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Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
(Polish: [vwaˈdɨswaf ɡɔˈmuwka]; 6 February 1905 – 1 September 1982) was a Polish communist politician. He was the de facto leader of post-war Poland
Poland
until 1948. Following the Polish October
Polish October
he became leader again from 1956 to 1970. Gomułka was initially very popular for his reforms; his seeking a "Polish way to socialism";[1] and giving rise to the period known as "Gomułka's thaw". During the 1960s, however, he became more rigid and authoritarian—afraid of destabilizing the system, he was not inclined to introduce or permit changes. In the 1960s he supported the persecution of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and intellectuals (notably Leszek Kołakowski, who was forced into exile). In 1967–68 Gomułka allowed outbursts of "anti-Zionist" political propaganda,[2] which turned into an anti-Semitic campaign, pursued primarily by others in the Party, but utilized by Gomułka to retain power by shifting the attention from the stagnating economy. The majority of Polish Jews left the country. At that time he was also responsible for persecuting protesting students and toughening censorship of the media. Gomułka supported Poland's participation in the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
in August 1968. In the treaty with West Germany, signed in December 1970 at the end of Gomulka's period in office, Germany recognized the post-World War II borders, which established a foundation for future peace, stability and cooperation in Central Europe. In the same month, economic difficulties led to price rises and subsequent bloody clashes with shipyard workers on the Baltic coast, in which several dozen workers were fatally shot. The tragic events forced Gomułka's resignation and retirement. In a generational replacement of the ruling elite, Edward Gierek took over the Party leadership and tensions eased.

Contents

1 Life and career

1.1 Early life and activities 1.2 The Communist Party of Poland 1.3 Communist trade unionist 1.4 Invasion of Poland 1.5 State National Council, Polish Committee of National Liberation 1.6 Post-war power politics 1.7 First secretary of the United Workers' Party 1.8 Second removal from public life

2 Decorations and awards 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Life and career[edit] Early life and activities[edit] Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
was born on 6 February 1905 in Białobrzegi Franciszkańskie village on the outskirts of Krosno, into a worker's family living in the Austrian Partition
Austrian Partition
(the Galicia region). His parents had met and married in the United States, where each had emigrated in search of work in the late 19th century, but returned to occupied Poland
Poland
in the early 20th century because Władysław's father Jan was unable to find gainful employment in America. Jan Gomułka then worked as a laborer in the Subcarpathian oil industry. Władysław's older sister Józefa, born in the US, returned there upon turning eighteen to join her extended family, most of whom had emigrated, and to preserve her US citizenship. Władysław and his two other siblings experienced a childhood of the proverbial Galician poverty: they lived in a dilapidated hut and ate mostly potatoes.[3] Władysław received only rudimentary education before being employed in the oil industry of the region. Gomułka attended schools in Krosno
Krosno
for six or seven years, until the age of thirteen, when he had to start an apprenticeship in a metalworks shop. Throughout his life Gomułka was an avid reader and accomplished a great deal of self-education, but remained a subject of jokes because of his lack of formal education and demeanor.[3] In 1922, Gomułka passed his apprenticeship exams and began working at a local refinery. The re-established Polish state of Gomułka's teen years was a scene of growing political polarization and radicalization. The young worker developed connections with the radical Left, joining the Siła (Power) youth organization in 1922 and the Independent Peasant Party in 1925. Gomułka was known for his activism in the metal workers and, from 1922, chemical industry unions. He was involved in union-organized strikes and in 1924, during a protest gathering in Krosno, participated in a polemical debate with Herman Lieberman. He published radical texts in leftist newspapers. In May 1926 the young Gomułka was for the first time arrested, but soon released because of worker demands. The incident was the subject of a parliamentary intervention by the Peasant Party. In October 1926, Gomułka became a secretary of the managing council in the Chemical Industry Workers Union for the Drohobych
Drohobych
District and remained involved with that communist-dominated union until 1930. He around this time learned on his own basic Ukrainian.[4][5] The Communist Party of Poland[edit] In late 1926, while in Drohobych, Gomułka became a member of the illegal-but-functioning Communist Party of Poland
Poland
(Komunistyczna Partia Polski, KPP) and was arrested for political agitation. Technically, at this time he was a member of the Communist Party of Western Ukraine, which was an autonomous branch of the Communist Party of Poland. He was interested primarily in social issues, including the trade and labor movement, and concentrated on practical activities.[3][6] In mid-1927, Gomułka was brought to Warsaw, where he remained active until drafted for military service at the end of the year. After several months, the military released him because of a health problem with his right leg. Gomułka returned to communist party work, organizing strike actions and speaking at gatherings of workers at all major industrial centers of Poland. During this period he was arrested several times and lived under police supervision.[4][6] Gomułka was an activist in the leftist labor unions from 1926 and in the Central Trade Department of the KPP Central Committee from 1931. In August 1932, participating in a conference of textile worker delegates in Łódź, he was arrested by the Sanation
Sanation
police and then shot and wounded during an escape attempt. Subsequently, he was sentenced to a prison term. In 1934, Gomułka went to Moscow, where he lived and studied at the International Lenin School for a year. After his return to Poland
Poland
Gomułka worked as a regional KPP secretary in Silesia. He was arrested in 1936, sentenced to seven years in prison and remained jailed until the beginning of World War II. Communist trade unionist[edit] In the summer of 1930, Gomułka illegally embarked on his first foreign trip with the intention of participating in the Red International of Labor Unions Fifth Congress held in Moscow
Moscow
from 15 to 30 July. Traveling from Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
to Berlin, he had to wait there for the issuance of Soviet documents and arrived in Moscow
Moscow
too late participate in the deliberations of the Congress. He stayed in Moscow for a couple of weeks and then went to Leningrad, from where he took a ship to Hamburg, stayed in Berlin
Berlin
again and through Silesia returned to Poland.[4] Gomułka continued his work as a member of the Trade Department of the KPP. Attending a conference of textile industry delegates in Łódź, he was arrested on 28 August 1932. During an escape attempt Gomułka was shot by a policeman and seriously wounded in the left thigh. Despite a long hospital treatment, he was left with a permanent leg disability.[4] On 1 June 1933, Gomulka was sentenced to a four-year prison term. In March 1934 he was temporarily released for a surgery of the injured leg. He requested the KPP to send him to the Soviet Union for medical treatment and to attend the International Lenin School. He arrived in the Soviet Union in June and went to the Crimea
Crimea
for several weeks, where he underwent helpful therapeutic baths. Gomułka then spent more than a year in Moscow, where he attended the Lenin School under the name Stefan Kowalski.[4] The ideology-oriented classes were arranged separately for a small group of Polish students (one of them was Roman Romkowski
Roman Romkowski
(Natan Grünspan [Grinszpan]-Kikiel), who would later persecute Gomułka in Stalinist Poland) and included a military training course conducted by Karol Świerczewski. In a written opinion issued by the school Gomułka was characterized in highly positive terms, but his extended stay in the Soviet Union caused him to become disillusioned with the realities of Stalinist communism and highly critical of the agrarian collectivization practice. In November 1935 he illegally returned to Poland.[4] Gomułka resumed his communist and labor conspiratorial activities and kept advancing within the KPP organization until, as the secretary of the Party's Silesian branch, he was arrested in Chorzów
Chorzów
in April 1936. He was then tried by the District Court in Katowice
Katowice
and sentenced to seven years in prison, reduced on an appeal to four and a half years. He spent time in the same cell with Romkowski once again. In 1938, in a prison in Sieradz, Gomułka became the official leader of the commune of political prisoners. He remained in prison until the outbreak of World War II.[4] Ironically, this internment most likely saved Gomulka's life, because the majority of the KPP leadership would be murdered in the Soviet Union in the late 1930s, caught up in the Great Purge
Great Purge
under Jozef Stalin's orders.. Gomułka's experiences turned him into an extremely suspicious and distrustful person and contributed to his lifelong conviction that Sanation
Sanation
Poland
Poland
was a fascist state, even if Polish prisons were the most safe places for Polish Communists.[7] He differentiated this belief from his positive feelings toward the country and its people, especially members of the working class.[4] Invasion of Poland[edit] The outbreak of the war with Nazi Germany freed Gomułka from his prison confinement. On 7 September 1939 he arrived in Warsaw, where he stayed for a few weeks, working in the besieged capital on the construction of defensive fortifications. From there, like many other Polish communists, Gomułka fled to eastern Poland
Poland
which was invaded by the Soviet Union on 17 September 1939. In Białystok
Białystok
he ran a home for former political prisoners arriving from other parts of Poland. To be reunited with his luckily found wife, at the end of 1939 Gomułka moved to Soviet-controlled Lviv.[8] Like other members of the dissolved Communist Party of Poland, Gomułka sought a membership in the Soviet All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks). The Soviet authorities allowed such membership transfers only from March 1941 and in April of that year Gomułka received his party card in Kiev.[8] The circumstances of the Polish communists' lives changed dramatically after the 1941 German attack on the Soviet positions in eastern Poland. Reduced to penury in now German-occupied Lviv, the Gomułkas managed to join Władysław's family in Krosno
Krosno
by the end of 1941. However, a momentous development soon took place in the sphere of communist political activity: in January 1942, Joseph Stalin reestablished in Warsaw
Warsaw
a Polish communist party under the name of the Polish Workers' Party
Polish Workers' Party
(PPR).[8] In 1942, Gomulka participated in the reformation of a Polish communist party (the KPP was destroyed in Stalin's purges in the late 1930s) under the name Polish Workers' Party
Polish Workers' Party
(Polska Partia Robotnicza, PPR). Gomułka became involved in the creation of party structures in the Subcarpathian region and began using his wartime conspiratorial pseudonym "Wiesław". In July 1942, Paweł Finder
Paweł Finder
brought Gomułka to occupied Warsaw. In August, the secretary of the PPR's regional Warsaw Committee was arrested by the Gestapo
Gestapo
and "Wiesław" was entrusted with his job. In September Gomułka became a member of the PPR's Temporary Central Committee.[8] In late 1942 and early 1943, the PPR experienced a severe crisis because of the murder of its first secretary Marceli Nowotko. Gomułka participated in the party investigation directed against another member of the leadership, Bolesław Mołojec that resulted in his execution. Together with the promoted to secretary Finder and Franciszek Jóźwiak, "Wiesław" (Gomulka) was included in the Party's new inner leadership, established in January 1943. The Central Committee was enlarged in the following months to include Bolesław Bierut, among others.[8] In February 1943, Gomułka led the communist side in a series of important meetings in Warsaw
Warsaw
between the PPR and the Government Delegation of the London-based Polish government-in-exile
Polish government-in-exile
and the Home Army. The talks produced no results because of the divergent interests of the parties involved and a mutual lack of confidence. The Delegation officially discontinued the negotiations on April 28, three days after the Soviet government broke diplomatic relations with the Polish government.[8] He became the Party's main ideologist. He wrote the "What do we fight for?" (O co walczymy?) publication dated 1 March 1943, and the much more comprehensive declaration that emerged under the same title in November. "Wiesław" supervised the Party's main editorial and publishing undertaking.[8] Gomułka made efforts, largely unsuccessful, to secure for the PPR cooperation of other political forces in occupied Poland. Bierut was indifferent to any such attempts and counted simply on compulsion provided by a future presence of the Red Army
Red Army
in Poland. The different strategies resulted in a sharp conflict between the two communist politicians.[9] State National Council, Polish Committee of National Liberation[edit] In the fall of 1943, the PPR leadership began discussing the creation of a Polish quasi-parliamentary, communist-led body, to be named the State National Council
State National Council
(Krajowa Rada Narodowa, KRN). After the Battle of Kursk the expectation was of a Soviet victory and liberation of Poland
Poland
and the PPR wanted to be ready to assume power. Gomułka came up with the idea of a national council and imposed his point of view on the rest of the leadership. The PPR intended to obtain consent from the Cominterm
Cominterm
leader and their Soviet contact Georgi Dimitrov. However, in November the Gestapo
Gestapo
arrested Finder and Małgorzata Fornalska, who possessed the secret codes for communication with Moscow
Moscow
and the Soviet response remained unknown. In the absence of Finder, on 23 November Gomułka was elected general secretary (chief) of the PPR and Bierut joined the three-person inner leadership.[10] The founding meeting of the State National Council
State National Council
took place in the late evening of 31 December 1943. The new body's chairman Bierut was becoming Gomułka's main rival. In mid-January 1944 Dimitrov was finally informed of the KRN's existence, which surprised both him and the Polish communist leaders in Moscow, increasingly led by Jakub Berman, who had other, competing ideas concerning the establishment of a Polish communist ruling party and government.[10] Gomułka felt that the Polish communists in occupied Poland
Poland
had a better understanding of Polish realities than their brethren in Moscow and that the State National Council
State National Council
should determine the shape of the future executive government of Poland. Nevertheless, to gain a Soviet approval and to clear any misunderstandings a KRN delegation left Warsaw
Warsaw
in mid-March heading for Moscow, where it arrived two months later. By that time Stalin concluded that the existence of the KRN was a positive development and the Poles arriving from Warsaw
Warsaw
were received and greeted by him and other Soviet dignitaries. The Union of Polish Patriots and the Central Bureau of Polish Communists
Central Bureau of Polish Communists
in Moscow were now under pressure to recognize the primacy of the PPR, the KRN and Władysław Gomułka, which they ultimately did only in mid-July.[10] On 20 July, the Soviet forces under Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky forced their way across the Bug River
Bug River
and on that same day the combined meeting of Polish communists from the Moscow
Moscow
and Warsaw factions finalized the arrangements regarding the establishment (on 21 July) of the Polish Committee of National Liberation
Polish Committee of National Liberation
(PKWN), a temporary government headed by Edward Osóbka-Morawski, a socialist allied with the communists. Gomułka and other PPR leaders left Warsaw and headed for the Soviet-controlled territory, arriving in Lublin
Lublin
on 1 August, the day the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising erupted in the Polish capital.[10] Post-war power politics[edit] Gomułka was a deputy prime minister in the Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland
Poland
(Rząd Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej), from January to June 1945, and in the Provisional Government of National Unity (Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej), from 1945 to 1947. As a minister of Recovered Territories
Recovered Territories
(1945–48), he exerted great influence over the rebuilding, integration and economic progress of Poland
Poland
within its new borders, by supervising the settlement, development and administration of the lands acquired from Germany. Using his position in the PPR and government, Gomułka led the leftist social transformations in Poland
Poland
and participated in the crushing of the resistance to the communist rule during the post-war years. He also helped the communists in winning the 3 x Tak (3 Times Yes) referendum of 1946. A year later, he played a key role in the 1947 parliamentary elections, which were rigged to give the communists and their allies an overwhelming victory. After the elections, all remaining legal opposition in Poland
Poland
was effectively destroyed. In June 1948, because of the impending unification of the PPR and PPS, Gomułka delivered a talk on the subject of the history of the Polish worker movement. Gomułka's already well-developed antisemitic tendencies were expressed in a memo written to Stalin in 1948, in which he argued that "some of the Jewish comrades don’t feel any link to the Polish nation or to the Polish working class…or they maintain a stance which might be described as ‘national nihilism’".[11] As a result, he considered it "absolutely necessary not only to stop any further growth in the percentage of Jews in the state as well as the party apparatus, but also to slowly lower that percentage, especially at the highest levels of the apparatus".[12] However, a rivalry between Polish communist factions (Gomułka was the leader of a home national group vs. Bolesław Bierut
Bolesław Bierut
of Stalin's group reared during the war in the Soviet Union) led to Gomułka's removal from power in 1948. He was accused of "right wing-reactionary deviation" and expelled from the Polish United Workers' Party
Polish United Workers' Party
(PZPR) (as the Polish Workers' Party
Polish Workers' Party
was renamed following a merger with the Polish Socialist Party). His public activity was interrupted by an eight year long period (1949–56) during which he performed no official functions and was subjected to persecution and imprisonment.[13] from August 1951 to December 1954. The Stalinist General Secretary of the PZPR Bierut died in March 1956, during the period of de-Stalinization in Poland, which gradually developed after Stalin's death. Edward Ochab
Edward Ochab
became the new first secretary of the Party. In June 1956, violent worker protests broke out in Poznań. The worker riots were harshly suppressed and dozens of workers were killed. However, the Party leadership, which now included many reform-minded officials, recognized to some degree the validity of the protest participants' demands and took steps to placate the workers.[14][15] First secretary of the United Workers' Party[edit]

Gomułka with Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
in East Germany

The reformers in the Party wanted a political rehabilitation of Gomułka and his return to the Party leadership. Gomułka insisted that he be given real power to implement further reforms. He wanted a replacement of some of the Party leaders, including the pro-Soviet Minister of Defense Konstantin Rokossovsky. The Soviet leadership viewed events in Poland
Poland
with alarm. Simultaneously with Soviet troop movements deep into Poland, a high-level Soviet delegation flew to Warsaw. It was led by Nikita Khrushchev and included Mikoyan, Bulganin, Molotov, Kaganovich, Marshal Konev and others. Ochab and Gomułka made it clear that Polish forces would resist if Soviet troops advanced, but reassured the Soviets that the reforms were internal matters and that Poland
Poland
had no intention of abandoning the communist bloc or its treaties with the Soviet Union. The Soviets yielded.[16] Following the wishes of the majority of the Politburo
Politburo
members, First Secretary Ochab gave in and on 20 October the Central Committee brought Gomułka and several associates into the Politburo, removed others, and elected Gomułka as first secretary of the Party. Gomułka, the former prisoner of the Stalinists, enjoyed wide popular support across the country, expressed by the participants of a massive street demonstration in Warsaw
Warsaw
on 24 October. A major factor that influenced Gomułka was the Oder-Neisse line issue. West Germany refused to recognize the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
and Gomułka realized the fundamental instability of Poland's unilaterally imposed western border.[17] He felt threatened by the revanchist statements put out by the Adenauer government and believed that the alliance with the Soviet Union was the only thing stopping the threat of a future German invasion.[18] The new Party leader told the 8th Plenum of the PZPR on 19 October 1956 that: " Poland
Poland
needs friendship with the Soviet Union more than the Soviet Union needs friendship with Poland... Without the Soviet Union we cannot maintain our borders with the West".[19] Seeing that Gomułka was popular with the Polish people, and given his insistence that he wanted to maintain the alliance with the Soviet Union and the presence of the Red Army
Red Army
in Poland, Khrushchev decided that Gomułka was a leader that Moscow could live with.[18] The treaty with West Germany was negotiated and signed in December 1970. The German side recognized the post-World War II borders, which established a foundation for future peace, stability and cooperation in Central Europe. In 1967–68 Gomułka allowed outbursts of "anti-Zionist" political propaganda,[20] which developed initially as a result of the Soviet bloc's frustration with the outcome of the Arab-Israeli Six-Day War.[14] It turned out to be a thinly veiled anti-Semitic campaign, pursued primarily by others in the Party, but utilized by Gomułka to keep himself in power by shifting the attention of the populace from the stagnating economy and mismanagement. The result was the emigration of the majority of the remaining Polish citizens of Jewish origin. At that time he was also responsible for persecuting protesting students and toughening censorship of the media. Gomułka was one of the key leaders of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact and supported Poland's participation in the intervention in Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Second removal from public life[edit] In December 1970, economic difficulties led to price rises and subsequent Polish 1970 protests. Gomułka along with his right-hand man Zenon Kliszko
Zenon Kliszko
ordered the regular Army under General Bolesław Chocha (pl),[21] to shoot striking workers with automatic weapons in Gdańsk
Gdańsk
and Gdynia. Over 41 shipyard workers of the Baltic coast were killed in the ensuing police-state violence, while well over a thousand people were wounded. The events forced Gomułka's resignation and retirement. In a generational replacement of the ruling elite, Edward Gierek
Edward Gierek
took over the Party leadership and tensions eased.[21] Gomułka's negative image in communist propaganda after his removal was gradually modified and some of his constructive contributions were recognized. He is seen as an honest and austere believer in the socialist system, who, unable to resolve Poland's formidable difficulties and satisfy mutually contradictory demands, grew more rigid and despotic later in his career. A chain smoker,[22] he died in 1982 at the age of 77 of lung cancer. Gomułka's memoirs were not published until 1994, long after his death, and five years after the collapse of the communist regime which he served and led. The American journalist John Gunther
John Gunther
described Gomułka in 1961 as being "professorial in manner, aloof, and angular, with a peculiar spry pepperiness".[23] Decorations and awards[edit]

Order of the Builders of People's Poland Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta Partisan Cross Order of the Cross of Grunwald, 1st class

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Władysław Gomułka.

History of Poland
Poland
(1945–89)

References[edit]

^ "Rebellious Compromiser". Time Magazine. 10 December 1956. Retrieved 2006-10-14.  ^ Judt, Tony (2005). Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. New York, The Penguin Press, pp. 434–35 ^ a b c Jerzy Eisler, Siedmiu wspaniałych. Poczet pierwszych sekretarzy KC PZPR [The Magnificent Seven: first secretaries of the PZPR], Wydawnictwo Czerwone i Czarne, Warszawa 2014, ISBN 978-83-7700-042-7, pp. 174–75 ^ a b c d e f g h Jerzy Eisler, Siedmiu wspaniałych. Poczet pierwszych sekretarzy KC PZPR, pp. 175–78 ^ Andrzej Werblan, Władysław Gomułka. Sekretarz Generalny PPR [Władysław Gomułka: Secretary General of the PPR], Książka i Wiedza, Warszawa 1988, ISBN 83-05-11972-6, pp. 20–25 ^ a b Andrzej Werblan, Władysław Gomułka. Sekretarz Generalny PPR [Władysław Gomułka: Secretary General of the PPR], pp. 25–44 ^ [Caviar and Ashes: A Warsaw
Warsaw
Generation's Life and Death in Marxism, 1918–1968, p. 149] ^ a b c d e f g Jerzy Eisler, Siedmiu wspaniałych. Poczet pierwszych sekretarzy KC PZPR, pp. 178–82 ^ Brzoza, Czesław (2003). Polska w czasach niepodległości i II wojny światowej (1918–1945) [ Poland
Poland
in Times of Independence and World War II
World War II
(1918–1945)], pp. 362–63. Kraków: Fogra. ISBN 83-85719-61-X. ^ a b c d Jerzy Eisler, Siedmiu wspaniałych. Poczet pierwszych sekretarzy KC PZPR, pp. 182–85 ^ Applebaum, Anne. Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944–56. London: Penguin, 2013, p. 156 ^ Applebaum, Anne. Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe 1944–56. London: Penguin, 2013, p. 156 ^ Andrzej Werblan, Władysław Gomułka. Sekretarz Generalny PPR [Władysław Gomułka: Secretary General of the PPR], p. 5 ^ a b "The defection of Jozef Swiatlo and the Search for Jewish Scapegoats in the Polish United Workers' Party, 1953–1954" (PDF). Fourth Convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities. Harriman Institute, Columbia University, New York City. April 15–17, 1999. Retrieved 2007-10-27.  ^ Rothschild and Wingfield: Return to Diversity, A Political History of East Central Europe
Central Europe
Since World War II
World War II
OUP 2000 ^ "Notes from the Minutes of the CPSU CC Presidium Meeting with Satellite Leaders, October 24, 1956" (PDF). The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, A History in Documents. George Washington University: The National Security Archive. November 4, 2002. Retrieved 2006-09-02.  ^ Granville, Johanna "Reactions to the Events of 1956: New Findings from the Budapest and Warsaw
Warsaw
Archives" pages 261-290 from Journal of Contemporary History, Volume 38, Issue #2, April 2003 pp. 284–85. ^ a b Granville, Johanna "From the Archives of Warsaw
Warsaw
and Budapest: A Comparison of the Events of 1956" pp. 521–63 from East European Politics and Societies, Volume 16, Issue #2, April 2002 pp. 540–41 ^ Granville, Johanna "From the Archives of Warsaw
Warsaw
and Budapest: A Comparison of the Events of 1956" pp. 521–63 from East European Politics and Societies, Volume 16, Issue #2, April 2002 p. 541 ^ Judt, Tony (2005). Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945. New York, The Penguin Press pp. 434–35 ^ a b Adam Leszczyński (17 January 2014). "Towarzysz Zenon, prawa ręka towarzysza Wiesława" [Tovarishch Zenon, the right hand of comrade Wiesław]. Gazeta Wyborcza. Retrieved 6 November 2015.  ^ WP (7 March 2015). " Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
– gorliwy samouk". Galerie: "Dyktatura ciemniaków". Wiadomości. p. 2.  ^ Gunther, John (1961). Inside Europe Today. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 332. LCCN 61-9706. 

External links[edit]

Newspaper clippings about Władysław Gomułka
Władysław Gomułka
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics
(ZBW).

Party political offices

Preceded by Paweł Finder General Secretary of the Polish Workers' Party 1943–1948 Succeeded by Bolesław Bierut
Bolesław Bierut
(as General Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party)

Preceded by Edward Ochab General Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party 21 October 1956 – 20 December 1970 Succeeded by Edward Gierek

v t e

First Secretaries of the Central Committee of the PZPR

Bolesław Bierut Edward Ochab Władysław Gomułka Edward Gierek Stanisław Kania Wojciech Jaruzelski Mieczysław Rakowski

v t e

History of the Polish People's Republic

1945–48 Early post-war

Recovered Territories Polish population transfers (1944–46) Expulsion of Germans Operation Vistula Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland Polish Committee of National Liberation Provisional Government of National Unity Trial of the Sixteen Cursed soldiers Augustów roundup Polish people's referendum, 1946 Polish legislative election, 1947 Small Constitution of 1947 Amnesty of 1947 Battle for trade Three-Year Plan

1948–56 Sovietisation under Bierut's rule

Polish United Workers' Party Six-Year Plan Collectivization Socialist realism in Poland 1951 Mokotów Prison execution 1952 Constitution Stalinist show trial of the Kraków Curia PAX Association Poznań
Poznań
1956 protests Polish October
Polish October
(1956)

1956–70 Gomułka's autarchic communism

Polish legislative election, 1957 Bishops' Letter of Reconciliation 1968 Polish political crisis Warschauer Kniefall 1970 Polish protests

1970–80 Gierek's international opening

1971 Łódź
Łódź
strikes Letter of 59 June 1976 protests Workers' Defence Committee Flying University Lublin
Lublin
1980 strikes Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Agreement Jastrzębie-Zdrój 1980 strikes Solidarity (Polish trade union) Independent Students' Union Rural Solidarity Bydgoszcz events 1981 warning strike in Poland Summer 1981 hunger demonstrations in Poland

1981–89 Jaruzelski's autocratic rule and demise

Martial law in Poland Military Council of National Salvation Pacification of Wujek 1982 demonstrations Fighting Solidarity Federation of Fighting Youth Orange Alternative Polish political and economic reforms referendum, 1987 1988 Polish strikes Polish Round Table Agreement

v t e

Leaders of the ruling Communist parties of the Eastern Bloc

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Georgy Malenkov Nikita Khrushchev Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev

Party of Labour of Albania

Enver Hoxha Ramiz Alia

Bulgarian Communist Party

Georgi Dimitrov Valko Chervenkov Todor Zhivkov Petar Mladenov

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Klement Gottwald Antonín Novotný Alexander Dubček Gustáv Husák Miloš Jakeš Karel Urbánek

Socialist Unity Party of Germany

Wilhelm Pieck Walter Ulbricht Erich Honecker Egon Krenz

Hungarian Working People's Party Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party

Mátyás Rákosi Ernő Gerő János Kádár Károly Grósz

Polish Workers' Party Polish United Workers' Party

Bolesław Bierut Edward Ochab Władysław Gomułka Edward Gierek Stanisław Kania Wojciech Jaruzelski Mieczysław Rakowski

Romanian Communist Party

Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej Gheorghe Apostol Nicolae Ceaușescu

League of Communists of Yugoslavia

Josip Broz Tito (1980–1990, rotating leadership)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 112042625 LCCN: n50034485 ISNI: 0000 0001 1083 7355 GND: 11854067X SUDOC: 030107903 BNF: cb12158983k (data) NLA: 35132894 NKC: jn20000602043 SN

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