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Władysław III (31 October 1424 – 10 November 1444), also known as Władysław of Varna, was King of Poland
King of Poland
from 1434, and King of Hungary
Hungary
and Croatia
Croatia
from 1440, until his death at the Battle of Varna.[1] Władysław III of Varna
Varna
is known in Hungarian as I. Ulászló; in Polish as Władysław Warneńczyk; in Slovak as Vladislav I; in Czech as Vladislav Varnenčík; in Bulgarian as Владислав Варненчик (Vladislav Varnenchik); in Lithuanian as Vladislovas III; in Croatian as Vladislav I. Jagelović.

Contents

1 Royal title 2 Biography

2.1 Early life 2.2 Politics and military career

2.2.1 King of Poland 2.2.2 King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia

2.3 Crusade
Crusade
against Ottoman Turkey and death at Varna

3 Personal life 4 His life in Portugal according to a legend 5 Historical places 6 Ancestors 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Royal title[edit] Latin: Wladislaus Dei gracia Polonie, Hungarie, Dalmacie, Croacie, Rascia (Serbian Grand Principality) etc. rex necnon terrarum Cracouie, Sandomirie, Syradie, Lancicie, Cuyauie, Lithuanie princeps supremus, Pomeranie, Russieque dominus et heres etc. English: Vladislaus by God's grace king of Poland, Hungary, Dalmatia, Croatia, Rascia (Serbian Grand Principality) and lands of Kraków, Sandomierz, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kuyavia, Supreme Prince of Lithuania, lord and heir of Pomerania
Pomerania
and Ruthenia Biography[edit] Early life[edit]

"King of Poland" in tournamental armour. Miniature from Armorial equestre de la Toison d'Or, made circa 1435, during the reign of Władysław III.

Władysław was the first-born son of Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło
and Sophia of Halshany. He ascended the throne at the age of ten and was immediately surrounded by a group of advisors headed by Cardinal Zbigniew Oleśnicki, who wanted to continue to enjoy his high status at court. In spite of that, the young ruler and his ambitious mother were aware that there was opposition to them. Despite the agreements signed between Władysław II and the Polish magnates to ensure the succession for his sons, the opposition wanted another candidate for the Polish throne: Frederick of Brandenburg, who was betrothed to Hedwig, Jagiełło's daughter by his second wife. However, the conspiracy was resolved by the death of the princess, rumoured to have been poisoned by Queen Sophia. Politics and military career[edit] King of Poland[edit] The young king's reign was difficult from the very outset. His coronation was interrupted by a hostile nobleman, Spytko of Melsztyn. On the next day, the customary homage of the townsfolk of Kraków
Kraków
did not take place due to a dispute between the temporal and spiritual lords of Mazovia
Mazovia
over their place in the retinue. Neither did Władysław have much to say later about matters of state, which were run by the powerful cleric and chancellor Oleśnicki. The situation did not change even after the Sejm
Sejm
(Polish parliament) had gathered in Piotrków in 1438, and declared the fourteen-year-old king to have attained his majority. King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia[edit] This situation continued until 1440, when Władysław was offered the crown of Hungary. However, accepting it would have led to numerous problems. Hungary
Hungary
was under a growing threat from the Ottoman Empire, and some Polish magnates did not want to agree to the king of Poland also being the monarch of Hungary, while Elisabeth, widow of the deceased King of Hungary, Albert II of Germany, attempted to keep the crown for her yet unborn child. Such inconveniences aside, Władysław finally took the Hungarian throne, having engaged in a two-year civil war against Elisabeth. He had received significant support from Pope Eugene IV, in exchange for his help in organising an anti-Turkish crusade. The eighteen-year-old king, although thus far a king solely by title, became deeply involved in the war against the Turks, having been brought up in the standard of a pious Christian monarch and ideal Christian knight, and paid no heed to the interests of Poland
Poland
and of the Jagiellonian dynasty.[citation needed] Crusade
Crusade
against Ottoman Turkey and death at Varna[edit]

Władysław III at the Battle of Varna, by Jan Matejko

The "bulwark of Christianity" and other slogans put forward by the papal envoy Giuliano Cesarini, together with much more reasonable but only verbal promises of Venetian and papal fleets blockading the Dardanelles Straits, along with an enticing vision of a promise of victory in this glorious crusade carried for the glory of God and against the Turks, persuaded Władysław to engage his freshly victorious forces for another season of war, thus breaching the ten-year truce with the aggressive and still powerful Ottoman Empire. Despite their alleged forthcoming help, the Venetian fleet carried the Turkish army from Asia into Europe but failed to sail to Varna,[citation needed] a surprising move that Władysław and his most senior military commander John Hunyadi
John Hunyadi
failed to anticipate. The Venetian treachery placed the huge Turkish army (60,000) under sultan Murad II
Murad II
in close proximity to the unsuspecting crusaders (20,000).[citation needed] As a result, when the Battle of Varna
Varna
began on 10 November 1444, the Polish king and his multi-ethnic subjects did not sense that this would be for many of them their final fight. Facing the desperate circumstance the king, seeing the experienced Hunyadi fight and break the Sipahi cavalry, decided to gamble and directly attack the sultan, who was protected by the guard cavalry and formidable Janissary infantry. The young king was killed while personally leading his own 500-strong royal Polish heavy cavalry company, his charge losing impetus and coming to a standstill amongst the unyielding Janissaries
Janissaries
protecting the sultan. The Janissaries killed the king's bodyguard and beheaded Władysław, displaying his head on a pole.[2] Disheartened by the death of their king, the Hungarian army fled the battlefield. Neither the king's body nor his armor were ever found.[citation needed] Personal life[edit] Władysław III had no children and did not marry. The chronicler Jan Długosz, known for his antipathy towards the king and his father, alleged that there was something unusual about Władysław's sexuality, though Długosz did not specify what: "too subject to his carnal desires (...) he did not abandon his lewd and despicable habits" (Polish: "zbyt chuciom cielesnym podległy (...) nie porzucał wcale swych sprośnych i obrzydłych nałogów").[3] Władysław was succeeded in the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
by his younger brother, Duke Casimir IV of Lithuania, in 1447, after a three-year interregnum. In Hungary
Hungary
he was succeeded by his former rival, the child-king Ladislaus the Posthumous. His life in Portugal according to a legend[edit]

St. Joachim and St. Anne Meeting at the Golden Gate.

According to a Portuguese legend Władysław survived the Battle of Varna
Varna
(although the Turks claimed to have his head, his body in royal armor was never found) and then journeyed in secrecy to the Holy Land. He became a knight of Saint Catharine of Mount Sinai (O Cavaleiro de Santa Catarina) and then he settled on Madeira.[4] King Afonso V of Portugal granted him the lands in Cabo Girão
Cabo Girão
district of the Madeira Islands, rent-free for the rest of his life.[4] He was known there as Henrique Alemão (Henry the German) and married Senhorinha Anes (the King of Portugal was his best man[5]), who gave him two sons. He established a church of Saint Catherine and Saint Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
in Madalena do Mar
Madalena do Mar
(1471).[6][7] There he was depicted in a painting as Saint Joachim
Saint Joachim
meeting Saint Anne
Saint Anne
at the Golden Gate on a painting by Master of the Adoration of Machico (Mestre da Adoração de Machico) in the beginning of the 16th century.[4] According to the tradition, he felt his defeat at Varna
Varna
was a warning sign from God (since he declared war on a false pretext, violating the truce with the Ottoman Turks). Thus he wandered as a pilgrim, seeking forgiveness, which he found in Jerusalem. For the rest of his life he would deny his identity. A delegation of Polish monks went to Madeira to question him and certified he was in fact the long lost king, now living in secrecy. He declined their suggestion to ascend the Polish throne again. Historical places[edit]

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A main boulevard and residential district in Varna
Varna
are named after Warneńczyk. There was also been a soccer team named Vladislav Varna. There is a park-museum with a symbolic cenotaph of Władysław III in Varna, built on an ancient Thracian mound tomb. Ancestors[edit]

Gediminas

Algirdas

Jaunė

Jogaila (Władysław II Jagiełło)

Alexander I of Tver

Uliana of Tver

Anastasia Yuryevna of Halych

Władysław III of Varna

Ivan Olgimuntovich of Halshany

Andrew of Halshany

Agrippina

Sophia of Halshany

Dimitri of Drutsk (possibly Demetrius I Starshy)

Alexandra of Drutsk

Gallery[edit]

Gallery

Cenotaph
Cenotaph
effigy, Wawel Cathedral

Coat of arms

The Memorial of the Battle in Varna, built on an ancient Thracian mound tomb, bearing the name of the fallen king.

Imaginary portrait from Thuróczi János' Chronica Hungarorum (Władysław was only 20 when he died)

Church, Madalena do Mar, Madeira, hypothetical burial place of Władysław III

See also[edit]

History of Poland
Poland
(1385–1569) List of Polish monarchs

Poland
Poland
portal Hungary
Hungary
portal Croatia
Croatia
portal Crusades portal Monarchy portal Biography portal

Notes[edit]

^ [1] ^ Davies, Norman. God's Playground. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 128.  ^ Jan Długosz: Roczniki, czyli kroniki sławnego Królestwa Polskiego, vol. XII, page 685 ^ a b c São Joaquim e Santa Ana, Museu de Arte Sacra do Funchal. ^ Rei de Portugal, D. Afonso V, foi o seu padrinho de casamento – A Lenda... Henrique Alemão ou Ladislau III ^ Henrique Alemão- Ladislau III da Polónia Lenda ou História? ^ Diocese do Funchal, Igreja Santa Maria Madalena em Madalena do Mar.

References[edit]

K. Łukasiewicz, Władysław Warneńczyk, Krzyżacy i Kawaler Św Katarzyny, Warszawa 2010

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Wladislaus III of Poland
Poland
and Hungary.

Władysław III of Poland Jagiellon
Jagiellon
dynasty Born: 31 October 1424 Died: 10 November 1444

Regnal titles

Preceded by Władysław II King of Poland 1434–1444 Succeeded by Casimir IV

Preceded by Albert King of Hungary
King of Hungary
and Croatia disputed by Ladislaus V 1440–1444 Succeeded by Ladislaus V

v t e

Monarchs of Poland

Piast dynasty

Siemowit Lestek Siemomysł Mieszko I Bolesław I the Brave Bezprym Mieszko II Lambert (Bolesław the Forgotten) Casimir I the Restorer Bolesław II the Generous Władysław I Herman Zbigniew Bolesław III Wrymouth

Fragmentation period

Supreme Princes

Władysław II the Exile Bolesław IV the Curly Mieszko III the Old Casimir II the Just Leszek the White Władysław III Spindleshanks Władysław Odonic Mieszko IV Tanglefoot Konrad I Henry the Bearded Henry II the Pious Bolesław V the Chaste Leszek II the Black Henryk IV Probus Przemysł II

See also

Dukes of Silesia Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Little Poland Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Cuyavia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Dukes of Gdańsk Pomerania Dukes of Pomerania

Přemyslid dynasty

Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III

Restored Piast dynasty

Władysław I the Elbow-high Casimir III the Great

Capet-Anjou dynasty

Louis I the Hungarian Jadwiga

Jagiellonian dynasty

Władysław II Jagiełło Władysław III of Varna Casimir IV John I Albert Alexander Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus

Elective monarchy

Henry of Valois Anna Jagiellon Stephen Báthory Sigismund III Vasa Władysław IV Vasa John II Casimir Vasa Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki John III Sobieski August II the Strong Stanisław I August III the Saxon Stanisław August Poniatowski

Italics indicates monarchs of questioned historicity or entirely legendary.

v t e

Monarchs of Hungary

Family tree

House of Árpád

Grand Princes

Álmos
Álmos
(c. 850–c. 895) Árpád
Árpád
(c. 895–c. 907) Zoltán (c. 907–c. 947) Fajsz
Fajsz
(c. 947–c. 955) Taksony (c. 955–c. 972) Géza (c. 972–997) Stephen (997–1000)

Kings

Stephen I (1000–1038) Peter (1038–1041; 1044–1046) Samuel (1041–1044) Andrew I (1046–1060) Béla I (1060–1063) Solomon (1063–1074) Géza I (1074–1077) Ladislaus I (1077–1095) Coloman (1095–1116) Stephen II (1116–1131) Béla II (1131–1141) Géza II (1141–1162) Stephen III (1162–1172)

Ladislaus II (1162–1163) Stephen IV (1163–1165)

Béla III (1172–1196) Emeric (1196–1204) Ladislaus III (1204–1205) Andrew II (1205–1235) Béla IV (1235–1270) Stephen V (1270–1272) Ladislaus IV (1272–1290) Andrew III (1290–1301)

House of Přemysl

Wenceslaus (1301–1305)

House of Wittelsbach

Otto (1305–1307)

Capetian House of Anjou

Charles I (1308–1342) Louis I (1342–1382) Mary (1382–1385; 1386–1395) Charles II (1385–1386)

House of Luxembourg

Sigismund (1387–1437)

House of Habsburg

Albert (1437–1439) Ladislaus V (1440–1457)

House of Jagiellon

Vladislaus I (1440–1444)

House of Hunyadi

Matthias I (1458–1490)

House of Jagiellon

Vladislaus II (1490–1516) Louis II (1516–1526)

House of Zápolya

John (1526–1540) John Sigismund (1540–1570)

House of Habsburg

Ferdinand I (1526–1564) Maximilian (1564–1576) Rudolph (1576–1608) Matthias II (1608–1619) Ferdinand II (1619–1637) Ferdinand III (1637–1657)

Ferdinand IV (1647–1654)

Leopold I (1657–1705) Joseph I (1705–1711) Charles III (1711–1740) Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
(1740–1780)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

Joseph II (1780–1790) Leopold II (1790–1792) Francis (1792–1835) Ferdinand V (1835–1848) Francis Joseph (1848–1916) Charles IV (1916–1918)

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 265267922 LCCN: n85348514 ISNI: 0000 0001 2126 3705 GND: 119195798 SUDOC: 142626821 BNF: cb122481584 (data) BIBSYS: 12052956 NKC: o

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