* 1 Early life * 2 Nazi career * 3 War crimes trial * 4 Death sentence and reprieve * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
Klingelhöfer was born in
In the 1920s, Klingelhöfer joined the
By 26 October, Vorkommando
WAR CRIMES TRIAL
At trial, Klingelhöfer claimed that his only role in the Einsatzgruppe was that of interpreter. This contention was rejected by the court, on the grounds that even if it were true, as an interpreter, his tasks included locating, evaluating and forwarding to the Einsatzgruppe command lists of Communist party functionaries. Because—according to his own testimony—he knew the people would be executed when found, this made him an accessory to the crime.
Beyond this, the tribunal found that Klingelhöfer was not just an interpreter, but an active leader and commander, who knew what the Einsatz units were doing to the Jews. According to Klingelhöfer's own affidavit, he had been appointed by Arthur Nebe to lead Vorkommando Moscow:
While I was assigned by Nebe to the leadership of the Vorkommando Moscow, Nebe ordered me to go from Smolensk to Tatarsk and Mstislavl to get furs for the German troops and to liquidate part of the Jews there. The Jews had already been arrested by order of Hauptsturmführer Egon Noack . The executions proper were carried out by Noack under my supervision.
The Einsatzgruppen operated with the assumption that a Führer order (Führerbefehl (de)) existed that provided for and required the mass murder of Jews, Gypsies and others whom the Nazis did not deem racially worthy. Although Klingelhöfer stated several times during his testimony that he was morally opposed to the Führer Order, the court found that he went along quite willingly with it. Klingelhöfer was unrepentant about the necessity for the war:
Before leaving the witness stand he stated that he would have been happy for Hitler to win the war even at the expense of its present condition with two million Germans killed, the nation in utter ruins, and all of Europe devastated. This statement has no bearing, of course, on the question of his guilt under counts one and two, but it is helpful in determining the state of mind as to whether he obeyed the so-called superior orders with a full heart or not. The Tribunal finds from all the evidence that the defendant accepted the Führer Order without reservation and that he executed it without truce.
DEATH SENTENCE AND REPRIEVE
On April 10, 1948, Klingelhöfer was sentenced to death in the Einsatzgruppen Trial . In 1951, under intense political pressure, U.S. High Commissioner John J. McCloy commuted Klingelhöfer's sentence—and those of three other Einsatzgruppen defendants—to life imprisonment. On December 12, 1956, Klingelhöfer was released from Landsberg prison . In 1960, he lived in Villingen and worked as an office clerk.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I Einsatzgruppen trial, Individual Judgment against Waldemar Klingelhöfer, pages 568-570, Trials of War Criminals before the Nürnberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Nürnberg, October 1946 - April 1949, Volume IV, ("Green Series) (the " Einsatzgruppen case") also available at Mazel library (well indexed HTML version) * ^ Diefendorf, American Policy and the Reconstruction of West Germany, at page 450.
* Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10, Nuernberg, October 1946 - April 1949, Volume IV, ("Green Series) (the " Einsatzgruppen case") also available at Mazel library (well indexed HTML version) * Diefenforf, Jeffry M., Frohn, Axel, and Rupieper, Hermann-Josef, American Policy and the Reconstruction of West Germany, 1945-1955, Cambridge University Press 1994 ISBN 0-521-43120-4
* Earl, Hilary, The Nuremberg SS- Einsatzgruppen Trial, 1945–1958: Atrocity, Law, and History, Nipissing University, Ontario ISBN 978-0-521-45608-1 * Headland, Ronald, Messages of Murder: A Study of the Reports of the Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the Security Service, 1941-1943, Rutherford 1992 ISBN 0-8386-3418-4
* (in Italian) Biography and