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The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
(EML), published by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system. The list is frequently used by countries to help develop their own local lists of essential medicine.[1] As of 2016, more than 155 countries have created national lists of essential medicines based on the World Health Organization's model list.[2] This includes countries in both the developed and developing world.[1] The list is divided into core items and complementary items. The core items are deemed to be the most cost effective options for key health problems and are usable with little additional health care resources. The complementary items either require additional infrastructure such as specially trained health care providers or diagnostic equipment or have a lower cost-benefit ratio.[3] About 25% of items are in the complementary list.[4] Some medications are listed as both core and complementary.[5] While most medications on the list are available as generic products, being under patent does not exclude inclusion.[6] The first list was published in 1977 and included 212 medications.[1][7] The WHO updates the list every two years.[8] The 14th list was published in 2005 and contained 306 medications.[9] In 2015 the 19th edition of the list was published and contains around 410 medications.[8] The 20th edition was published in 2017.[10] The national lists contain between 334 and 580 medications.[4] A separate list for children up to 12 years of age, known as the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children (EMLc), was created in 2007 and is in its 5th edition.[8][11] It was created to make sure that the needs of children were systematically considered such as availability of proper formulations.[12][13] Everything in the children's list is also included in the main list.[14] The list and notes are based on the 19th and 20th edition of the main list.[3][10] An α indicates a medicine is only on the complementary list.[3]

Contents

1 Anaesthetics

1.1 General anaesthetics and oxygen

1.1.1 Inhalational medicines 1.1.2 Injectable medicines

1.2 Local anaesthetics 1.3 Preoperative medication and sedation for short-term procedures

2 Medicines for pain and palliative care

2.1 Nonopioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 2.2 Opioid analgesics 2.3 Medicines for other common symptoms in palliative care

3 Antiallergics and medicines used in anaphylaxis 4 Antidotes and other substances used in poisonings

4.1 Nonspecific 4.2 Specific

5 Anticonvulsive medication 6 Anti-infective medicines

6.1 Antihelminthics

6.1.1 Intestinal antihelminthics 6.1.2 Antifilarials 6.1.3 Antischistosomals and other antinematode medicines

6.2 Antibiotics

6.2.1 Beta Lactam medicines 6.2.2 Other antibacterials 6.2.3 Antileprosy medicines 6.2.4 Antituberculosis medicines

6.3 Antifungal medicines 6.4 Antiviral medicines

6.4.1 Antiherpes medicines 6.4.2 Antiretrovirals

6.4.2.1 Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors 6.4.2.2 Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors 6.4.2.3 Protease inhibitors 6.4.2.4 Integrase inhibitors 6.4.2.5 Fixed-dose combinations 6.4.2.6 Medicines for prevention of HIV-related opportunistic infections 6.4.2.7 Other antivirals

6.4.3 Antihepatitis medicines

6.4.3.1 Medicines for hepatitis B 6.4.3.2 Medicines for hepatitis C

6.5 Antiprotozoal medicines

6.5.1 Antiamoebic and antigiardiasis medicines 6.5.2 Antileishmaniasis medicines 6.5.3 Antimalarial medicines

6.5.3.1 For curative treatment 6.5.3.2 For prevention

6.5.4 Antipneumocystosis and antitoxoplasmosis medicines 6.5.5 Antitrypanosomal medicines

6.5.5.1 African trypanosomiasis

6.5.5.1.1 1st stage 6.5.5.1.2 2nd stage

6.5.5.2 American trypanosomiasis

7 Antimigraine medicines

7.1 Acute attack 7.2 Prevention

8 Antineoplastic and immunosuppressives

8.1 Immunosuppressive medicines 8.2 Cytotoxic and adjuvant medicines 8.3 Hormones and antihormones

9 Antiparkinsonism medicines 10 Medicines affecting the blood

10.1 Antianaemia medicines 10.2 Medicines affecting coagulation 10.3 Other medicines for haemoglobinopathies

11 Blood products and plasma substitutes of human origin

11.1 Blood and blood components 11.2 Plasma-derived medicines

11.2.1 Human immunoglobulins 11.2.2 Blood coagulation factors

11.3 Plasma substitutes

12 Cardiovascular medicines

12.1 Antianginal medicines 12.2 Antiarrhythmic medicines 12.3 Antihypertensive medicines 12.4 Medicines used in heart failure 12.5 Antithrombotic medicines

12.5.1 Anti-platelet medicines 12.5.2 Thrombolytic medicines

12.6 Lipid-lowering agents

13 Dermatological (topical)

13.1 Antifungal medicines 13.2 Anti-infective medicines 13.3 Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic medicines 13.4 Medicines affecting skin differentiation and proliferation 13.5 Scabicides and pediculicides

14 Diagnostic agents

14.1 Ophthalmic medicines 14.2 Radiocontrast media

15 Disinfectants and antiseptics

15.1 Antiseptics 15.2 Disinfectants

16 Diuretics 17 Gastrointestinal medicines

17.1 Antiulcer medicines 17.2 Antiemetic medicines 17.3 Anti-inflammatory medicines 17.4 Laxatives 17.5 Medicines used in diarrhea

17.5.1 Oral rehydration 17.5.2 Medicines for diarrhea in children

18 Hormones, other endocrine medicines, and contraceptives

18.1 Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutes 18.2 Androgens 18.3 Contraceptives

18.3.1 Oral hormonal contraceptives 18.3.2 Injectable hormonal contraceptives 18.3.3 Intrauterine devices 18.3.4 Barrier methods 18.3.5 Implantable contraceptives 18.3.6 Intravaginal contraceptives

18.4 Insulins and other medicines used for diabetes 18.5 Ovulation inducers 18.6 Progestogens 18.7 Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicines

19 Immunologicals

19.1 Diagnostic agents 19.2 Sera and immunoglobulins 19.3 Vaccines

20 Muscle relaxants (peripherally-acting) and cholinesterase inhibitors 21 Eye preparations

21.1 Anti-infective agents 21.2 Anti-inflammatory agents 21.3 Local anesthetics 21.4 Miotics and antiglaucoma medicines 21.5 Mydriatics 21.6 Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

22 Oxytocics and antioxytocics

22.1 Oxytocics and abortifacients 22.2 Antioxytocics (tocolytics)

23 Peritoneal dialysis solution 24 Medicines for mental and behavioural disorders

24.1 Medicines used in psychotic disorders 24.2 Medicines used in mood disorders

24.2.1 Medicines used in depressive disorders 24.2.2 Medicines used in bipolar disorders

24.3 Medicines for anxiety disorders 24.4 Medicines used for obsessive compulsive disorders 24.5 Medicines for disorders due to psychoactive substance use

25 Medicines acting on the respiratory tract

25.1 Antiasthmatic and medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

26 Solutions correcting water, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances

26.1 Oral 26.2 Parenteral 26.3 Miscellaneous

27 Vitamins and minerals 28 Ear, nose and throat medicines in children 29 Specific medicines for neonatal care

29.1 Medicines administered to the neonate 29.2 Medicines administered to the mother

30 Medicines for diseases of joints

30.1 Medicines used to treat gout 30.2 Disease-modifying agents used in rheumatoid disorders 30.3 Juvenile joint diseases

31 Notes 32 References 33 Further reading

Anaesthetics[edit] General anaesthetics and oxygen[edit] Inhalational medicines[edit]

Halothane Isoflurane Nitrous oxide Oxygen

Injectable medicines[edit]

Ketamine Propofol[note 1]

Local anaesthetics[edit]

Bupivacaine Lidocaine Lidocaine/epinephrine Ephedrineα (not a local anaesthetic, included in this list for prevention of low blood pressure associated with spinal anaesthesia during caesarean section)

Preoperative medication and sedation for short-term procedures[edit]

Atropine Midazolam Morphine

Medicines for pain and palliative care[edit] Nonopioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)[edit]

A skeletal model of the chemical structure of aspirin

Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetylsalicylic acid
(aspirin) Ibuprofen Paracetamol[note 2] (acetaminophen)

Opioid analgesics[edit]

Codeine Fentanyl Morphine[note 3] Methadone

Medicines for other common symptoms in palliative care[edit]

Amitriptyline Cyclizine Dexamethasone Diazepam Docusate sodium Fluoxetine Haloperidol Hyoscine butylbromide Hyoscine hydrobromide Lactulose Loperamide Metoclopramide Midazolam Ondansetron Senna

Antiallergics and medicines used in anaphylaxis[edit]

Dexamethasone Epinephrine (adrenaline) Hydrocortisone Loratadine[note 4] Prednisolone

Antidotes and other substances used in poisonings[edit] Nonspecific[edit]

Charcoal, activated

Specific[edit]

Acetylcysteine Atropine Calcium gluconate Methylthioninium chloride (methylene blue) Naloxone Penicillamine Prussian blue Sodium nitrite Sodium thiosulfate Deferoxamineα Dimercaprolα Fomepizoleα Sodium calcium edetateα Succimerα

Anticonvulsive medication[edit]

Carbamazepine Diazepam Lamotrigine Lorazepam Magnesium sulfate[note 5] Midazolam Phenobarbital Phenytoin Valproic acid
Valproic acid
(sodium valproate) Ethosuximideα

Anti-infective medicines[edit] Antihelminthics[edit] Intestinal antihelminthics[edit]

A skeletal model of the chemical structure of albendazole

Albendazole Ivermectin Levamisole Mebendazole Niclosamide Praziquantel Pyrantel

Antifilarials[edit]

Albendazole Diethylcarbamazine Ivermectin

Antischistosomals and other antinematode medicines[edit]

Praziquantel Triclabendazole Oxamniquineα

Antibiotics[edit] Beta Lactam medicines[edit]

Amoxicillin Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid
(amoxicillin + clavulanic acid) Ampicillin Benzathine benzylpenicillin Benzylpenicillin Cefalexin Cefazolin[note 6] Cefixime[note 7] Cefotaxime[note 8] Ceftriaxone[note 9] Cloxacillin Phenoxymethylpenicillin
Phenoxymethylpenicillin
(penicillin V) Piperacillin/tazobactam Procaine benzylpenicillin[note 10] Ceftazidimeα Meropenemα Aztreonamα Imipenem/cilastatinα[note 11]

Other antibacterials[edit]

Amikacin Azithromycin[note 12] Chloramphenicol Ciprofloxacin Clarithromycin[note 13] Clindamycin Doxycycline Erythromycin Gentamicin Metronidazole Nitrofurantoin Spectinomycin Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Trimethoprim Vancomycin

Antileprosy medicines[edit]

Clofazimine Dapsone Rifampicin

Antituberculosis medicines[edit]

Pure crystals of ethambutol

Ethambutol Ethambutol/isoniazid (ethambutol + isoniazid) Ethambutol/isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampicin (ethambutol + isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin) Ethambutol/isoniazid/rifampicin (ethambutol + isoniazid + rifampicin) Isoniazid Isoniazid/pyrazinamide/rifampicin (isoniazid + pyrazinamide + rifampicin) Isoniazid/rifampicin (isoniazid + rifampicin) Pyrazinamide Rifabutin[note 14] Rifampicin Rifapentine[note 15] Amikacinα Bedaquilineα Capreomycinα Clofazimineα Cycloserineα[note 16] Delamanidα Ethionamideα[note 17] Kanamycinα Levofloxacinα[note 18] Linezolidα Moxifloxacin p-aminosalicylic acidα Streptomycinα

Antifungal medicines[edit]

Amphotericin B Clotrimazole Fluconazole Flucytosine Griseofulvin Itraconazole Nystatin Voriconazole Potassium iodideα

Antiviral medicines[edit] Antiherpes medicines[edit]

Aciclovir

Antiretrovirals[edit] Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors[edit]

Abacavir
Abacavir
(ABC) Lamivudine
Lamivudine
(3TC) Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
(TDF) Zidovudine
Zidovudine
(ZDV or AZT)

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors[edit]

Efavirenz
Efavirenz
(EGV or EFZ) Nevirapine
Nevirapine
(NVP)

Protease inhibitors[edit]

Two capsules of atazanavir

Atazanavir Atazanavir/ritonavir Darunavir Lopinavir/ritonavir
Lopinavir/ritonavir
(LPV/r) Ritonavir

Integrase inhibitors[edit]

Dolutegravir Raltegravir

Fixed-dose combinations[edit]

Abacavir/lamivudine Efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir[note 19] Efavirenz/lamivudine/tenofovir Emtricitabine/tenofovir[note 19] Lamivudine/nevirapine/zidovudine Lamivudine/zidovudine

Medicines for prevention of HIV-related opportunistic infections[edit]

Isoniazid/pyridoxine/sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim

Other antivirals[edit]

Ribavirin[note 20] Valganciclovir Oseltamivirα[note 21]

Antihepatitis medicines[edit] Medicines for hepatitis B[edit] Nucleoside/Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors

Entecavir Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
(TDF)

Medicines for hepatitis C[edit] Nucleotide polymerase inhibitors

Sofosbuvir

Protease inhibitors

Simeprevir

NS5A inhibitors

Daclatasvir

Non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitors

Dasabuvir

Other antivirals

Ribavirin[note 22] Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a
Pegylated interferon-alpha-2a
or pegylated interferon-alpha-2bα[note 23]

Fixed-dose combinations

Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir Sofosbuvir/velpatasvir

Antiprotozoal medicines[edit] Antiamoebic and antigiardiasis medicines[edit]

Diloxanide Metronidazole

Antileishmaniasis medicines[edit]

Amphotericin B Miltefosine Paromomycin Sodium stibogluconate
Sodium stibogluconate
or meglumine antimoniate

Antimalarial medicines[edit] For curative treatment[edit]

Amodiaquine[note 24] Artemether[note 25] Artemether/lumefantrine[note 26] Artesunate[note 27] Artesunate/amodiaquine[note 28] Artesunate/mefloquine Artesunate/pyronaridine Chloroquine[note 29] Dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine Doxycycline[note 30] Mefloquine[note 24] Primaquine[note 31] Quinine[note 32] Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine[note 33]

For prevention[edit]

Chloroquine[note 34] Doxycycline Mefloquine Proguanil[note 35]

Antipneumocystosis and antitoxoplasmosis medicines[edit]

Pyrimethamine Sulfadiazine Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim Pentamidineα

Antitrypanosomal medicines[edit] African trypanosomiasis[edit]

1st stage[edit]

Pentamidine[note 36] Suramin sodium[note 37]

2nd stage[edit]

Eflornithine[note 38] Melarsoprol Nifurtimox[note 39]

American trypanosomiasis[edit]

Benznidazole Nifurtimox

Antimigraine medicines[edit] Acute attack[edit]

Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetylsalicylic acid
(Aspirin) Ibuprofen Paracetamol

Prevention[edit]

Propranolol

Antineoplastic and immunosuppressives[edit] Immunosuppressive medicines[edit]

Azathioprineα Ciclosporinα

Cytotoxic and adjuvant medicines[edit]

All-trans retinoic acid (tretinoin)α Allopurinolα Asparaginaseα Bendamustineα Bleomycinα Calcium folinateα Capecitabineα Carboplatinα Chlorambucilα Cisplatinα Cyclophosphamideα Cytarabineα Dacarbazineα Dactinomycinα Dasatinibα Daunorubicinα Docetaxelα Doxorubicinα Etoposideα Filgrastimα Fludarabineα Fluorouracilα Gemcitabineα Hydroxycarbamideα Ifosfamideα Imatinibα Irinotecanα Mercaptopurineα Mesnaα Methotrexateα Oxaliplatinα Paclitaxelα Procarbazineα Rituximabα Thioguanineα Trastuzumabα Vinblastineα Vincristineα Vinorelbineα Zoledronic acidα

Hormones and antihormones[edit]

Anastrozoleα Bicalutamideα Dexamethasoneα Hydrocortisoneα Leuprorelinα Methylprednisoloneα Prednisoloneα Tamoxifenα

Antiparkinsonism medicines[edit]

Biperiden Carbidopa/levodopa
Carbidopa/levodopa
(levodopa + carbidopa)

Medicines affecting the blood[edit] Antianaemia medicines[edit]

Ferrous salt Ferrous salt/folic acid Folic acid Hydroxocobalamin Erythropoiesis-stimulating agentsα

Medicines affecting coagulation[edit]

Enoxaparin Heparin sodium Phytomenadione Protamine sulfate Tranexamic acid Warfarin Desmopressinα

Other medicines for haemoglobinopathies[edit]

Deferoxamineα[note 40] Hydroxycarbamideα

Blood products and plasma substitutes of human origin[edit] Blood and blood components[edit]

Bag containing one unit of fresh frozen plasma

Fresh frozen plasma Platelet concentrates Packed red blood cells Whole blood

Plasma-derived medicines[edit] Human immunoglobulins[edit]

Rho(D) immune globulin Anti-rabies immunoglobulin Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin Human normal immunoglobulinα

Blood coagulation factors[edit]

Coagulation factor VIIIα Coagulation factor IXα

Plasma substitutes[edit]

Dextran 70[note 41]

Cardiovascular medicines[edit] Antianginal medicines[edit]

Bisoprolol[note 42] Glyceryl trinitrate Isosorbide dinitrate Verapamil

Antiarrhythmic medicines[edit]

Bisoprolol[note 42] Digoxin Epinephrine (adrenaline) Lidocaine Verapamil Amiodaroneα

Antihypertensive medicines[edit]

Amlodipine Bisoprolol[note 42] Enalapril Hydralazine[note 43] Hydrochlorothiazide Methyldopa[note 44] Losartan Sodium nitroprussideα

Medicines used in heart failure[edit]

Bisoprolol[note 42] Digoxin Enalapril Furosemide Hydrochlorothiazide Losartan Spironolactone Dopamineα

Antithrombotic medicines[edit] Anti-platelet medicines[edit]

Acetylsalicylic acid
Acetylsalicylic acid
(aspirin) Clopidogrel

Thrombolytic medicines[edit]

Streptokinaseα

Lipid-lowering agents[edit]

Simvastatin[note 45]

Dermatological (topical)[edit] Antifungal medicines[edit]

Miconazole Selenium sulfide Sodium thiosulfate Terbinafine

Anti-infective medicines[edit]

Mupirocin Potassium permanganate Silver sulfadiazine

Anti-inflammatory and antipruritic medicines[edit]

Betamethasone Calamine Hydrocortisone

Medicines affecting skin differentiation and proliferation[edit]

Benzoyl peroxide Coal tar Fluorouracil Podophyllum resin Salicylic acid Urea

Scabicides and pediculicides[edit]

Benzyl benzoate Permethrin

Diagnostic agents[edit] Ophthalmic medicines[edit]

Fluorescein Tropicamide

Radiocontrast media[edit]

Amidotrizoate Barium sulfate Iohexol Meglumine iotroxateα

Disinfectants and antiseptics[edit] Antiseptics[edit]

Chlorhexidine Ethanol Povidone iodine

Disinfectants[edit]

Alcohol based hand rub Chlorine base compound Chloroxylenol Glutaral

Diuretics[edit]

Amiloride Furosemide Hydrochlorothiazide Mannitol Spironolactone

Gastrointestinal medicines[edit]

Pancreatic enzymesα

Antiulcer medicines[edit]

Omeprazole Ranitidine

Antiemetic medicines[edit]

Dexamethasone Metoclopramide Ondansetron

Anti-inflammatory medicines[edit]

Sulfasalazine Hydrocortisoneα

Laxatives[edit]

Senna

Medicines used in diarrhea[edit] Oral rehydration[edit]

Oral rehydration salts

Medicines for diarrhea in children[edit]

Zinc sulfate[note 46]

Hormones, other endocrine medicines, and contraceptives[edit] Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutes[edit]

Fludrocortisone Hydrocortisone

Androgens[edit]

Testosteroneα

Contraceptives[edit] Oral hormonal contraceptives[edit]

Ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel Ethinylestradiol/norethisterone Levonorgestrel Ulipristal

Injectable hormonal contraceptives[edit]

Estradiol cypionate/medroxyprogesterone acetate Medroxyprogesterone acetate Norethisterone enantate

Intrauterine devices[edit]

IUD with copper IUD with progestogen

Barrier methods[edit]

Condoms Diaphragms

Implantable contraceptives[edit]

Etonogestrel—releasing implant Levonorgestrel—releasing implant

Intravaginal contraceptives[edit]

Progesterone vaginal ring

Insulins and other medicines used for diabetes[edit]

Gliclazide[note 47] Glucagon Insulin injection (soluble) Intermediate-acting insulin Metformin

Ovulation inducers[edit]

Clomifeneα

Progestogens[edit]

Medroxyprogesterone acetate

Thyroid hormones and antithyroid medicines[edit]

Levothyroxine Potassium iodide Propylthiouracil Lugol's solutionα

Immunologicals[edit] Diagnostic agents[edit]

Tuberculin, purified protein derivative (PPD)

Sera and immunoglobulins[edit]

Antivenom immunoglobulin[note 48] Diphtheria antitoxin

Vaccines[edit]

A vial of oral cholera vaccine

BCG vaccine Cholera vaccine[note 49] Diphtheria vaccine Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine Hepatitis A vaccine[note 49] Hepatitis B vaccine HPV vaccine Influenza vaccine Japanese encephalitis vaccine[note 50] Measles vaccine Meningococcal meningitis vaccine[note 49] Mumps vaccine Pertussis vaccine Pneumococcal vaccine Poliomyelitis vaccine Rabies vaccine[note 49] Rotavirus vaccine Rubella vaccine Tetanus vaccine Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine[note 50] Typhoid vaccine[note 49] Varicella vaccine Yellow fever vaccine[note 50]

Muscle relaxants (peripherally-acting) and cholinesterase inhibitors[edit]

Atracurium Neostigmine Suxamethonium Vecuronium Pyridostigmineα

Eye preparations[edit] Anti-infective agents[edit]

Aciclovir Azithromycin Erythromycin Gentamicin Natamycin Ofloxacin Tetracycline

Anti-inflammatory agents[edit]

Prednisolone

Local anesthetics[edit]

Tetracaine

Miotics and antiglaucoma medicines[edit]

Acetazolamide Latanoprost Pilocarpine Timolol

Mydriatics[edit]

Atropine[note 51] Epinephrine (adrenaline)α

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)[edit]

Bevacizumabα

Oxytocics and antioxytocics[edit] Oxytocics and abortifacients[edit]

Ergometrine Misoprostol Oxytocin Mifepristone
Mifepristone
used with misoprostolα[note 52]

Antioxytocics (tocolytics)[edit]

Nifedipine

Peritoneal dialysis solution[edit]

Intraperitoneal dialysis solution
Intraperitoneal dialysis solution
(of appropriate composition)α

Medicines for mental and behavioural disorders[edit] Medicines used in psychotic disorders[edit]

Chlorpromazine Fluphenazine Haloperidol Risperidone Clozapineα

Medicines used in mood disorders[edit] Medicines used in depressive disorders[edit]

Amitriptyline Fluoxetine

Medicines used in bipolar disorders[edit]

Carbamazepine Lithium Valproic acid
Valproic acid
(sodium valproate)

Medicines for anxiety disorders[edit]

Diazepam

Medicines used for obsessive compulsive disorders[edit]

Clomipramine

Medicines for disorders due to psychoactive substance use[edit]

Nicotine replacement therapy Methadoneα

Medicines acting on the respiratory tract[edit] Antiasthmatic and medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease[edit]

Beclometasone Budesonide Budesonide/formoterol Epinephrine (adrenaline) Ipratropium bromide Salbutamol
Salbutamol
(albuterol)

Solutions correcting water, electrolyte and acid-base disturbances[edit] Oral[edit]

Oral rehydration salts Potassium chloride

Parenteral[edit]

Glucose Glucose with sodium chloride Potassium chloride Sodium chloride Sodium hydrogen carbonate Sodium lactate, compound solution

Miscellaneous[edit]

Water for injection

Vitamins and minerals[edit]

Ascorbic acid Calcium Cholecalciferol[note 53] Ergocalciferol Iodine Nicotinamide Pyridoxine Retinol Riboflavin Sodium fluoride Thiamine Calcium gluconateα

Ear, nose and throat medicines in children[edit]

Acetic acid Budesonide Ciprofloxacin Xylometazoline

Specific medicines for neonatal care[edit] Medicines administered to the neonate[edit]

Caffeine citrate Chlorhexidine Ibuprofenα Prostaglandin Eα

Prostaglandin E1 Prostaglandin E2

Surfactantα

Medicines administered to the mother[edit]

Dexamethasone

Medicines for diseases of joints[edit] Medicines used to treat gout[edit]

Allopurinol

Disease-modifying agents used in rheumatoid disorders[edit]

Chloroquine Azathioprineα Hydroxychloroquineα Methotrexateα Penicillamineα Sulfasalazineα

Juvenile joint diseases[edit]

Aspirin[note 54]

Notes[edit]

^ An α indicates the medicine is only on the complementary list. For these items specialized diagnostic or monitoring or specialist training are needed. An item may also be listed as complementary on the basis of higher costs or a less attractive cost-benefit ratio.[3]

^ Thiopental
Thiopental
may be used as an alternative depending on local availability and cost. ^ Not recommended for anti‐inflammatory use due to lack of proven benefit to that effect ^ Alternatives limited to hydromorphone and oxycodone ^ There may be a role for sedating antihistamines for limited indications (EMLc). ^ For use in eclampsia and severe pre‐eclampsia and not for other convulsant disorders ^ For surgical prophylaxis ^ Only listed for single‐dose treatment of uncomplicated ano‐genital gonorrhoea ^ Third-generation cephalosporin of choice for use in hospitalized neonates ^ Do not administer with calcium and avoid in infants with hyperbilirubinemia. ^ Procaine benzylpenicillin
Procaine benzylpenicillin
is not recommended as first-line treatment for neonatal sepsis except in settings with high neonatal mortality, when given by trained health workers in cases where hospital care is not achievable. ^ Only listed for the treatment of life‐threatening hospital‐based infection due to suspected or proven multidrug‐resistant infection ^ Only listed for single‐dose treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis and of trachoma ^ For use in combination regimens for eradication of H. pylori in adults ^ For use only in patients with HIV receiving protease inhibitors ^ For treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) only ^ Terizidone
Terizidone
may be an alternative. ^ Prothionamide
Prothionamide
may be an alternative. ^ Ofloxacin
Ofloxacin
and moxifloxacin may be alternatives based on availability and programme considerations. ^ a b FTC is an acceptable alternative to 3TC, based on knowledge of the pharmacology, the resistance patterns and clinical trials of antiretrovirals. ^ For the treatment of viral haemorrhagic fevers and in combination with pegylated interferons for the treatment of hepatitis C ^ Potentially severe or complicated illness due to confirmed or suspected influenza virus infection in accordance with WHO treatment guidelines ^ For the treatment of hepatitis C, in combination with peginterferon or direct acting anti-viral medicines ^ To be used in combination with ribavirin ^ a b To be used in combination with artesunate 50 mg ^ For use in the management of severe malaria ^ Not recommended in the first trimester of pregnancy or in children below 5 kg ^ To be used in combination with either amodiaquine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine + pyrimethamine ^ Other combinations that deliver the target doses required such as 153 mg or 200 mg (as hydrochloride) with 50 mg artesunate can be alternatives. ^ For use only for the treatment of P. vivax infection ^ For use only in combination with quinine ^ Only for use to achieve radical cure of P. vivax and P. ovale infections, given for 14 days ^ For use only in the management of severe malaria, and should be used in combination with doxycycline ^ Only in combination with artesunate 50 mg ^ For use only in Central American regions, for use for P. vivax ^ For use only in combination with chloroquine ^ To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection ^ To be used for the treatment of the initial phase of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection ^ To be used for the treatment of T. b. gambiense infection ^ Only to be used in combination with eflornithine, for the treatment of T. b. gambiense infection ^ Deferasirox oral form may be an alternative, depending on cost and availability. ^ Polygeline, injectable solution, 3.5% is considered as equivalent. ^ a b c d Includes metoprolol and carvedilol as alternatives ^ Hydralazine
Hydralazine
is listed for use in the acute management of severe pregnancy‐induced hypertension only. Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the availability of more evidence of efficacy and safety of other medicines. ^ Methyldopa
Methyldopa
is listed for use in the management of pregnancy‐induced hypertension only. Its use in the treatment of essential hypertension is not recommended in view of the availability of more evidence of efficacy and safety of other medicines. ^ For use in high‐risk patients ^ In acute diarrhoea, zinc sulfate should be used as an adjunct to oral rehydration salts ^ Glibenclamide not suitable above 60 years ^ Exact type to be defined locally ^ a b c d e Recommended for some high-risk populations ^ a b c Recommended for certain regions ^ Or homatropine (hydrobromide) or cyclopentolate (hydrochloride) ^ Requires close medical supervision ^ Ergocalciferol
Ergocalciferol
can be used as an alternative. ^ For use for rheumatic fever, juvenile arthritis, Kawasaki disease

References[edit]

^ a b c "Essential medicines". World Health Organization. Retrieved 19 January 2017.  ^ "The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML): 30th anniversary". World Health Organization. Retrieved 26 June 2016.  ^ a b c d "19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines" (pdf). who.int. World Health Organization. April 2015. p. Annex 1. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ a b Bansal, D; Purohit, VK (January 2013). "Accessibility and use of essential medicines in health care: Current progress and challenges in India". Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics. 4 (1): 13–18. doi:10.4103/0976-500X.107642. PMC 3643337 . PMID 23662019.  ^ "The Selection and Use of Essential Medicines - WHO Technical Report Series, No. 920: 5. Reviews of sections of the Model List: 5.2 Review of core versus complementary listing of medicines". apps.who.int. 2003. Retrieved 6 March 2017.  ^ Beall, Reed (2016). "Patents and the WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (18th Edition): Clarifying the Debate on IP and Access" (PDF). WIPO. Retrieved 3 May 2017.  ^ Wirtz, VJ; Hogerzeil, HV; Gray, AL; Bigdeli, M; de Joncheere, CP; et al. (28 January 2017). "Essential medicines for universal health coverage". The Lancet. 389 (10067): 403–476. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31599-9. PMID 27832874.  ^ a b c "WHO Model Lists of Essential Medicines". World Health Organization. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ Prakash, B; Nadig, P; Nayak, A (2016). "Rational Prescription for a Dermatologist". Indian Journal of Dermatology. 61 (1): 32–38. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.174017. PMC 4763692 . PMID 26955092.  ^ a b " WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
20th List" (PDF). March 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2017.  ^ " WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children
5th List" (PDF). who.int. World Health Organization. August 2015. Retrieved 17 January 2017.  ^ Rose, K; Anker, JNVd (2010). Guide to Paediatric Drug Development and Clinical Research. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. p. 42. ISBN 9783805593625.  ^ Seyberth, HW; Rane, A; Schwab, M (2011). Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 358. ISBN 9783642201950.  ^ Kalle, H (9 February 2017). "Essential Medicines for Children". Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 101: 718–720. doi:10.1002/cpt.661. PMID 28182281. 

Further reading[edit]

WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. ISBN 9789241547659.  The selection and use of essential medicines: Twentieth report of the WHO Expert Committee 2015 (including 19th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines and 5th WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
for Children) (PDF). WHO. 2015. ISBN 9789240694941. 

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