The Info List - Wallis Simpson

Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(born Bessie Wallis Warfield; 19 June 1896[1] – 24 April 1986), later known as the Duchess of Windsor, was an American socialite whose intended marriage to the British king Edward VIII caused a constitutional crisis that led to Edward's abdication. Wallis grew up in Baltimore. Her father died shortly after her birth and she and her widowed mother were partly supported by their wealthier relatives. Her first marriage, to U.S. naval officer Win Spencer, was punctuated by periods of separation and eventually ended in divorce. In 1931, during her second marriage, to Ernest Simpson, she met Edward, then Prince of Wales. Five years later, after Edward's accession as King of the United Kingdom, Wallis divorced her second husband to marry Edward. The King's desire to marry a woman who had two living ex-husbands threatened to cause a constitutional crisis in the United Kingdom and the Dominions, and ultimately led to his abdication in December 1936 to marry "the woman I love".[2] After abdicating, the former king was created Duke of Windsor
Duke of Windsor
by his brother and successor, King George VI. Edward married Wallis six months later, after which she was formally known as the Duchess of Windsor, without the style "Her Royal Highness". She was instead styled as "Her Grace", a style normally reserved for non-royal dukes and duchesses. Before, during, and after the Second World War, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor were suspected by many in government and society of being Nazi
sympathisers. In 1937, they visited Germany and met Adolf Hitler. In 1940, the Duke was appointed governor of the Bahamas, and the couple moved to the islands until he relinquished the office in 1945. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Duke and Duchess shuttled between Europe and the United States
United States
living a life of leisure as society celebrities. After the Duke's death in 1972, the Duchess lived in seclusion and was rarely seen in public. Her private life has been a source of much speculation, and she remains a controversial figure in British history.


1 Early life 2 First marriage 3 Second marriage 4 Relationship with Edward, Prince of Wales 5 Abdication crisis 6 Third marriage: Duchess of Windsor 7 Second World War 8 Later life 9 Widowhood 10 Death 11 Legacy 12 Titles and styles 13 Notes 14 Bibliography 15 Further reading 16 External links

Early life[edit]

Wallis Warfield in about 1915 when she lived in Baltimore

An only child, Bessie Wallis (sometimes written "Bessiewallis") Warfield was born in Square Cottage at Monterey Inn, a hotel directly across the road from the Monterey Country Club, in Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania.[3] A summer resort close to the Maryland–Pennsylvania border, Blue Ridge Summit was popular with Baltimoreans escaping the season's heat, and Monterey Inn, which had a central building as well as individual wooden cottages, was the town's largest hotel.[4][5] Her father was Teackle Wallis Warfield, the fifth and youngest son of Henry Mactier Warfield, a flour merchant described as "one of the best known and personally one of the most popular citizens of Baltimore" who ran for mayor in 1875.[6] Her mother was Alice Montague, a daughter of stockbroker William Latane Montague. Wallis was named in honour of her father (who was known as Wallis) and her mother's elder sister, Bessie (Mrs D. Buchanan Merryman), and was called Bessie Wallis until at some time during her youth the name Bessie was dropped.[7] According to a wedding announcement in the Baltimore
Sun (20 November 1895), her parents were married by Reverend C. Ernest Smith at Baltimore's Saint Michael and All Angels' Protestant Episcopal Church on 19 November 1895,[8] though Wallis claimed her parents were married in June 1895.[9] Her father died of tuberculosis on 15 November 1896.[10] For her first few years, she and her mother were dependent upon the charity of her father's wealthy bachelor brother Solomon Davies Warfield, postmaster of Baltimore
and later president of the Continental Trust Company and the Seaboard Air Line Railway. Initially, they lived with him at the four-story row house, 34 East Preston Street, that he shared with his mother.[11] In 1901, Wallis's aunt Bessie Merryman was widowed, and the following year Alice and Wallis moved into her four-bedroom house on West Chase Street, Baltimore, where they lived for at least a year until they settled in an apartment, and then a house, of their own. In 1908, Wallis's mother married her second husband, John Freeman Rasin, son of a prominent Democratic party boss.[12] On 17 April 1910, Wallis was confirmed at Christ Episcopal Church, Baltimore, and between 1912 and 1914 her uncle Warfield paid for her to attend Oldfields School, the most expensive girls' school in Maryland.[13] There she became a friend of heiress Renée du Pont, a daughter of Senator T. Coleman du Pont
T. Coleman du Pont
of the du Pont family, and Mary Kirk, whose family founded Kirk Silverware.[14] A fellow pupil at one of Wallis's schools recalled, "She was bright, brighter than all of us. She made up her mind to go to the head of the class, and she did."[15] Wallis was always immaculately dressed and pushed herself hard to do well.[16] A later biographer wrote of her, "Though Wallis's jaw was too heavy for her to be counted beautiful, her fine violet-blue eyes and petite figure, quick wits, vitality, and capacity for total concentration on her interlocutor ensured that she had many admirers."[17] First marriage[edit] In April 1916, Wallis met Earl Winfield Spencer Jr., a U.S. Navy aviator, at Pensacola, Florida, while visiting her cousin Corinne Mustin.[18] It was at this time that Wallis witnessed two airplane crashes about two weeks apart, resulting in a lifelong fear of flying.[19] The couple married on 8 November 1916 at Christ Episcopal Church in Baltimore, which had been Wallis's parish. Win, as her husband was known, was a heavy drinker. He drank even before flying and once crashed into the sea, but escaped almost unharmed.[20] After the United States
United States
entered the First World War
First World War
in 1917, Spencer was posted to San Diego
San Diego
as the first commanding officer of a training base in Coronado, known as Naval Air Station North Island; they remained there until 1921.[21] In 1920, Edward, the Prince of Wales, visited San Diego, but he and Wallis did not meet.[22] Later that year, Spencer left his wife for a period of four months, but in the spring of 1921 they were reunited in Washington, D.C., where Spencer had been posted. They soon separated again, and in 1922, when Spencer was posted to the Far East
Far East
as commander of the Pampanga, Wallis remained behind, continuing an affair with an Argentine diplomat, Felipe de Espil.[17] In January 1924, she visited Paris
with her recently widowed cousin Corinne Mustin,[23] before sailing to the Far East
Far East
aboard a troop carrier, USS Chaumont (AP-5). The Spencers were briefly reunited until she fell ill, after which she returned to Hong Kong.[24]

In 1924, Wallis travelled to China on USS Chaumont (AP-5) (pictured here in Shanghai
in 1937).

Wallis toured China, and while in Beijing
stayed with Katherine and Herman Rogers, who were to remain her long-term friends.[25] According to the wife of one of Win's fellow officers, Mrs Milton E. Miles,[26] in Beijing
Wallis met Count Galeazzo Ciano, later Mussolini's son-in-law and Foreign Minister, had an affair with him, and became pregnant, leading to a botched abortion that left her infertile.[27] The rumour was later widespread but never substantiated and Ciano's wife, Edda Mussolini, denied it.[28] The existence of an official "China dossier" (detailing the supposed sexual and criminal exploits of Wallis in China) is denied by most historians and biographers.[29] Wallis spent over a year in China, during which time—according to the socialite Madame Wellington Koo—she only managed to master one Chinese phrase: "Boy, pass me the champagne".[30][31] By September 1925, she and her husband were back in the United States, though living apart.[32] Their divorce was finalised on 10 December 1927.[33] Second marriage[edit] By the time her marriage to Spencer was dissolved, Wallis had become involved with Ernest Aldrich Simpson, an Anglo-American shipping executive and former officer in the Coldstream Guards.[34] He divorced his first wife, Dorothea (by whom he had a daughter, Audrey), to marry Wallis on 21 July 1928 at the Register Office in Chelsea, London.[35] Wallis had telegraphed her acceptance of his proposal from Cannes where she was staying with her friends, Mr and Mrs Rogers.[36] The Simpsons temporarily set up home in a furnished house with four servants in Mayfair.[37] In 1929, Wallis sailed back to the United States to visit her sick mother, who had married legal clerk Charles Gordon Allen after the death of Rasin. During the trip, Wallis's investments were wiped out in the Wall Street Crash, and her mother died penniless on 2 November 1929. Wallis returned to England
and with the shipping business still buoyant, the Simpsons moved into a large flat with a staff of servants.[38] Through a friend, Consuelo Thaw, Wallis met Consuelo's sister Thelma, Lady Furness, the then-mistress of Edward, Prince of Wales.[39] On 10 January 1931, Lady Furness introduced Wallis to the Prince at Burrough Court, near Melton Mowbray.[40] The Prince was the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary, and heir apparent to the British throne. Between 1931 and 1934, he met the Simpsons at various house parties, and Wallis was presented at court. Ernest was beginning to encounter financial difficulties, as the Simpsons were living beyond their means, and they had to fire a succession of staff.[41] Relationship with Edward, Prince of Wales[edit]

The Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and Wallis in Kitzbühel, Austria, February 1935

In January 1934, while Lady Furness was away in New York City, Wallis allegedly became the Prince's mistress.[42] Edward denied this to his father, despite his staff seeing them in bed together as well as "evidence of a physical sexual act".[43] Wallis soon ousted Lady Furness, and the Prince distanced himself from a former lover and confidante, the Anglo-American textile heiress Freda Dudley Ward.[44] By the end of 1934, Edward was irretrievably besotted with Wallis, finding her domineering manner and abrasive irreverence toward his position appealing; in the words of his official biographer, he became "slavishly dependent" on her.[17] According to Wallis, it was during a cruise on Lord Moyne's private yacht Rosaura in August 1934 that she fell in love with Edward.[45] At an evening party in Buckingham Palace, he introduced her to his mother—his father was outraged,[46] primarily on account of her marital history, as divorced people were generally excluded from court.[47] Edward showered Wallis with money and jewels,[48] and in February 1935, and again later in the year, he holidayed with her in Europe.[49] His courtiers became increasingly alarmed as the affair began to interfere with his official duties.[50] In 1935, the head of the Metropolitan Police Special Branch
Special Branch
told the Metropolitan Police Commissioner that Wallis was also having an affair with Guy Marcus Trundle, who was "said to be employed by the Ford Motor Company".[51] Claims of an affair were doubted, however, by Captain Val Bailey, who knew Trundle well and whose mother had an affair with Trundle for nearly two decades,[52] and by historian Susan Williams.[53] Abdication crisis[edit] Main article: Edward VIII
Edward VIII
abdication crisis On 20 January 1936, George V died at Sandringham and Edward ascended the throne as King Edward VIII. The next day, he broke royal protocol by watching the proclamation of his accession from a window of St James's Palace, in the company of the still-married Wallis.[54] It was becoming apparent to Court and Government circles that the new King-Emperor
meant to marry her.[55] The King's behaviour and his relationship with Wallis made him unpopular with the Conservative-led British government, as well as distressing his mother and his brother, the Duke of York.[56] The British media remained deferential to the monarchy, and no stories of the affair were reported in the domestic press, but foreign media widely reported their relationship.[57] The monarch of the United Kingdom is Supreme Governor of the Church of England—at the time of the proposed marriage, and until 2002, the Church of England
disapproved of, and would not perform, the remarriage of divorced people if their former spouse was still alive.[58] Constitutionally, the King was required to be in communion with the Church of England, but his proposed marriage conflicted with the Church's teachings.[59] Additionally, at the time both the Church and English law only recognised adultery as a legitimate ground for divorce. Since she had divorced her first husband on grounds of "mutual incompatibility", there was a possibility that her second marriage, as well as her prospective marriage to Edward, would be considered bigamous if her first divorce had been challenged in court.[60] The British and Dominion
governments believed that a twice divorced woman was politically, socially, and morally unsuitable as a prospective consort.[61] She was perceived by many in the British Empire as a woman of "limitless ambition"[62] who was pursuing the King because of his wealth and position.[63] Wallis had already filed for divorce from her second husband on the grounds that he had committed adultery with her childhood friend Mary Kirk and the decree nisi was granted on 27 October 1936.[64] In November, the King consulted with the British Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, on a way to marry Wallis and keep the throne. The King suggested a morganatic marriage, where he would remain king but Wallis would not be queen, but this was rejected by Baldwin and the Prime Ministers of Australia, Canada, and South Africa.[61] If the King were to marry Wallis against Baldwin's advice, the Government would be required to resign, causing a constitutional crisis.[65] Wallis's relationship with the King had become public knowledge in the United Kingdom by early December. She decided to flee the country as the scandal broke, and was driven to the south of France
in a dramatic race to outrun the press.[66] For the next three months, she was under siege by the media at the Villa Lou Viei, near Cannes, the home of her close friends Herman and Katherine Rogers.[67] At her hideaway, Wallis was pressured by the King's Lord-in-Waiting, Lord Brownlow, to renounce the King. On 7 December 1936, Lord Brownlow read to the press her statement, which he had helped her draft, indicating Wallis's readiness to give up the King.[68] However, Edward was determined to marry Wallis. John Theodore Goddard, Wallis's solicitor, stated: "[his] client was ready to do anything to ease the situation but the other end of the wicket [Edward VIII] was determined." This seemingly indicated that the King had decided he had no option but to abdicate if he wished to marry Wallis.[69]

has original text related to this article: Edward VIII
Edward VIII
of the United Kingdom's Abdication

The King signed the Instrument of Abdication
Instrument of Abdication
on 10 December 1936, in the presence of his three surviving brothers, the Duke of York (who would ascend the throne the following day as George VI), the Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Kent. Special
laws passed by the Parliaments of the Dominions finalised Edward's abdication the following day, or in Ireland's case one day later. On 11 December 1936, Edward said in a radio broadcast, "I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility, and to discharge my duties as King as I would wish to do, without the help and support of the woman I love."[2] Edward left Britain for Austria, where he stayed at Schloss Enzesfeld, the home of Baron Eugen and Baroness Kitty de Rothschild. Edward had to remain apart from Wallis until there was no danger of compromising the granting of a decree absolute in her divorce proceedings.[70] Upon her divorce being made final in May 1937, she changed her name by deed poll to Wallis Warfield, resuming her maiden name.[71] The couple were reunited at the Château de Candé, Monts, France, on 4 May 1937.[70] Third marriage: Duchess of Windsor[edit]

Château de Candé, Monts, France

Wallis and Edward married one month later on 3 June 1937 at the Château de Candé, loaned to them by French millionaire Charles Bedaux.[72] The date would have been King George V's 72nd birthday; Queen Mary thought the wedding had been scheduled for then as a deliberate slight.[73] No member of Edward's family attended. Wallis wore a "Wallis blue" Mainbocher
wedding dress.[74] The marriage produced no children. In November, Ernest Simpson
Ernest Simpson
married Mary Kirk.[75] Edward was created Duke of Windsor
Duke of Windsor
by his brother, King George VI, prior to the marriage. However, letters patent, passed by the new king and unanimously supported by the Dominion
governments,[76] prevented Wallis, now the Duchess of Windsor, from sharing her husband's style of "Royal Highness". George VI's firm view that the Duchess should not be given a royal title was shared by Queen Mary and George's wife, Queen Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother).[77] At first, the British royal family did not accept the Duchess and would not receive her formally, although the former king sometimes met his mother and siblings after his abdication. Some biographers have suggested that Wallis's sister-in-law, Queen Elizabeth, remained bitter towards her for her role in bringing George VI
George VI
to the throne (which she may have seen as a factor in his early death)[78] and for prematurely behaving as Edward's consort when she was his mistress.[79] These claims were denied by Queen Elizabeth's close friends, such as the Duke of Grafton, who wrote that she "never said anything nasty about the Duchess of Windsor, except to say she really hadn't got a clue what she was dealing with."[80] On the other hand, the Duchess of Windsor referred to Queen Elizabeth as "Mrs Temple" and "Cookie", alluding to her solid figure and fondness for food, and to her daughter, Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II), as "Shirley", as in Shirley Temple.[81] The Duchess bitterly resented the denial of the royal title and the refusal of the Duke's relatives to accept her as part of the family.[17][82] Within the household of the Duke and Duchess, the style "Her Royal Highness" was used by those who were close to the couple.[83] According to the wife of former British Union of Fascists
British Union of Fascists
leader Oswald Mosley, Diana Mitford, who knew both Queen Elizabeth and the Duchess of Windsor but was only friendly with the latter, the Queen's antipathy toward her sister-in-law may have resulted from jealousy. Lady Mosley wrote to her sister, the Duchess of Devonshire, after the death of the Duke of Windsor, "probably the theory of their [the Windsors'] contemporaries that Cake [a Mitford nickname for the Queen Mother, derived from her delighted exclamation at the party at which Deborah Devonshire first met her] was rather in love with him [the Duke] (as a girl) & took second best, may account for much."[84]

The Duke and Duchess of Windsor with Adolf Hitler, 1937

The Duke and Duchess lived in France
in the pre-war years. In 1937, they made a high-profile visit to Germany and met Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
at the Berghof, his Berchtesgaden
retreat. After the visit, Hitler said of Wallis, "she would have made a good Queen".[85] The visit tended to corroborate the strong suspicions of many in government and society that the Duchess was a German agent,[17] a claim that she ridiculed in her letters to the Duke.[86] U.S. FBI files compiled in the 1930s also portray her as a possible Nazi
sympathiser. Duke Carl Alexander of Württemberg told the FBI that she and leading Nazi
Joachim von Ribbentrop had been lovers in London.[87] There were even rather improbable reports during the Second World War
Second World War
that she kept a signed photograph of Ribbentrop on her bedside table.[88] Second World War[edit]

The Duke and Duchess in Cascais, Portugal, 1940

As the German troops advanced, the Duke and Duchess fled south from their Paris
home, first to Biarritz, then in June to Spain. There, she told the United States
United States
ambassador, Alexander W. Weddell, that France had lost because it was "internally diseased".[89] In July, the pair moved to Lisbon, Portugal, where they stayed at the home of Ricardo do Espírito Santo e Silva, a banker who was suspected of being a German agent.[90] In August 1940, the Duke and Duchess travelled by commercial liner to the Bahamas, where the Duke was installed as Governor.[91] Wallis performed her role as the Bahamas' first lady competently for five years; she worked actively for the Red Cross
Red Cross
and in the improvement of infant welfare.[92] However, she hated Nassau, calling it "our St Helena", in a reference to Napoleon's final place of exile.[93] She was heavily criticised in the British press for her extravagant shopping in the United States, undertaken when Britain was enduring privations such as rationing and the blackout.[17][94] Her attitude towards the local population, whom she called "lazy, thriving niggers" in letters to her aunt, reflected her upbringing.[95][96] In 1941, Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
strenuously objected when she and her husband planned to tour the Caribbean aboard a yacht belonging to a Swedish magnate, Axel Wenner-Gren, who Churchill said was "pro-German". Churchill felt compelled to complain again when the Duke gave a "defeatist" interview.[97] Another of their acquaintances, Charles Bedaux, who had hosted their marriage, was arrested on charges of treason in 1943, and committed suicide in jail in Miami before the case was brought to trial.[98] The British establishment distrusted the Duchess; Sir Alexander Hardinge wrote that her suspected anti-British activities were motivated by a desire for revenge against a country that rejected her as its queen.[99] After the defeat of Nazi
Germany, the couple returned to France
and retirement.[17] Later life[edit]

The Duke and Duchess of Windsor at the White House for dinner with U.S. President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
in 1970

In 1946, when the Duchess was staying at Ednam Lodge, the home of the Earl of Dudley, some of her jewels were stolen. There were rumours that the theft had been masterminded by the royal family as an attempt to regain jewels taken from the Royal Collection
Royal Collection
by the Duke, or by the Windsors themselves as part of an insurance fraud—they made a large deposit of loose stones at Cartier the following year. However, in 1960, career criminal Richard Dunphie confessed to the crime. The stolen pieces were only a small portion of the Windsor jewels, which were either bought privately, inherited by the Duke, or given to the Duke when he was Prince of Wales.[100] Later they were offered the use of a house by the Paris
municipal authorities. The couple lived at 4 route du Champ d'Entraînement in the Bois de Boulogne, near Neuilly-sur-Seine, for most of the remainder of their lives, essentially living a life of easy retirement.[101] They bought a second house in the country, Moulin de la Tuilerie or "The Mill" in Gif-sur-Yvette, where they soon became close friends of their neighbours, Oswald and Diana Mosley.[102] Years later, Diana Mosley
Diana Mosley
claimed that the Duke and Duchess shared her and her husband's views that Hitler should have been given a free hand to destroy Communism;[103] as the Duke wrote in the New York Daily News of 13 December 1966: "it was in Britain's interest and in Europe's too, that Germany be encouraged to strike east and smash Communism forever ... I thought the rest of us could be fence-sitters while the Nazis and the Reds slogged it out."[104] In 1965, the Duke and Duchess visited London as the Duke required eye surgery for a detached retina; Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
and Princess Marina, Duchess of Kent, visited them. The Duke's sister, the Princess Royal, also visited just 10 days before her death. They attended her memorial service in Westminster Abbey.[105] Later, in 1967, the Duke and Duchess joined the royal family in London for the unveiling of a plaque by Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
to commemorate the centenary of Queen Mary's birth.[106] Both Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
and Prince Charles
Prince Charles
visited the Windsors in Paris
in the Duke's later years, the Queen's visit coming only shortly before the Duke died.[107] Widowhood[edit] Upon the Duke's death from cancer in 1972, the Duchess travelled to the United Kingdom to attend his funeral,[108] staying at Buckingham Palace during her visit.[109] The Duchess, increasingly frail and suffering from dementia, lived the remainder of her life as a recluse, supported by both her husband's estate and an allowance from the Queen.[110] She suffered several falls and broke her hip twice.[111] After Edward's death, the Duchess's French lawyer, Suzanne Blum, assumed power of attorney.[112] Blum sold items belonging to the Duchess to her own friends at lower than market value[113] and was accused of exploiting her client in Caroline Blackwood's The Last of the Duchess, written in 1980 but not published until after Blum's death in 1995.[114] Later, royal biographer Hugo Vickers called Blum a "Satanic figure ... wearing the mantle of good intention to disguise her inner malevolence".[115] In 1980, the Duchess lost the power of speech.[116] Toward the end, she was bedridden and did not receive any visitors, apart from her doctor and nurses.[117] Death[edit] The Duchess of Windsor died on 24 April 1986 at her home in the Bois de Boulogne, Paris.[3] Her funeral was held at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, attended by her two surviving sisters-in-law – the Queen Mother and Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester – and other members of the royal family.[118] The Queen, the Duke of Edinburgh, and the Prince and Princess of Wales attended both the funeral ceremony and the burial.[119] She was buried next to Edward in the Royal Burial Ground
Royal Burial Ground
near Windsor Castle, as "Wallis, Duchess of Windsor".[119] Until an agreement with Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in the 1960s, the Duke and Duchess had previously planned for a burial in a purchased cemetery plot at Green Mount Cemetery in Baltimore, where the Duchess's father was interred.[120] In recognition of the help France
gave to the Duke and Duchess in providing them with a home, and in lieu of death duties, the Duchess's collection of Louis XVI style
Louis XVI style
furniture, some porcelain, and paintings were made over to the French state.[121] The British royal family received no major bequests. Most of her estate went to the Pasteur Institute medical research foundation, on the instructions of Suzanne Blum. The decision took the royal family and the Duchess's friends by surprise, as she had shown little interest in charity during her life.[122] In a Sotheby's
auction in Geneva, in April 1987, the Duchess's remarkable jewellery collection raised $45 million for the Institute, approximately seven times its pre-sale estimate.[123] Blum later claimed that Egyptian entrepreneur Mohamed Al-Fayed
Mohamed Al-Fayed
tried to purchase the jewels for a "rock bottom price".[124] Al-Fayed bought much of the non-financial estate, including the lease of the Paris
mansion. An auction of his collection was announced in July 1997 for later that year in New York.[125] Delayed by his son's death in the car crash that also claimed the life of Diana, Princess of Wales, the sale raised more than £14 million for charity in 1998.[119] Legacy[edit] Wallis was plagued by rumours of other lovers. The gay American playboy Jimmy Donahue, an heir to the Woolworth fortune, claimed to have had a liaison with the Duchess in the 1950s, but Donahue was notorious for his inventive pranks and rumour-mongering.[126] Wallis's memoirs, The Heart Has Its Reasons, were published in 1956. One of her biographers, Charles Higham, said of the book, "facts were remorselessly rearranged in what amounted to a self-performed face-lift ... reflecting in abundance its author's politically misguided but winning and desirable personality." He describes the Duchess as "charismatic, electric and compulsively ambitious".[127] The Daily Telegraph, in their obituary of Higham, said: "The themes of fascism, closet homosexuality and sexual perversion that had proved so productive in the case of [Errol] Flynn were themes that Higham would mine again and again. That his motives were probably financial is suggested by his admission in an interview that there was 'certainly a difference of an enormous number of sales' between his poetry books and his biographies."[128] Fictional depictions of the Duchess include the novel Famous Last Words (1981) by Canadian author Timothy Findley, which portrays the Duchess as a manipulative conspirator,[129] and a short story by Rose Tremain, titled "The Darkness of Wallis Simpson" (2006), which depicts her more sympathetically in her final years of ill health.[130] Hearsay and conjecture have clouded assessment of the Duchess of Windsor's life, not helped by her own manipulation of the truth. But there is no document which proves directly that she was anything other than a victim of her own ambition, who lived out a great romance that became a great tragedy. In the opinion of her biographers, "she experienced the ultimate fairy tale, becoming the adored favourite of the most glamorous bachelor of his time. The idyll went wrong when, ignoring her pleas, he threw up his position to spend the rest of his life with her."[131] Academics agree that she ascended a precipice that "left her with fewer alternatives than she had anticipated. Somehow she thought that the Establishment could be overcome once [Edward] was king, and she confessed frankly to Aunt Bessie about her 'insatiable ambitions' ... Trapped by his flight from responsibility into exactly the role she had sought, suddenly she warned him, in a letter, 'You and I can only create disaster together' ... she predicted to society hostess Sibyl Colefax, 'two people will suffer' because of 'the workings of a system' ... Denied dignity, and without anything useful to do, the new Duke of Windsor
Duke of Windsor
and his Duchess would be international society's most notorious parasites for a generation, while they thoroughly bored each other ... She had thought of him as emotionally a Peter Pan, and of herself an Alice in Wonderland. The book they had written together, however, was a Paradise Lost."[132] The Duchess herself is reported to have summed up her life in a sentence: "You have no idea how hard it is to live out a great romance."[133] Titles and styles[edit]

Cypher of Wallis and Edward

19 June 1896 – 8 November 1916: Miss Bessie Wallis Warfield 8 November 1916 – 21 July 1928: Mrs Earl Winfield Spencer Jr. 21 July 1928 – 7 May 1937: Mrs Ernest Aldrich Simpson 7 May 1937 – 3 June 1937: Mrs Wallis Warfield

Wallis resumed her maiden surname by deed poll on 7 May 1937,[134] but continued to use the title "Mrs".[71]

3 June 1937 – 24 April 1986: Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor

The Duchess of Windsor was unofficially styled Royal Highness
Royal Highness
within her own household.[83]


^ a b According to 1900 census returns, she was born in June 1895, which author Charles Higham asserted was before her parents' marriage (Higham, p. 4). Author Greg King, noted that, though Higham's "scandalous assertion of illegitimacy enlivens the telling of the Duchess's life", "the evidence to support it is slim indeed", and that it "strains credulity" (King, p. 11). ^ a b Duke of Windsor, p. 413 ^ a b Weir, p. 328 ^ " Baltimore
in Her Centennial Year", Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, Volume 43 (Frank Leslie Publishing House, 1897), p. 702 ^ Blue Ridge Summit referred to as "a fashionable summer resort ... then greatly patronized by Baltimoreans" in Francis F. Bierne (1984), The Amiable Baltimoreans, Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 118 ^ Carroll, David H. (1911), Men of Mark in Maryland, Volume 3, B. F. Johnson Inc., p. 28  ^ King, p. 13 ^ "Montague—Warfield", Baltimore
Sun, 20 November 1895  ^ Duchess of Windsor, p. 17; Sebba, p. 6 ^ Tombstone in Green Mount Cemetery, Baltimore; King p. 13; Sebba, p. 9 ^ Carroll, vol. 3, pp. 24–43; King, pp. 14–15; Duchess of Windsor, p. 20 ^ King, p. 24; Vickers, p. 252 ^ Higham, p. 4 ^ King, p. 28 ^ Higham, p. 7 ^ King, pp. 21–22 ^ a b c d e f g Ziegler, Philip (2004) "Windsor, (Bessie) Wallis, duchess of Windsor (1896–1986)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/38277, retrieved 2 May 2010 (subscription required) ^ King, p. 38; Sebba, pp. 20–21; Vickers, p. 257; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 59–60 ^ Higham, p. 20 ^ Duchess of Windsor, pp. 76–77 ^ King, pp. 47–52; Vickers, pp. 258, 261; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 79–85 ^ King, pp. 51–52; Sebba, p. 36; Vickers, p. 260; Duchess of Windsor, p. 85 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, p. 22; King, p. 57; Sebba, pp. 41–43; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 100–101 ^ King, p. 60; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 104–106 ^ King, pp. 62–64; Sebba, pp. 45–53; Vickers, p. 263; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 112–113 ^ Higham, p. 50 ^ Higham, p. 50; King, p. 66; Sebba, pp. 55–56 ^ Moseley, Ray (1999), Mussolini's Shadow: The Double Life of Count Galeazzo Ciano, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 9–10, ISBN 0-300-07917-6  ^ Higham, p. 119; King, p. 61; Vickers, p. 263; Ziegler, p. 224 ^ Koo, Madame Wellington (1943), Hui-Lan Koo: An Autobiography as told to Mary van Rensselaer Thayer, New York: Dial Press  ^ Maher, Catherine (31 October 1943), "Madame Wellington Koo's Life Story", The New York Times: BR7  ^ King, p. 66 ^ Sebba, p. 60; Weir, p. 328 ^ King, pp. 68–70; Sebba, pp. 62–64; Vickers, pp. 267–269; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 125, 131 ^ Sebba, pp. 62–67; Weir, p. 328 ^ Higham, p. 58 ^ Duchess of Windsor, p. 140 ^ Higham, p. 67 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, p. 33; Sebba, p. 84; Vickers, p. 272 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, p. 37; King, p. 98; Vickers, p. 272 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, pp. 37–41 ^ Edward sued one author, Geoffrey Dennis, who claimed that Wallis and Edward were lovers before their marriage, and won (King, p. 119). ^ Diary of Clive Wigram, 1st Baron Wigram quoted in Bradford, pp. 145–147 ^ Sebba, p. 98; Vickers, p. 287; Ziegler, pp. 227–228 ^ King, p. 113; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 195–197, 200 ^ Ziegler, p. 231 ^ Beaverbrook, Lord; Edited by A. J. P. Taylor
A. J. P. Taylor
(1966), The Abdication of King Edward VIII, London: Hamish Hamilton, p. 111 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ King, pp. 126, 155; Sebba, pp. 103–104; Ziegler, p. 238 ^ King, pp. 117, 134 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, pp. 58 and 71 ^ Report from Superintendent A. Canning to Sir Philip Game, 3 July 1935, National Archives, PRO MEPO 10/35, quoted in Williams, p. 75 ^ Fox, James (1 September 2003), "The Oddest Couple", Vanity Fair (517): 276–291, ISSN 0733-8899  ^ Williams, p. 75 ^ Sebba, p. 119; Duke of Windsor, p. 265 ^ Ziegler, pp. 277–278 ^ Ziegler, pp. 289–292 ^ King, p. 173; Sebba, pp. 136, 141; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 237, 242 ^ Marriage in Church After a Divorce, Church of England, archived from the original (doc) on 15 September 2012, retrieved 9 March 2013  ^ Beaverbrook, pp. 39–44, 122 ^ Bradford, p. 241. ^ a b Ziegler, pp. 305–307 ^ Sir Horace Wilson writing to Neville Chamberlain, 10 December 1936, National Archives
National Archives
PREM 1/453, quoted in Sebba, p. 250 ^ Ziegler, pp. 234, 312 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, pp. 82, 92 ^ Beaverbrook, p. 57 ^ King, pp. 213–218; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 255–269 ^ Duke of Windsor, p. 359 ^ Tinniswood, Adrian (1992), Belton House, The National Trust, p. 34, ISBN 0-7078-0113-3  ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard; Evans, Rob (2 March 2000), "Edward and Mrs Simpson cast in new light", The Guardian, retrieved 2 May 2010  ^ a b Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, pp. 106–118; King, pp. 253–254, 260 ^ a b McMillan, Richard D. (11 May 1937), "Duke Awaiting His Wedding Day", Waycross Journal-Herald: 1, retrieved 6 September 2011  ^ Howarth, p. 73; Sebba, pp. 198, 205–209 ^ Letter from Queen Mary to Queen Elizabeth, 21 May 1937, Royal Archives, QEQM/PRIV/RF, quoted in Shawcross, William (2009), Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother: The Official Biography, Macmillan, p. 422, ISBN 978-1-4050-4859-0  ^ Sebba, p. 207 ^ Sebba, p. 213 ^ Diary of Neville Chamberlain
Neville Chamberlain
quoted in Bradford, p. 243 ^ Home Office memo on the Duke and Duchess's title, National Archives, retrieved 2 May 2010  ^ King, p. 399 ^ Bradford, p. 172; King, pp. 171–172 ^ Hogg, James; Mortimer, Michael (2002), The Queen Mother Remembered, BBC Books, pp. 84–85, ISBN 0-563-36214-6  ^ Bloch, The Secret File
of the Duke of Windsor, p. 259 ^ See also, Bloch, Wallis and Edward: Letters 1931–1937, pp. 231, 233 cited in Bradford, p. 232 ^ a b Sebba, p. 208 ^ Letter from Lady Mosley to the Duchess of Devonshire, 5 June 1972, in Mosley, Charlotte (ed.) (2007). The Mitfords: Letters Between Six Sisters. London: Fourth Estate, p. 582 ^ Memoirs of Hitler's interpreter Paul Schmidt, quoted in King, p. 295 ^ Higham, p. 203 ^ Evans, Rob; Hencke, David (29 June 2002), "Wallis Simpson, the Nazi minister, the telltale monk and an FBI plot", The Guardian, retrieved 2 May 2010  ^ Bloch, The Duke of Windsor's War, p. 355 ^ Telegram from Weddell to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, FRUS 740.0011 1939/4357 European War, National Archives, Washington, D.C., quoted in Higham, p. 323 and King, p. 343 ^ Bloch, The Duke of Windsor's War, p. 102 ^ King, pp. 350–352; Duchess of Windsor, pp. 344–345 ^ King, pp. 368–376; Vickers, p. 331 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, pp. 153, 159 ^ Sebba, p. 244 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, p. 165 ^ When telling a story of how Wallis complained about blacks being allowed on Park Avenue (Manhattan), Joanne Cummings, the wife of Nathan Cummings, said of Wallis, "She grew up in the South, at a certain time, with certain prejudices." Source: Menkes, p. 88 ^ Howarth, p. 130; King, pp. 377–378 ^ King, p. 378 ^ Howarth, p. 113 ^ Menkes, pp. 192–193 ^ Menkes, pp. 11–48 ^ Ziegler, p. 545 ^ Higham, p. 450 ^ King, pp. 294–296 ^ Vickers, p. 360 ^ King, pp. 455–459; Vickers, p. 362 ^ Bloch, The Secret File
of the Duke of Windsor, p. 299; Vickers; pp. 15–16, 367 ^ Conducted by Launcelot Fleming, Dean of Windsor
Dean of Windsor
(The Times, Monday, 5 June 1972; p. 2; Issue 58496; col. E) ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, p. 216; Sebba, p. 272; Vickers, p. 26 ^ Sebba, pp. 274–277; Vickers, pp. 99–120; Ziegler, p. 555 ^ King, pp. 492–493 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, p. 221; King, p. 505; Menkes, p. 199; Vickers, pp. 137–138 ^ Vickers, pp. 124–127, 165 ^ Vickers, pp. 178–179 ^ Vickers, p. 370 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, p. 222 ^ Vickers, pp. 158–168 ^ Vickers, pp. 191–198 ^ a b c Simple funeral rites for Duchess, BBC, 29 April 1998, retrieved 2 May 2010  ^ Rasmussen, Frederick (29 April 1986), "Windsors had a plot at Green Mount", The Baltimore
Sun ; Vickers, p. 245 ^ King, p. 506; Menkes, pp. 198, 206 and 207 ^ Menkes, p. 200 ^ Culme, p. 7 ^ Wadler, Joyce; Hauptfuhrer, Fred (8 January 1990), "Egypt's Al Fayed Restores the House Fit for a Former King", People, 33 (1)  ^ Vickers, pp. 234–235 ^ Wilson, Christopher (2001), Dancing With the Devil: the Windsors and Jimmy Donahue, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-653159-8 ; King, p. 442 ^ Higham, pp. 452–453 ^ "Charles Higham", The Daily Telegraph, 22 April 2012, [Higham] set a tone for vilification later explored by other biographers.  ^ Sebba, pp. 280–281 ^ Sebba, p. 282 ^ Bloch, The Duchess of Windsor, p. 231 ^ Weintraub, Stanley (8 June 1986), "The Love Letters of the Duchess of Windsor", Washington Post: X05  ^ King, p. 388; Wilson, p. 179 ^ Ashley, Mike (1998), The Mammoth Book
of British Kings and Queens, London: Robinson, p. 701, ISBN 1-84119-096-9 


Bloch, Michael (1996). The Duchess of Windsor. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-83590-4.  Bloch, Michael (1982). The Duke of Windsor's War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-77947-8.  Bloch, Michael (1988). The Secret File
of the Duke of Windsor. London: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-593-01667-X.  Bloch, Michael (ed.) (1986). Wallis and Edward: Letters 1931–1937. Summit Books. ISBN 0-671-61209-3. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Bradford, Sarah (1989). George VI. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-79667-4.  Culme, John (1987). The Jewels of the Duchess of Windsor. New York: Vendome Press. ISBN 0-86565-089-6.  Higham, Charles (2005). Mrs Simpson. London: Pan Books. ISBN 0-330-42678-8.  Howarth, Patrick (1987). George VI. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 0-09-171000-6.  King, Greg (1999). The Duchess of Windsor. New York: Citadel Press. ISBN 1-55972-471-4.  Menkes, Suzy (1987). The Windsor Style. London: Grafton Books. ISBN 0-246-13212-4.  Sebba, Anne (2011). That Woman: the Life of Wallis Simpson, Duchess of Windsor. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 978-0-297-85896-6.  Vickers, Hugo (2011). Behind Closed Doors: The Tragic, Untold, Story of the Duchess of Windsor. London: Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-193155-1.  Weir, Alison (1995). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy Revised edition. London: Random House. ISBN 0-7126-7448-9.  Williams, Susan (2004). The People's King: The True Story of the Abdication. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-6363-5.  Wilson, Christopher (2001). Dancing With the Devil: the Windsors and Jimmy Donahue. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-653159-8.  Windsor, HRH The Duke of (1951). A King's Story. London: Cassell and Co.  Windsor, The Duchess of (1956). The Heart has its Reasons: The Memoirs of the Duchess of Windsor. London: Michael Joseph.  Ziegler, Philip (1991). King Edward VIII: The official biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-57730-2.  Ziegler, Philip (2004) "Windsor, (Bessie) Wallis, duchess of Windsor (1896–1986)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/38277, retrieved 2 May 2010 (subscription required)

Further reading[edit]

Birmingham, Stephen (1981). Duchess: The Story of Wallis Warfield Windsor. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-09643-1.  Blackwood, Lady Caroline (1995). The Last of the Duchess. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-679-43970-6.  Mosley, Diana (1980). The Duchess of Windsor. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-98628-X.  Silvin, Richard René (2010). Noblesse Oblige: The Duchess of Windsor As I Knew Her. Nike Publishing. ISBN 978-0-615-50578-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Wallis, Duchess of Windsor

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wallis, Duchess of Windsor.

BBC News 1986 – Duchess of Windsor Funeral The Duke & Duchess of Windsor Society The Duchess of Windsor at 212 East Biddle Street – Explore Baltimore

v t e

Edward VIII
Edward VIII
abdication crisis

Edward VIII Wallis Simpson


Prince Albert (Edward VIII's brother, later George VI) Stanley Baldwin
Stanley Baldwin
(Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Alfred Blunt (Bishop of Bradford) John Theodore Goddard
John Theodore Goddard
(Mrs Simpson's solicitor) Alec Hardinge
Alec Hardinge
(Edward VIII's private secretary) J. B. M. Hertzog
J. B. M. Hertzog
(Prime Minister of South Africa) Cosmo Gordon Lang
Cosmo Gordon Lang
(Archbishop of Canterbury) Joseph Lyons
Joseph Lyons
(Prime Minister of Australia) William Lyon Mackenzie King
William Lyon Mackenzie King
(Prime Minister of Canada) Queen Mary (Edward VIII's mother) Walter Monckton (advisor to Edward VIII) Michael Joseph Savage
Michael Joseph Savage
(Prime Minister of New Zealand) Ernest Simpson
Ernest Simpson
(Mrs Simpson's husband) Éamon de Valera
Éamon de Valera
(President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State)

Legal documents

His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936
His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936
(United Kingdom) Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936 (Ireland) His Majesty King Edward the Eighth's Abdication Act, 1937
His Majesty King Edward the Eighth's Abdication Act, 1937
(South Africa) Succession to the Throne Act 1937 (Canada)

Cultural depictions

Edward & Mrs. Simpson (1978) The Woman He Loved
The Woman He Loved
(1988) Wallis & Edward (2005) The King's Speech
The King's Speech
(2010) W.E.


v t e

Time Persons of the Year


Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
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Owen D. Young
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Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
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Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
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Joseph Stalin
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Winston Churchill
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Franklin D. Roosevelt
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Joseph Stalin
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George Marshall
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
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Harry S. Truman
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James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
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Harry S. Truman
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Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)


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Konrad Adenauer
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Harlow Curtice
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Charles de Gaulle
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)


Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
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Anwar Sadat
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Deng Xiaoping
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Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush


Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)


Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24610698 LCCN: n50000855 ISNI: 0000 0003 6863 3456 GND: 11863366X SELIBR: 351664 SUDOC: 027457737 BNF: cb11996401m (data) BIBSYS: 98011754 ULAN: 500332070 NDL: 00621655 SN