
to go back to the origin of the first Walpurgis Night. May-day eve was
consecrated to Saint Walpurgis, who converted the Saxons from Druidism
to Christianity, and on that night the evil spirits were said to be
abroad. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b c Galván, Javier A. (19 June 2014). They Do What? A Cultural
Encyclopedia of Extraordinary and Exotic Customs from around the
World. ABC-CLIO. p. 51. ISBN 9781610693424. Early Christians
in this region believed that, during Walpurgis Night, evil powers were
at their strongest, and people had to protect themselves and their
livestock by lighting fires on hillsides. access-date= requires
^ a b c d Stark, Lucien (1998). Brahms's Vocal Duets and Quartets with
Piano. Indiana University Press. p. 100. ISBN 9780253334022.
Walpurgis Night, named for St. Walpurga (d. A.D. 777), an English
saint whose feast day falls on May Day, is the evening of 30 April
May Day eve) when, as was widely held--particularly during medieval
and Renaissance times--witches celebrate a sabbath. Still today there
are places where bonfires are kept burning all night to repel the evil
spirits. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b c "The favors of St. Walburga". Our Sunday Visitor. 16 April
2006. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
^ a b Accardo, Pasquale (6 December 2012). The Medical Almanac: A
Calendar of Dates of Significance to the Profession of Medicine,
Including Fascinating Illustrations, Medical Milestones, Dates of
Birth and Death of Notable Physicians, Brief Biographical Sketches,
Quotations, and Assorted Medical Curiosities and Trivia. Springer
Science & Business Media. p. 80.
ISBN 9781461203650. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Smith, George (1884). Short History of
Christian Missions: From
Abraham and Paul to Carey, Livingstone and Duff. T. & T. Clark.
p. 89. Walpurga, who at the special request of Boniface had
accompanied her brother Winibald and kinsman
Dorsetshire to help the much-toiling missionary in Thuringia,
represents a band of devoted women who founded sisterhoods in many
parts of Germany, and tamed the people by their Christ-like tenderness
and self-sacrifice. access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Sanneh, Lamin; McClymond, Michael (23 May 2016). The Wiley Blackwell
Companion to World Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 80.
ISBN 9781405153768. English and Hiberno‐Scottish monks also
provided the Carolingian continent with an abundance of missionaries
like St. Columbanus, St. Fridolin, St. Boniface, St. Willibrord, and
the often overlooked abbess St. Walpurga. These missionaries led a
clerical reform movement within the Carolingian dominions as well as a
missionary expansion of Christianity into the regions hitherto
untouched by Gallo‐Roman Christianity (Frisia, Saxony, Thuringia,
Bavaria, Carinthia). access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Noble, David F (23 January 2013). A World Without Women: The
Christian Clerical Culture of Western Science. Knopf Doubleday
Publishing Group. p. 67. ISBN 9780307828521.
access-date= requires url= (help)
^ Bryan, Mary Lynn; Bair, Barbara; Angury, Maree de (1 October 2010).
The Selected Papers of Jane Addams. University of Illinois Press.
p. 361. ISBN 9780252090677. St. Walburga ( Walpurga,
Walpurgia, Vaubourg, Falbourg) (710-777) was an Anglo-Saxon woman
trained in medicine; she became a nun under St. Tatta at Wimbourne in
Dorset, England. St. Boniface was her uncle, and her father was an
under-king of the West Saxons. In 748 she followed St. Lioba to
Germany at the invitation of Boniface, and there she founded, with her
brother, St. Winnibald (d. 761), a double monastery (one for both me
and women) at Heidenheim. Walburga was much beloved. She was believed
to be able to protect crops and communicate with animals, and her
powers were sought as a healer. Images sometimes present her as an
earth mother with three ears of corn. When she died on 25 Feb. 777
(some sources say 778 or 779), cults quickly developed in her name,
and she became one of the most popular saints in England, Germany, and
France. Miracle cures were reported from ailing people who anointed
themselves with a fluid known as Walburga's oil that drained from the
rock at her sbrine at Eichstatt. access-date= requires url=
^ Casanova, Gertrude (1913). "St. Walburga". In Herbermann,
Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
Retrieved 30 April 2016.
^ "Saint Walburga". Patron Saints Index. Catholic Forum. Archived from
the original on 2007-10-27. .
^ Praetorius, Johannes (1668). Blockes-Berges Verrichtung oder
ausführlicher geographischer Bericht von den hohen trefflich alt- und
berühmten Blockes-Berge: ingleichen von der Hexenfahrt und
Zauber-Sabbathe, so auff solchen Berge die Unholden aus gantz
Teutschland Jährlich den 1. Maij in Sanct-Walpurgis-Nachte anstellen
sollen; Aus vielen Autoribus abgefasset und mit schönen Raritäten
angeschmücket sampt zugehörigen Figuren; Nebenst einen Appendice vom
Blockes-Berge wie auch des Alten Reinsteins und der Baumans Höle am
Hartz (in German). Leipzig: Scheiber.
^ Coler, Johann (1603). M. Iohannis Coleri Calendarium Perpetuum, Et
Libri Oeconomici: Das ist, Ein stetswerender Calender, darzu sehr
nützliche vnd nötige Haußbücher: Vor die Haußwirt, Ackerleut,
Apotecker, Kauffleute, Wanderßleute, Weinhern, Gärtner, den gemeinen
Handwerckßleuten, und all den jenigen, so mit Wirtschafften oder
Gastungen umbgehen (in German). Wittemberg: Paul Helwig. p. 89.
Retrieved August 15, 2011.
^ Galván, Javier A. (19 June 2014). They Do What? A Cultural
Encyclopedia of Extraordinary and Exotic Customs from around the
World. ABC-CLIO. p. 51. ISBN 9781610693424.
access-date= requires url= (help)
Oxford Phrase & Fable.
^ Frazer, James G. (1961). The New Golden Bough. Anchor Books.
^ Hielkema, Haro (19 April 2003). "Pasen in het Finkersgebergte".
Trouw (in Dutch). Retrieved 8 August 2013.
^ Ferree, Myra (2012). Varieties of Feminism: German Gender Politics
in Global Perspective. Stanford UP. p. 90.
^ Roggeband, Cornelia Maria (2002). Over de grenzen van de politiek:
een vergelijkende studie naar de opkomst en ontwikkeling van de
vrouwenbeweging tegen seksueel geweld in Nederland en Spanje (in
Dutch). Van Gorcum. p. 172. ISBN 9789023238300.
^ "Theoloog Henk Vreekamp: ik ben een heiden; 'Kerk moet terug naar
Friesch Dagblad (in Dutch). 27 September 2003.
Retrieved 8 August 2013.
^ "RPF/GPV staat alleen in geloof in heksenfeest". Utrechts Nieuwsblad
(in Dutch). 23 June 1999. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
^ "Rennie Schoorstra te gast in Geloven en Beleven" (in Dutch). RTV
Noordoost Friesland. 2 January 2003. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Walpurgis Night.
The Favors of St. Walpurga - OSV
Photos of the traditional Walpurgis celebration in Uppsala,
Walpurgis Night Celebration Gråbo
Sweden 2012 Video