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WHOIS
WHOIS
(pronounced as the phrase who is) is a query and response protocol that is widely used for querying databases that store the registered users or assignees of an Internet
Internet
resource, such as a domain name, an IP address
IP address
block, or an autonomous system, but is also used for a wider range of other information. The protocol stores and delivers database content in a human-readable format.[1] The WHOIS protocol is documented in RFC 3912.

Contents

1 History

1.1 CRISP and IRIS 1.2 WEIRDS and RDAP

2 Protocol

2.1 Augumentings

3 Implementation

3.1 Thin and thick lookups 3.2 Software 3.3 Web

4 Servers

4.1 Regional Internet
Internet
registries 4.2 Server discovery

5 Query example 6 Referral Whois 7 Criticism 8 Accuracy of information 9 Law and policy 10 ICANN
ICANN
proposal to abolish WHOIS 11 Standards documents 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit]

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When the Internet
Internet
was emerging out of the ARPANET, there was only one organization that handled all domain registrations, which was DARPA itself. The process of registration was established in RFC 920. WHOIS was standardized in the early 1980s to look up domains, people and other resources related to domain and number registrations. As all registration was done by one organization at that time, one centralized server was used for WHOIS
WHOIS
queries. This made looking up such information very easy. Responsibility of domain registration remained with DARPA as the ARPANET became the Internet
Internet
during the 1980s. UUNET began offering domain registration service; however they simply handled the paperwork which they forwarded to the DARPA Network Information Center (NIC). Then the National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
directed that management of Internet
Internet
domain registration would be handled by commercial, third-party entities. InterNIC was formed in 1993 under contract with the NSF, consisting of Network Solutions, Inc., General Atomics
General Atomics
and AT&T. The General Atomics
General Atomics
contract was canceled after several years due to performance issues. 20th century WHOIS
WHOIS
servers were highly permissive and would allow wild-card searches. A WHOIS
WHOIS
query of a person's last name would yield all individuals with that name. A query with a given keyword returned all registered domains containing that keyword. A query for a given administrative contact returned all domains the administrator was associated with. Since the advent of the commercialized Internet, multiple registrars and unethical spammers, such permissive searching is no longer available. On December 1, 1999, management of the top-level domains (TLDs) com, net, and org was assigned to ICANN. At the time, these TLDs were converted to a thin WHOIS
WHOIS
model. Existing WHOIS
WHOIS
clients stopped working at that time. A month later, it had self-detecting Common Gateway Interface support so that the same program could operate a web-based WHOIS
WHOIS
lookup, and an external TLD table to support multiple WHOIS
WHOIS
servers based on the TLD of the request. This eventually became the model of the modern WHOIS
WHOIS
client. By 2005, there were many more generic top-level domains than there had been in the early 1980s. There are also many more country-code top-level domains. This has led to a complex network of domain name registrars and registrar associations, especially as the management of Internet
Internet
infrastructure has become more internationalized. As such, performing a WHOIS
WHOIS
query on a domain requires knowing the correct, authoritative WHOIS
WHOIS
server to use. Tools to do WHOIS
WHOIS
proxy searches have become common. CRISP and IRIS[edit] In 2003, an IETF committee was formed to create a new standard for looking up information on domain names and network numbers: Cross Registry Information Service Protocol (CRISP).[2] Between January 2005 and July 2006, the working name for this proposed new standard was Internet
Internet
Registry Information Service (IRIS) [3][4] The initial IETF Proposed Standards RFCs for IRIS are:

3981 - Newton, A.; Sanz, M. (January 2005). IRIS: The Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS) Core Protocol. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC3981. STD 8. RFC 3981. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3981. Retrieved June 01, 2015.  3982 - Newton, A.; Sanz, M. (January 2005). IRIS: A Domain Registry (dreg) Type for the Internet
Internet
Registry Information Service (IRIS). IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC3982. RFC 3982. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3982. Retrieved June 01, 2015.  3983 - Newton, A.; Sanz, M. (January 2005). Using the Internet Registry Information Service (IRIS) over the Blocks Extensible Exchange Protocol (BEEP). IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC3983. RFC 3983. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3983. Retrieved June 01, 2015.  4992 - Newton, A. (August 2007). XML Pipelining with Chunks for the Internet
Internet
Registry Information Service. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC4992. RFC 4992. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4992. Retrieved June 01, 2015. 

The status of RFCs this group worked on can be found on the IETF Tools site.[5] As of March 2009, the CRISP IETF Working Group concluded,[6] after a final RFC 5144 was published by the group [7] Newton, Andrew; Sanz, Marcos (February 2008). A Domain Availability Check (DCHK) Registry Type for the Internet
Internet
Registry Information Service (IRIS). IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC5144. RFC 5144. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5144. Retrieved 1 June 2015. . Note: The IETF CRISP working group is not to be confused with the Number Resource Organization's (NRO) Team of the same name "Consolidated RIR IANA Stewardship Proposal Team" (CRISP Team).[8] WEIRDS and RDAP[edit] Main article: Registration Data Access Protocol In 2013, the IETF acknowledged that IRIS had not been a successful replacement for WHOIS. The primary technical reason for that appeared to be the complexity of IRIS. Further, non-technical reasons were deemed to lie in areas upon which the IETF does not pass judgment. Meanwhile, ARIN
ARIN
and RIPE NCC
RIPE NCC
managed to serve WHOIS
WHOIS
data via RESTful web services. The charter (drafted in February 2012) provided for separate specifications, for number registries first and for name registries to follow.[9] The working group produced five proposed standard documents:

7480 - Newton, Andrew; Ellacott, Byron; Kong, Ning (March 2015). HTTP Usage in the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP). IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC7480. RFC 7480. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7480. Retrieved July 08, 2015.  7481 - Hollenbeck, Scott; Kong, Ning (March 2015). Security Services for the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP). IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC7481. RFC 7481. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7481. Retrieved July 08, 2015.  7482 - Newton, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Scott (March 2015). Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP) Query Format. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC7482. RFC 7482. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7482. Retrieved July 08, 2015.  7483 - Newton, Andrew; Hollenbeck, Scott (March 2015). JSON Responses for the Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP). IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC7483. RFC 7483. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7483. Retrieved July 08, 2015.  7484 - Blanchet, Marc (March 2015). Finding the Authoritative Registration Data (RDAP) Service. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC7484. RFC 7484. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7484. Retrieved July 08, 2015. 

and an informational document:

7485 - Zhou, L.; Kong, N.; Shen, S.; Sheng, S.; Servin, A. (March 2015). Inventory and Analysis of WHOIS
WHOIS
Registration Objects. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC7485. RFC 7485. https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7485. Retrieved July 08, 2015. 

Protocol[edit] The WHOIS
WHOIS
protocol had its origin in the ARPANET NICNAME protocol and was based on the NAME/FINGER Protocol, described in RFC 742 (1977). The NICNAME/ WHOIS
WHOIS
protocol was first described in RFC 812 in 1982 by Ken Harrenstien and Vic White of the Network Information Center at SRI International. WHOIS
WHOIS
was originally implemented on the Network Control Program (NCP) but found its major use when the TCP/IP suite was standardized across the ARPANET and later the Internet. The protocol specification is the following (original quote):[10]

Connect to the service host TCP: service port 43 decimal NCP: ICP to socket 43 decimal, establishing two 8-bit connections Send a single "command line", ending with <CRLF>. Receive information in response to the command line. The server closes its connections as soon as the output is finished.

The command line server query is normally a single name specification. i.e. the name of a resource. However, servers accept a query, consisting of only the question mark (?) to return a description of acceptable command line formats. Substitution or wild-card formats also exist, e.g., appending a full-stop (period) to the query name returns all entries beginning with the query name. On the modern Internet, WHOIS
WHOIS
services are typically communicated using the Transmission Control Protocol
Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP). Servers listen to requests on the well-known port number 43. Clients are simple applications that establish a communications channel to the server, transmit a text record with the name of the resource to be queried and await the response in form of a sequence of text records found in the database. This simplicity of the protocol also permits an application, and a command line interface user, to query a WHOIS
WHOIS
server using the Telnet protocol. Augumentings[edit] In 2014 June ICANN
ICANN
published the recommendation for status codes, the "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP) domain status codes"[11]

Status Code Description

addPeriod This grace period is provided after the initial registration of a domain name. If the registrar deletes the domain name during this period, the registry may provide credit to the registrar for the cost of the registration.

autoRenewPeriod This grace period is provided after a domain name registration period expires and is extended (renewed) automatically by the registry. If the registrar deletes the domain name during this period, the registry provides a credit to the registrar for the cost of the renewal.

inactive This status code indicates that delegation information (name servers) has not been associated with the domain. The domain is not activated in the DNS
DNS
and will not resolve.

ok This is the standard status for a domain, meaning it has no pending operations or prohibitions.

pendingCreate This status code indicates that a request to create the domain has been received and is being processed.

pendingDelete This status code may be mixed with redemptionPeriod or pendingRestore. In such case, depending on the status set in the domain name, otherwise (not combined with other status), the pendingDelete status code indicates that the domain has been in redemptionPeriod status for 30 days and not restored. The domain will remain in this status for several days, after which time the domain will be dropped from the registry database. Once deletion occurs, the domain is available for re-registration in accordance with the registry's policies.

pendingRenew This status code indicates that a request to renew the domain has been received and is being processed.

pendingRestore This status code indicates that your registrar has asked the registry to restore the domain that was in redemptionPeriod status. Your registry will hold the domain in this status while waiting for your registrar to provide required restoration documentation. If your registrar fails to provide documentation to the registry operator within a set time period to confirm the restoration request, the domain will revert to redemptionPeriod status.

pendingTransfer This status code indicates that a request to transfer the domain to a new registrar has been received and is being processed.

pendingUpdate This status code indicates that a request to update the domain has been received and is being processed.

redemptionPeriod This status code indicates that your registrar has asked the registry to delete the domain. The domain will be held in this status for 30 days. After five calendar days following the end of the redemptionPeriod, the domain is purged from the registry database and becomes available for registration.

renewPeriod This grace period is provided after a domain name registration period is explicitly extended (renewed) by the registrar. If the registrar deletes the domain name during this period, the registry provides a credit to the registrar for the cost of the renewal.

serverDeleteProhibited This status code prevents the domain from being deleted. It is an uncommon status that is usually enacted during legal disputes, at your request, or when a redemptionPeriod status is in place.

serverHold This status code is set by the domain's Registry Operator. The domain is not activated in the DNS.

serverRenewProhibited This status code indicates the domain's Registry Operator will not allow your registrar to renew the domain. It is an uncommon status that is usually enacted during legal disputes or when the domain is subject to deletion.

serverTransferProhibited This status code prevents the domain from being transferred from your current registrar to another. It is an uncommon status that is usually enacted during legal or other disputes, at your request, or when a redemptionPeriod status is in place.

serverUpdateProhibited This status code locks the domain preventing it from being updated. It is an uncommon status that is usually enacted during legal disputes, at your request, or when a redemptionPeriod status is in place.

transferPeriod This grace period is provided after the successful transfer of a domain name from one registrar to another. If the new registrar deletes the domain name during this period, the registry provides a credit to the registrar for the cost of the transfer.

Implementation[edit] WHOIS
WHOIS
lookups were traditionally performed with a command line interface application, but now many alternative web-based tools exist. WHOIS
WHOIS
has a sister protocol called Referral Whois (RWhois). A WHOIS
WHOIS
database consists of a set of text records for each resource. These text records consists of various items of information about the resource itself, and any associated information of assignees, registrants, administrative information, such as creation and expiration dates. Two data models exist for storing resource information in a WHOIS database, the thick and the thin model. Thin and thick lookups[edit] WHOIS
WHOIS
information can be stored and looked up according to either a thick or a thin data model:

Thick A Thick WHOIS
WHOIS
server stores the complete WHOIS
WHOIS
information from all the registrars for the particular set of data (so that one WHOIS server can respond with WHOIS
WHOIS
information on all .org
.org
domains, for example). Thin A Thin WHOIS
WHOIS
server stores only the name of the WHOIS
WHOIS
server of the registrar of a domain, which in turn has the full details on the data being looked up (such as the .com
.com
WHOIS
WHOIS
servers, which refer the WHOIS query to the registrar where the domain was registered).

The thick model usually ensures consistent data and slightly faster queries, since only one WHOIS
WHOIS
server needs to be contacted. If a registrar goes out of business, a thick registry contains all important information (if the registrant entered correct data, and privacy features were not used to obscure the data) and registration information can be retained. But with a thin registry, the contact information might not be available, and it could be difficult for the rightful registrant to retain control of the domain.[12] If a WHOIS
WHOIS
client did not understand how to deal with this situation, it would display the full information from the registrar. Unfortunately, the WHOIS
WHOIS
protocol has no standard for determining how to distinguish the thin model from the thick model. Specific details of which records are stored vary among domain name registries. Some top-level domains, including com and net, operate a thin WHOIS, requiring domain registrars to maintain their own customers' data. The other global top-level registries, including org, operate a thick model.[13] Each country-code top-level registry has its own national rules. Software[edit] The first applications written for the WHOIS
WHOIS
information system were command line interface tools for Unix
Unix
and Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems (i.e. Solaris, Linux etc.). WHOIS
WHOIS
client and server software is distributed as free open-source software and binary distributions are included with all Unix-like
Unix-like
systems. Various commercial Unix implementations may use a proprietary implementation (for example, Solaris 7). A WHOIS
WHOIS
command line client passes a phrase given as an argument directly to the WHOIS
WHOIS
server. Various free open source examples can still be found on sites such as sourceforge.net. However, most modern WHOIS
WHOIS
tools implement command line flags or options, such as the -h option to access a specific server host, but default servers are preconfigured. Additional options may allow control of the port number to connect on, displaying additional debugging data, or changing recursion/referral behavior. Like most TCP/IP client-server applications, a WHOIS
WHOIS
client takes the user input and then opens an Internet
Internet
socket to its destination server. The WHOIS
WHOIS
protocol manages the transmission of the query and reception of results. Web[edit] With the advent of the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
and especially the loosening up of the Network Solutions monopoly, looking up WHOIS
WHOIS
information via the web has become quite common. At present, popular web-based WHOIS-queries may be conducted from ARIN,[14] RIPE[15] and APNIC.[16] Most early web-based WHOIS
WHOIS
clients were merely front-ends to a command-line client, where the resulting output just gets displayed on a web page with little, if any, clean-up or formatting. Currently, web based WHOIS
WHOIS
clients usually perform the WHOIS
WHOIS
queries directly and then format the results for display. Many such clients are proprietary, authored by domain name registrars. The need for web-based clients came from the fact that command-line WHOIS
WHOIS
clients largely existed only in the Unix
Unix
and large computing worlds. Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
and Macintosh computers had no WHOIS
WHOIS
clients installed by default, so registrars had to find a way to provide access to WHOIS
WHOIS
data for potential customers. Many end-users still rely on such clients, even though command line and graphical clients exist now for most home PC platforms. Microsoft provides the Sysinternals Suite that includes a whois client at no cost. There are also many sites not owned by registrars or Internet-related companies. These support most of main TLD and remain free. But most of web-based whois sites are incomplete and do not support all TLD nor IP search.[17] CPAN
CPAN
has several Perl
Perl
modules available that work with WHOIS
WHOIS
servers. Many of them are not current and do not fully function with the current (2005) WHOIS
WHOIS
server infrastructure. However, there is still much useful functionality to derive including looking up AS numbers and registrant contacts.[citation needed] Servers[edit]

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Regional Internet
Internet
registries[edit]

Regional Internet
Internet
Registries

WHOIS
WHOIS
servers operated by Regional Internet
Internet
Registries (RIR) can be queried directly to determine the Internet
Internet
Service Provider responsible for a particular resource. The records of each of these registries are cross-referenced, so that a query to ARIN
ARIN
for a record which belongs to RIPE
RIPE
will return a place-holder pointing to the RIPE
RIPE
WHOIS
WHOIS
server. This lets the WHOIS user making the query know that the detailed information resides on the RIPE
RIPE
server. In addition to the RIRs servers, commercial services exist, such as the Routing Assets Database
Database
used by some large networks (e.g., large Internet
Internet
providers that acquired other ISPs in several RIR areas). Server discovery[edit] There is currently no standard for determining the responsible WHOIS server for a DNS
DNS
domain, though a number of methods are in common use for top-level domains (TLDs). Some WHOIS
WHOIS
lookups require searching the procuring domain registrar to display domain owner details. Query example[edit] Normally the contact information of the resources assignee is returned. However, some registrars offer private registration, in which case the contact information of the registrar is shown instead. Some registry operators are wholesalers, meaning that they typically provide domain name services to a large number of retail registrars, who in turn offer them to consumers. For private registration, only the identity of the wholesale registrar may be returned. In this case, the identity of the individual as well as the retail registrar may be hidden. Below is an example of WHOIS
WHOIS
data returned for an individual resource holder. This is the result of a WHOIS
WHOIS
query of example.com:

whois example.com [Querying whois.verisign-grs.com] [Redirected to whois.iana.org] [Querying whois.iana.org] [whois.iana.org] % IANA WHOIS
WHOIS
server % for more information on IANA, visit http://www.iana.org % This query returned 1 object domain: EXAMPLE.COM organisation: Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority created: 1992-01-01 source: IANA

Referral Whois[edit] Referral Whois (RWhois) is an extension of the original Whois protocol and service. RWhois
RWhois
extends the concepts of Whois in a scalable, hierarchical fashion, potentially creating a system with a tree-like architecture. Queries are deterministically routed to servers based on hierarchical labels, reducing a query to the primary repository of information.[18] Lookups of IP address
IP address
allocations are often limited to the larger Classless Inter-Domain Routing
Classless Inter-Domain Routing
(CIDR) blocks (e.g., /24, /22, /16), because usually only the regional Internet
Internet
registries (RIRs) and domain registrars run RWhois
RWhois
or Whois servers, although RWhois
RWhois
is intended to be run by even smaller local Internet
Internet
registries, to provide more granular information about IP address
IP address
assignment. RWhois
RWhois
is intended to replace Whois, providing an organized hierarchy of referral services where one could connect to any RWhois
RWhois
server, request a look-up and be automatically re-directed to the correct server(s). However, while the technical functionality is in place, adoption of the RWhois
RWhois
standard has been weak. RWhois
RWhois
services are typically communicated using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Servers listen to requests on the well-known port number 4321. Rwhois was first specified in RFC 1714 in 1994 by Network Solutions,[18] but the specification was superseded in 1997 by RFC 2167.[19] The referral features of RWhois
RWhois
are different than the feature of a Whois server to refer responses to another server, which RWhois
RWhois
also implements. Criticism[edit] One criticism of WHOIS
WHOIS
is the lack of full access to the data.[20][21] Few parties have realtime access to the complete databases. Others cite the competing goal of domain privacy as a criticism although this problem is strongly mitigated by domain privacy services. Currently the Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) broadly requires that the mailing address, phone number and e-mail address of those owning or administrating a domain name to be made publicly available through the "WHOIS" directories. The registrant's (domain owner's) contact details, such as address and telephone number, are easily accessible to anyone who queries a WHOIS
WHOIS
server. However, that policy enables spammers, direct marketers, identity thieves, or other attackers to loot the directory for personal information about these people. Although ICANN
ICANN
has been exploring changing WHOIS
WHOIS
to enable greater privacy, there is a lack of consensus among major stakeholders as to what type of change should be made.[22] Some domain registrars offer private registrations (also known as domain privacy), by which the contact information of the registrar is shown instead of the customer's. With the offer of private registration from many registrars, some of the risk has been mitigated. Studies have shown that spammers can and do harvest plain-text email addresses from WHOIS
WHOIS
servers.[23] For this reason, some WHOIS
WHOIS
servers and websites offering WHOIS
WHOIS
queries have implemented rate-limiting systems, such as web-based CAPTCHA
CAPTCHA
and limited amounts of search queries per user IP address. The WHOIS
WHOIS
protocol was not written with an international audience in mind. A WHOIS
WHOIS
server and/or client cannot determine the text encoding in effect for the query or the database content. Many servers were originally using US- ASCII
ASCII
and Internationalization concerns weren't taken into consideration until much later.[24] This might impact the usability or usefulness of the WHOIS
WHOIS
protocol in countries outside the USA.[1] In the case of internationalized domain names it is the responsibility of the client application to perform the translation of the domain name between its native language script and the DNS
DNS
name in punycode. Accuracy of information[edit] In cases where the registrant's (Domain Owner) identity is public, anyone can easily confirm the status of a domain via WHOIS. In the case of private registrations, ascertaining registration information may be more difficult. If a registrant, who acquired a domain name, wants to verify the registrar has completed the registration process, three steps may be required:

Perform a WHOIS
WHOIS
and confirm that the resource is at least registered with ICANN, Determine the name of the wholesale registrar, and Contact the wholesaler and obtain the name of the retail registrar.

This provides some confidence that the retailer actually registered the name. But if the registrar goes out of business, as with the failure of RegisterFly
RegisterFly
in 2007, the rightful domain holder with privacy-protected registrations may have difficulty regaining the administration of his/her domain name.[12] Registrants using "private registration" can attempt to protect themselves by using a registrar that places customer data in escrow with a third party. ICANN
ICANN
requires that every registrant of a domain name be given the opportunity to correct any inaccurate contact data associated with his/her domain. For this reason, registrars are required to periodically send the holder the contact information on record for verification, but they do not provide any guarantee about the accuracy of information if the registrant provided inaccurate information. Law and policy[edit] WHOIS
WHOIS
has generated policy issues in the United States federal government. As noted above, WHOIS
WHOIS
creates a privacy issue which is also tied to free speech and anonymity. However, WHOIS
WHOIS
is an important tool for law enforcement officers investigating violations like spam and phishing to track down the holders of domain names. As a result, law enforcement agencies have sought to make WHOIS
WHOIS
records both open and verified:[25]

The Federal Trade Commission
Federal Trade Commission
has testified about how inaccurate WHOIS records thwart their investigations.[26] Congressional hearings have been conducted about the importance of WHOIS
WHOIS
in 2001, 2002 and 2006.[27] The Fraudulent Online Identity Sanctions Act[28] "make it a violation of trademark and copyright law if a person knowingly provided, or caused to be provided, materially false contact information in making, maintaining, or renewing the registration of a domain name used in connection with the violation,"[29] where the latter "violation" refers to a prior violation of trademark or copyright law. The act does not make the submission of false WHOIS
WHOIS
data illegal in itself, only if used to shield oneself from prosecution for crimes committed using that domain name.

ICANN
ICANN
proposal to abolish WHOIS[edit] The Expert Working Group (EWG) of the Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) recommended on 24 June 2013 that WHOIS
WHOIS
should be scrapped. It recommends that WHOIS
WHOIS
be replaced with a system that keeps information secret from most Internet
Internet
users, and only discloses information for "permissible purposes."[30] ICANN's list of permissible purposes includes domain-name research, domain-name sale and purchase, regulatory enforcement, personal data protection, legal actions, and abuse mitigation.[31] Although WHOIS has been a key tool of journalists in determining who was disseminating certain information on the Internet,[32] the use of WHOIS
WHOIS
by the free press is not included in ICANN’s proposed list of permissible purposes. The EWG collected public input on the initial report until 13 September 2013. Its final report was issued on 6 June 2014, without meaningful changes to the recommendations.[33] ICANN
ICANN
is now in the "process of re-inventing WHOIS," working on " ICANN
ICANN
WHOIS Beta."[34][35] Standards documents[edit]

RFC 812 – NICNAME/ WHOIS
WHOIS
(1982, obsolete) RFC 954 – NICNAME/ WHOIS
WHOIS
(1985, obsolete) RFC 3912 – WHOIS
WHOIS
protocol specification (2004, current)

See also[edit]

Domain name
Domain name
registry Regional Internet
Internet
registry Routing Assets Database Routing Policy Specification Language Shared Whois Project

References[edit]

^ a b RFC 3912, WHOIS
WHOIS
Protocol Specification, L. Daigle (September 2004) ^ Murphy, Cathy (2 October 2003). "CRISP (Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol) Working Group Meeting Minutes". Internet
Internet
Engineering Task Force. Minneapolis, Minnesota USA: IETF. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015. The CRISP (Cross-Registry Information Service Protocol) WG will define a standard mechanism that can be used for finding authoritative information associated with a label, a protocol to transport queries and responses for accessing that information, and a first profile (schema & queries) to support commonly-required queries for domain registration information.  ^ Newton, Andrew (July 2006). "Replacing the Whois Protocol: IRIS and the IETF's CRISP Working Group". IEEE Internet
Internet
Computing. 10 (4): 79–84. doi:10.1109/MIC.2006.86. Retrieved 1 June 2015. The Nicname/Whois protocol has served well, but it remains unchanged since it was first published in the early 1980s, despite great change in the infrastructure and administration of the Internet. There is now more diversity with domain names and IP networks and associated contacts, as well as among the users submitting queries via Whois. The protocol is now so fragmented in terms of information flow and output that queries yield inconsistent results under current conditions. To address the needs of today's Internet, the IETF Cross Registry Internet
Internet
Service Protocol (CRISP) working group is developing a new protocol, the Internet
Internet
Registry Information Service (IRIS), to replace Whois.  ^ Sanz, Marcos; Newton, Andrew; Daigle, Leslie (12 January 2005). "The Internet
Internet
Registry Information Service (IRIS) Protocol" (PDF). gnso.icann.org. Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 1 June 2015. CRISP - Cross-Registry Internet
Internet
Service Protocol: The CRISP Working Group was tasked with finding a solution to the problems that currently infest the Nicname/Whois protocol. The CRISP Working Group created a list of functional requirements. Proposals meeting these requirements were evaluated. IRIS was selected as the protocol to publish as a standard. Now an IETF Proposed Standard: RFCs: 3981, 3982, 3983  ^ "Crisp Status Pages". IETF Tools: CRISP WG Status Pages. IETF. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ IESG Secretary (26 March 2009). "WG Action: Conclusion of Cross Registry Information Service Protocol (crisp)". IETF CRISP WG: Mail Archive. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015. The Cross Registry Information Service Protocol
Cross Registry Information Service Protocol
(crisp) working group in the Applications Area has concluded.  ^ Mevzek, Patrick (21 January 2009). "[CRISP] RFC 5144 up and running". IETF CRISP WG: Mail
Mail
Archive. Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 2 June 2015.  ^ Nimpuno, Nurani. "Consolidated RIR IANA Stewardship Proposal Team (CRISP Team)". nro.net. Number Resource Organization
Number Resource Organization
(NRO). Retrieved 1 June 2015.  ^ "Web Extensible Internet
Internet
Registration Data Service (weirds) Working Group". IETF-88 Proceedings. IETF. Retrieved 8 July 2015.  ^ RFC 812: NICNAME/WHOIS, K.Harrenstien, V.White (1982) ^ "EPP Status Codes - What Do They Mean, and Why Should I Know? - ICANN". www.icann.org. Retrieved 14 March 2018.  ^ a b ".COM and .NET: Thick Or Thin?".  ^ Sarah Stoll (30 May 2009). "Thick vs. Thin Whois for New gTLDs" (PDF). memorandum. ICANN. Retrieved 17 September 2011. Current gTLD registry agreements vary between thin and thick Whois outputs: com, net and jobs are thin; all other g TLD agreements – aero, asia, biz, cat, coop, info, mobi, museum, name, org, pro, tel, travel – are thick.  ^ "Whois-RWS". whois.arin.net.  ^ "Webupdates". RIPE
RIPE
Network Coordination Centre.  ^ "Whois search – Page 2 – APNIC". www.apnic.net.  ^ "Best Whois Lookup - View Domain And IP Whois Details Instantly". www.ip-adress.com.  ^ a b RFC 1714, Referral Whois Protocol (RWhois), S. Williamson, M. Kosters (November 1994) ^ RFC 2167, Referral Whois (RWhois) V1.5, S. Williamson, M. Kosters, D. Blacka, J. Singh, K. Zeilstra (June 1997) ^ "Battle Begins Over IP Address Whois Data". Internet
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Governance Project. Retrieved 4 April 2015.  ^ " WHOIS
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Privacy
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Plan Draws Fire". KerbsonSecurity. Retrieved 4 April 2015.  ^ "The Privacy
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Security and Stability Advisory Committee, October 2007 ^ " WHOIS
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Database
System - Federal Trade Commission". www.ftc.gov.  ^ "Accuracy of "WHOIS" Internet
Internet
Database
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Essential to Law Enforcement, FTC Tells Congress - Federal Trade Commission". www.ftc.gov.  ^ Bowman, Lisa (11 July 2001). "Whois at heart of congressional hearings". CNET. Archived from the original on 27 August 2005.  ^ "THOMAS".  ^ "Fraudulent Online Identity Sanctions Act".  ^ "Initial Report from the Expert Working Group on g TLD Directory Services: A Next Generation Registration Directory Service" (PDF). whois.icann.org. ICANN. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2015.  ^ http://newlegalreview.cpaglobal.com/icann-earmarks-domains-record-whois-scrapheap/ ^ "SJMC: COMMON SENSE JOURNALISM". jour.sc.edu.  ^ "Final Report from the Expert Working Group on g TLD Directory Services: A Next-Generation Registration Directory Service (RDS)" (PDF). whois.icann.org. ICANN. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2015.  ^ "About WHOIS". whois.icann.org/. ICANN. Retrieved 24 March 2015.  ^ "What's on the Horizon?". whois.icann.org. ICANN. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 

External links[edit]

Whois Lookup, Domain Availability & IP Search - DomainTools The Internet
Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers The Internet
Internet
Assigned Numbers Authority XML Whois Server list Blog post about implement

.