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Waldemar Klingelhöfer
Waldemar Klingelhöfer
(4 April 1900, Moscow
Moscow
– c. 1980) was an SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
(Major) and convicted war criminal.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Nazi career 3 War crimes trial 4 Death sentence and reprieve 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Early life[edit] Klingelhöfer was born in Moscow
Moscow
as the son of a funeral director of German origins. Waldemar Klingelhöfer
Waldemar Klingelhöfer
attended school in Kassel, served in the German army from June–December 1918 and after the war studied music and voice.[1] He gave concerts throughout Germany and later received a State's Certificate as a voice teacher. In 1935, he became an opera singer.[1] Nazi career[edit] In the 1920s, Klingelhöfer joined the Freikorps
Freikorps
Roßbach (de), a Freikorps
Freikorps
organised by Gerhard Roßbach. In 1937, he took over the Department of Culture, a branch of the Security Service (Sicherheitsdienst, or SD), office SD III-C in Kassel. In 1941, he was assigned to Einsatzgruppe B
Einsatzgruppe B
as a Russian interpreter. This Einsatzgruppe—already by November 1941, according to its own Status Report No. 133—had killed 45,467 persons.[1] By 26 October, Vorkommando Moscow—a part of Einsatzgruppe B—and the group staff had executed 2,457 persons, including 572 people killed between 28 September and 26 October 1941, while Klingelhöfer was in command.[1] Klingelhöfer witnessed executions and carried out others. For example, he shot 30 Jews who had left a ghetto without permission. Klingelhöfer later claimed he did this on the orders of Arthur Nebe
Arthur Nebe
to make an example out of the victims, then contradicted himself by saying that three women had contacted some partisans, then returned to the town and spoke with the Jews. This, according to Klingelhöfer, made the Jews partisans and therefore subject to being shot. The three women Klingelhöfer also shot, but—unlike the Jews—he blindfolded them and buried them in a separate grave.[1] War crimes trial[edit] At trial, Klingelhöfer claimed that his only role in the Einsatzgruppe was that of interpreter.[1] This contention was rejected by the court, on the grounds that even if it were true, as an interpreter, his tasks included locating, evaluating and forwarding to the Einsatzgruppe command lists of Communist party functionaries. Because—according to his own testimony—he knew the people would be executed when found, this made him an accessory to the crime.[1] Beyond this, the tribunal found that Klingelhöfer was not just an interpreter, but an active leader and commander, who knew what the Einsatz units were doing to the Jews. According to Klingelhöfer's own affidavit, he had been appointed by Arthur Nebe
Arthur Nebe
to lead Vorkommando Moscow:

While I was assigned by Nebe to the leadership of the Vorkommando Moscow, Nebe ordered me to go from Smolensk to Tatarsk and Mstislavl to get furs for the German troops and to liquidate part of the Jews there. The Jews had already been arrested by order of Hauptsturmführer Egon Noack. The executions proper were carried out by Noack under my supervision.[1]

The Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
operated with the assumption that a Führer order (Führerbefehl (de)) existed that provided for and required the mass murder of Jews, Gypsies and others whom the Nazis did not deem racially worthy. Although Klingelhöfer stated several times during his testimony that he was morally opposed to the Führer Order, the court found that he went along quite willingly with it. Klingelhöfer was unrepentant about the necessity for the war:

Before leaving the witness stand he stated that he would have been happy for Hitler to win the war even at the expense of its present condition with two million Germans killed, the nation in utter ruins, and all of Europe devastated. This statement has no bearing, of course, on the question of his guilt under counts one and two, but it is helpful in determining the state of mind as to whether he obeyed the so-called superior orders with a full heart or not. The Tribunal finds from all the evidence that the defendant accepted the Führer Order without reservation and that he executed it without truce.[1]

Death sentence and reprieve[edit] On April 10, 1948, Klingelhöfer was sentenced to death in the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial. In 1951, under intense political pressure, U.S. High Commissioner John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy
commuted Klingelhöfer's sentence—and those of three other Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
defendants—to life imprisonment.[2] On December 12, 1956, Klingelhöfer was released from Landsberg prison. In 1960, he lived in Villingen and worked as an office clerk. Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial, Individual Judgment against Waldemar Klingelhöfer, pages 568-570, Trials of War Criminals before the Nürnberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Nürnberg, October 1946 - April 1949, Volume IV, ("Green Series) (the " Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
case") also available at Mazel library (well indexed HTML version) ^ Diefendorf, American Policy and the Reconstruction of West Germany, at page 450.

References[edit]

Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Nuernberg, October 1946 - April 1949, Volume IV, ("Green Series) (the " Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
case") also available at Mazel library (well indexed HTML version) Diefenforf, Jeffry M., Frohn, Axel, and Rupieper, Hermann-Josef, American Policy and the Reconstruction of West Germany, 1945-1955, Cambridge University Press 1994 ISBN 0-521-43120-4

Further reading[edit]

Earl, Hilary, The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
Trial, 1945–1958: Atrocity, Law, and History, Nipissing University, Ontario ISBN 978-0-521-45608-1 Headland, Ronald, Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943, Rutherford 1992 ISBN 0-8386-3418-4

External links[edit]

(in Italian) Biography and photo

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 67493

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