Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov[a] (/ˈmɒləˌtɒf, ˈmoʊ-/; né
Skryabin;[b] 9 March 1890 – 8 November 1986) was a Soviet
politician and diplomat, an Old Bolshevik, and a leading figure in the
Soviet government from the 1920s, when he rose to power as a protégé
of Joseph Stalin. Molotov served as Chairman of the Council of
People's Commissars (Premier) from 1930 to 1941, and as Minister of
Foreign Affairs from 1939 to 1949 and from 1953 to 1956. He served as
First Deputy Premier from 1942 to 1957, when he was dismissed from the
Presidium of the Central Committee by Nikita Khrushchev. Molotov
retired in 1961 after several years of obscurity.
Molotov was the principal Soviet signatory of the Nazi–Soviet
non-aggression pact of 1939 (also known as the Molotov–Ribbentrop
Pact), whose most important provisions were added in the form of a
secret protocol that stipulated an invasion of
Poland and partition of
its territory between
Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. He was aware
Katyn massacre committed by the Soviet authorities during this
After World War II (Great Patriotic War), Molotov was involved in
negotiations with the Western allies, in which he became noted for his
diplomatic skills. He retained his place as a leading Soviet diplomat
and politician until March 1949, when he fell out of Stalin's favour
and lost the foreign affairs ministry leadership to Andrei Vyshinsky.
Molotov's relationship with Stalin deteriorated further, with Stalin
criticising Molotov in a speech to the 19th Party Congress. However,
after Stalin's death in 1953, Molotov was staunchly opposed to
Khrushchev's de-Stalinisation policy. Molotov defended Stalin's
policies and legacy until his death in 1986, and harshly criticised
Stalin's successors, especially Khrushchev.
1.1 Early life and career (1890–1930)
1.2 Premiership (1930–1941)
1.3 Minister of Foreign Affairs (1939–1949)
1.4 Post-war career (1949–1976)
1.5 Rehabilitation, death, beliefs and legacy
2 Decorations and awards
3 See also
6 Further reading
6.1 Primary sources
7 External links
Early life and career (1890–1930)
Molotov's birth house in Sovetsk, Kirov Oblast.
Molotov was born Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Skryabin in the village of
Vyatka Governorate (now Sovetsk in Kirov
Oblast), the son of a butter churner. Contrary to a commonly repeated
error, he was not related to the composer Alexander Scriabin.
Throughout his teen years, he was described as "shy" and "quiet",
always assisting his father with his business. He was educated at a
secondary school in Kazan, and joined the Russian Social Democratic
Labour Party (RSDLP) in 1906, soon gravitating toward that
Bolshevik faction, headed by V. I. Lenin.
Skryabin took the pseudonym "Molotov", derived from the Russian word
молот molot (hammer) for his political work owing to the name's
vaguely "industrial" ring. He was arrested in 1909 and spent two
years in exile in Vologda. In 1911, he enrolled at St Petersburg
Polytechnic. Molotov joined the editorial staff of a new underground
Bolshevik newspaper called Pravda, meeting
Joseph Stalin for the first
time in association with the project. This first association
between the two future Soviet leaders proved to be brief, however, and
did not lead to an immediate close political association.
Portrait of Molotov in 1917
Molotov worked as a so-called "professional revolutionary" for the
next several years, writing for the party press and attempting to
better organize the underground party. He moved from St. Petersburg
Moscow in 1914 at the time of the outbreak of World War I. It
Moscow the following year that Molotov was again arrested for
his party activity, this time being deported to
Irkutsk in eastern
Siberia. In 1916 he escaped from his Siberian exile and returned to
the capital city, now called
Petrograd by the Tsarist regime, which
thought the name
St. Petersburg sounded excessively German.
Molotov became a member of the
Bolshevik Party's committee in
Petrograd in 1916. When the
February Revolution occurred in 1917, he
was one of the few Bolsheviks of any standing in the capital. Under
Pravda took to the "left" to oppose the Provisional
Government formed after the revolution. When
Joseph Stalin returned to
the capital, he reversed Molotov's line; but when the party leader
Lenin arrived, he overruled Stalin. Despite this, Molotov became a
protégé of and close adherent to Stalin, an alliance to which he
owed his later prominence. Molotov became a member of the Military
Revolutionary Committee which planned the October Revolution, which
effectively brought the Bolsheviks to power.
In 1918, Molotov was sent to
Ukraine to take part in the civil war
then breaking out. Since he was not a military man, he took no part in
the fighting. In 1920, he became secretary to the Central Committee of
Lenin recalled him to
Moscow in 1921,
elevating him to full membership of the Central Committee and Orgburo,
and putting him in charge of the party secretariat. He was voted in as
a non-voting member of the
Politburo in 1921 and held the office of
Responsible Secretary and also married Soviet politician Polina
Vyacheslav Molotov speaks at the meeting of peasant women.
His Responsible Secretaryship was criticised by
Lenin and Leon
Lenin noting his "shameful bureaucratism" and stupid
behaviour. On the advice of Molotov and Nikolai Bukharin, the
Central Committee decided to reduce Lenin's work hours. In 1922,
Stalin became general secretary of the
Bolshevik Party with Molotov as
the de facto Second Secretary. As a young follower, Molotov admired
Stalin but was open in criticism of him. Under Stalin's patronage,
Molotov became a member of the
Politburo in 1926.
During the power struggles which followed Lenin's death in 1924,
Molotov remained a loyal supporter of Stalin against his various
rivals: first Leon Trotsky, later
Lev Kamenev and
Grigory Zinoviev and
finally Nikolai Bukharin. Molotov became a leading figure in the
Stalinist centre" of the party, which also included Kliment
Voroshilov and Sergo Ordzhonikidze. Trotsky and his supporters
underestimated Molotov, as did many others. Trotsky called him
"mediocrity personified", whilst Molotov himself pedantically
corrected comrades referring to him as 'Stone Arse' by saying that
Lenin had actually dubbed him 'Iron Arse'.
However, this outward dullness concealed a sharp mind and great
administrative talent. He operated mainly behind the scenes and
cultivated an image of a colourless bureaucrat – for example, he was
Bolshevik leader who always wore a suit and tie. In 1928,
Nikolai Uglanov as First Secretary of the Moscow
Communist Party and held that position until 15 August 1929. In a
lengthy address to the Central Committee in 1929, Molotov told the
Soviet government would initiate a compulsory
collectivisation campaign to solve the agrarian backwardness of Soviet
During the Central Committee plenum of 19 December 1930, Alexey Rykov,
the Chairman of the
Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars (the equivalent of
a Western head of government) was succeeded by Molotov. In this
post, Molotov oversaw the Stalin regime's collectivisation of
agriculture. He followed Stalin's line by using a combination of force
and propaganda to crush peasant resistance to collectivisation,
including the deportation of millions of kulaks (peasants with
property) to gulags. An enormous number of the deportees died from
exposure and overwork. He signed the Law of Spikelets and
personally led the Extraordinary Commission for Grain Delivery in
Ukraine, which seized a reported 4.2 million tonnes of grain from
the peasants during a widespread manmade famine (later known as the
"Holodomor" to Ukrainians). Contemporary historians estimate that
between seven and eleven million people died, either of starvation or
in gulags, in the process of farm collectivization. Molotov also
oversaw the implementation of the First Five-Year Plan for rapid
Sergei Kirov, head of the Party organisation in Leningrad, was killed
in 1934; some believed Stalin ordered his death. Kirov's death
triggered a second crisis, the Great Purge. In 1938, out of the 28
People's Commissars in Molotov's Government, 20 were executed on the
orders of Molotov and Stalin. The purges were carried out by
Stalin's successive police chiefs,
Nikolai Yezhov was the chief
organiser and Kliment Voroshilov,
Lazar Kaganovich and Molotov were
intimately involved in the processes. Stalin frequently required
Molotov and other
Politburo members to sign the death warrants of
prominent purge victims, and Molotov always did so without
There is no record of Molotov attempting to moderate the course of the
purges or even to save individuals, as some other Soviet officials
did. During the Great Purge, he approved 372 documented execution
lists, more than any other Soviet official, including Stalin. Molotov
was one of few with whom Stalin openly discussed the purges.
Although Molotov and Stalin signed a public decree in 1938 that
disassociated them from the ongoing Great Purge, in private, and
even after Stalin's death, Molotov supported the
Great Purge and the
executions carried out by his government.
A list from the
Great Purge signed by Molotov, Stalin, Voroshilov,
Kaganovich and Zhdanov
Despite the great human cost, the
Soviet Union under Molotov's
nominal premiership made great strides in the adoption and widespread
implementation of agrarian and industrial technology. The rise of
Adolf Hitler in
Nazi Germany precipitated the development of a modern
armaments industry on the orders of the Soviet government.
Ultimately, it was this arms industry, along with American Lend-Lease
aid, which helped the
Soviet Union prevail in the Great Patriotic
Set against this, the purges of the
Red Army leadership, in which
Molotov participated, weakened the Soviet Union's defence capacity and
contributed to the military disasters of 1941 and 1942, which were
mostly caused by unreadiness for war. The purges also led to the
dismantling of privatised agriculture and its replacement by
collectivised agriculture. This left a legacy of chronic agricultural
inefficiencies and under-production which the Soviet regime never
Molotov was reported to be a vegetarian and teetotaler by American
journalist John Gunther in 1938. However,
Milovan Djilas claimed
that Molotov "drank more than Stalin" and did not note his
vegetarianism despite attending several banquets with him.
Minister of Foreign Affairs (1939–1949)
Molotov meets with
Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop before signing the
German-Soviet non-aggression pact
In 1939, following the 1938
Munich Agreement and Hitler's subsequent
invasion of Czechoslovakia, Stalin believed that Britain and France
would not be reliable allies against German expansion so he instead
sought to conciliate Nazi Germany. In May 1939 Maxim Litvinov, the
People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, was dismissed; Molotov was
appointed to succeed him. Molotov was succeeded in his post as
Premier by Stalin.
At first, Hitler rebuffed Soviet diplomatic hints that Stalin desired
a treaty; but in early August 1939, Hitler authorised Foreign Minister
Joachim von Ribbentrop
Joachim von Ribbentrop to begin serious negotiations. A trade
agreement was concluded on 18 August; and on 22 August, Ribbentrop
Moscow to conclude a formal non-aggression treaty. Although
the treaty is known as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, it was Stalin and
Hitler, and not Molotov and Ribbentrop, who decided the content of the
Molotov with Hitler in Berlin. Front page of Pravda.
The most important part of the agreement was the secret protocol,
which provided for the partition of Poland, Finland, and the Baltic
Nazi Germany and the
Soviet Union and for the Soviet
Bessarabia (then part of Romania, now Moldova). This
protocol gave Hitler the green light for his invasion of Poland, which
began on 1 September. On 5 March 1940
Lavrentiy Beria gave
Molotov, along with Anastas Mikoyan,
Kliment Voroshilov and Stalin, a
note ordering the execution of 25,700 Polish officers and
anti-Soviets, in what has become known as the Katyn massacre.
Under the Pact's terms, Hitler was, in effect, given authorisation to
occupy two-thirds of Western Poland, as well as Lithuania. Molotov was
given a free hand in relation to Finland. In the
Winter War that
ensued, a combination of fierce Finnish resistance and Soviet
mismanagement resulted in
Finland losing parts of its territory, but
not its independence. The Pact was later amended to allocate
Lithuania to the Soviet sphere in exchange for a more favourable
border in Poland. These annexations led to horrific suffering and loss
of life in the countries occupied and partitioned by the two
In November 1940, Stalin sent Molotov to Berlin to meet Ribbentrop and
Adolf Hitler. In January 1941, the British Foreign Secretary Anthony
Eden visited Turkey in an attempt to get the Turks to enter the war on
the Allies' side. Though the purpose of Eden's visit was anti-German
rather than anti-Soviet, Molotov assumed otherwise, and in a series of
conversations with the Italian Ambassador Augusto Rosso, Molotov
claimed that the
Soviet Union would soon be faced with an
Anglo-Turkish invasion of the Crimea. The British historian D.C. Watt
argued that on the basis of Molotov's statements to Rosso, it would
appear that in early 1941, Stalin and Molotov viewed Britain rather
than Germany as the principal threat.
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact governed Soviet-German relations until
June 1941 when Hitler, having occupied France and neutralised Britain,
turned east and attacked the Soviet Union. Molotov was responsible
for telling the
Soviet people of the attack, when he instead of Stalin
announced the war. His speech, broadcast by radio on 22 June,
Soviet Union in a role similar to that articulated
for Britain by
Winston Churchill in his early wartime speeches.
State Defence Committee was established soon after Molotov's
speech; Stalin was elected chairman and Molotov was elected deputy
Following the German invasion, Molotov conducted urgent negotiations
with Britain and, later, the United States for wartime alliances. He
took a secret flight to Glasgow, Scotland, where he was greeted by
Eden. This risky flight, in a high altitude
Tupolev TB-7 bomber, flew
over German occupied
Denmark and the North Sea. From there he took a
train to London to discuss with the
British government the possibility
of opening a second front against Germany.
After signing the
Anglo-Soviet Treaty of 1942 on 26 May Molotov left
for Washington, D.C., United States. Molotov met with Franklin D.
Roosevelt, the President of the United States, and ratified a
Lend-Lease Treaty between the USSR and the US. Both the British and
the United States government, albeit vaguely, promised to open up a
second front against Germany. On his flight back to the USSR his plane
was attacked by German fighters, and then later by Soviet
Potsdam Conference: Clement Attlee, Ernest Bevin, Molotov, Joseph
Stalin, William Daniel Leahy, James F. Byrnes,
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman and
When Beria told Stalin about the
Manhattan Project and its importance
Stalin handpicked Molotov to be the man in charge of the Soviet atomic
bomb project. However, under Molotov's leadership the bomb, and the
project itself, developed very slowly and Molotov was replaced by
Beria in 1944 on the advice of Igor Kurchatov. When Harry S.
Truman, the American president, told Stalin that the Americans had
created a bomb never seen before, Stalin relayed the conversation to
Molotov and told him to speed up development. On Stalin's orders the
Soviet government substantially increased investment in the
In a collaboration with Kliment Voroshilov, Molotov contributed both
musically and lyrically to the 1944 version of the Soviet national
anthem. Molotov asked the writers to include a line or two about
peace. Molotov's and Voroshilov's role in the making of the new Soviet
anthem was, in the words of historian Simon Sebag-Montefiore, acting
as music judges for Stalin.
Molotov accompanied Stalin to the
Teheran Conference in 1943, the
Yalta Conference in 1945 and, following the defeat of Germany, the
Potsdam Conference. He represented the
Soviet Union at the San
Francisco Conference, which created the United Nations. Even
during the period of wartime alliance, Molotov was known as a tough
negotiator and a determined defender of Soviet interests. Molotov lost
his position of First Deputy Chairman on March 19, 1946, after the
Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars was reformed as the Council of
From 1945 to 1947, Molotov took part in all four conferences of
foreign ministers of the victorious states in World War II. In
general, he was distinguished by an uncooperative attitude towards the
Western powers. Molotov, at the direction of the Soviet government,
Marshall Plan as imperialistic and claimed it was
dividing Europe into two camps, one capitalist and the other
communist. In response, the Soviet Union, along with the other Eastern
Bloc nations, initiated what is known as the Molotov Plan. The plan
created several bilateral relations between the states of Eastern
Europe and the Soviet Union; and later evolved into the Council for
Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA).
In the postwar period, Molotov's power began to decline. A clear sign
of Molotov's precarious position was his inability to prevent the
arrest in December 1948 for "treason" of his Jewish wife, Polina
Zhemchuzhina, whom Stalin had long distrusted. Molotov never
stopped loving his wife, and it is said he ordered his maids to make
dinner for two every evening to remind him that, in his own words,
"she suffered because of me".
Polina Zhemchuzhina befriended Golda Meir, who arrived in
November 1948 as the first Israeli envoy to the USSR. According to
a close collaborator of Molotov, Vladimir Erofeev,
Golda Meir met
privately with Polina, who had been her schoolmate in St. Petersburg.
Immediately afterwards, Polina was arrested and accused of ties with
Zionist organisations; she was kept one year in the Lubyanka, after
which she was exiled for three years in an obscure Russian city.
Molotov had no communication with her, save for the scant news that
Beria, whom he loathed, told him. She was freed immediately after the
death of Stalin. According to Erofeev, Molotov said of her: "She's
not only beautiful and intelligent, the only woman minister in Soviet
Union; she's also a real Bolshevik, a real Soviet person." In 1949,
Molotov was replaced as Foreign Minister by Andrey Vyshinsky, although
retaining his position as First Deputy Premier and membership of the
Post-war career (1949–1976)
At the 19th Party Congress in 1952, Molotov was elected to the
replacement for the Politburo, the Presidium, but was not listed among
the members of the newly established secret body known as the Bureau
of the Presidium; indicating that he had fallen out of Stalin's
favour. At the 19th Congress, Molotov and
Anastas Mikoyan were
said by Stalin to have committed grave mistakes, including the
publication of a wartime speech by
Winston Churchill favourable to the
Soviet Union's wartime efforts. Both Molotov and Mikoyan were
falling out of favour rapidly, with Stalin telling Beria, Khrushchev,
Nikolai Bulganin that he did not want to see Molotov and
Mikoyan around anymore. At his 73rd birthday, Stalin treated both with
disgust. In his speech to the
20th Party Congress in 1956,
Khrushchev told delegates that Stalin had had plans for "finishing
off" Molotov and Mikoyan in the aftermath of the 19th Congress.
Following Stalin's death, a realignment of the leadership strengthened
Molotov's position. Georgy Malenkov, Stalin's successor in the post of
Premier, reappointed Molotov as Minister of Foreign Affairs on 5 March
1953. Although Molotov was seen as a likely successor to Stalin in
the immediate aftermath of his death, he never sought to become leader
of the Soviet Union. A Troika was established immediately after
Stalin's death, consisting of Malenkov, Beria, and Molotov, but
ended when Malenkov and Molotov deceived Beria. Molotov supported
the removal and later the execution of Beria on the orders of
Khrushchev. The new Party Secretary, Khrushchev, soon emerged as
the new leader of the Soviet Union. He presided over a gradual
domestic liberalisation and a thaw in foreign policy, as was manifest
in a reconciliation with Josip Broz Tito's government in Yugoslavia,
which Stalin had expelled from the communist movement. Molotov, an
old-guard Stalinist, seemed increasingly out of place in the new
environment, but he represented the
Soviet Union at the Geneva
Conference of 1955.
Molotov's position became increasingly tenuous after February 1956,
when Khrushchev launched an unexpected denunciation of Stalin at the
20th Congress of the Communist Party. Khrushchev attacked Stalin both
over the purges of the 1930s and the defeats of the early years of
World War II, which he blamed on Stalin's overly trusting attitude
towards Hitler and his purges of the
Red Army command structure. As
Molotov was the most senior of Stalin's collaborators still in
government and had played a leading role in the purges, it became
evident that Khrushchev's examination of the past would probably
result in Molotov's fall from power, and he became the leader of an
old guard faction that sought to overthrow Khrushchev.
Molotov (far left) with Khrushchev (second from right) and Premier
Nikolai Bulganin (to the left of Khrushchev) in 1955 at a gala
Moscow for the visit of West German Chancellor Konrad
In June 1956, Molotov was removed as Foreign Minister; on 29 June
1957, he was expelled from the
Presidium (Politburo) after a failed
attempt to remove Khrushchev as First Secretary. Although Molotov's
faction initially won a vote in the Presidium, 7–4, to remove
Khrushchev, the latter refused to resign unless a Central Committee
plenum decided so. In the plenum, which met from 22 to 29 June,
Molotov and his faction were defeated. Eventually he was banished,
being made ambassador to the Mongolian People's Republic. Molotov
and his associates were denounced as "the Anti-Party Group" but,
notably, were not subject to such unpleasant repercussions as had been
customary for denounced officials in the Stalin years. In 1960, he was
appointed Soviet representative to the International Atomic Energy
Agency, which was seen as a partial rehabilitation. However, after
the 22nd Party Congress in 1961, during which Khrushchev carried out
his de-Stalinisation campaign, including the removal of Stalin's body
from Lenin's Mausoleum, Molotov (along with Lazar Kaganovich) was
removed from all positions and expelled from the Communist Party.
In 1962, all of Molotov's party documents and files were destroyed by
In retirement, Molotov remained unrepentant about his role under
Stalin's rule. He suffered a heart attack in January 1962. After
the Sino-Soviet split, it was reported that he agreed with the
criticisms made by
Mao Zedong of the supposed "revisionism" of
Khrushchev's policies. According to Roy Medvedev, Stalin's daughter
Svetlana Alliluyeva recalled Molotov's wife telling her: "Your father
was a genius. There's no revolutionary spirit around nowadays, just
opportunism everywhere" and "China's our only hope. Only they have
kept alive the revolutionary spirit".
Rehabilitation, death, beliefs and legacy
The first signs of a rehabilitation were seen during Leonid Brezhnev's
rule, when information about him was again allowed to be included in
Soviet encyclopaedias. His connection, support and work in the
Anti-Party Group was mentioned in encyclopedias published in 1973 and
1974, but eventually disappeared altogether by the mid-to-late-1970s.
Konstantin Chernenko further rehabilitated Molotov;
in 1984 Molotov was even allowed to seek membership in the Communist
Party. A collection of interviews with Molotov from 1985 was
published in 1994 by Felix Chuev as Molotov Remembers: Inside Kremlin
Politics. In June 1986, Molotov was hospitalized in Kuntsevo hospital
Moscow and he died, during the rule of Mikhail Gorbachev, on 8
November 1986. During his long life Molotov suffered seven
myocardial infarctions, but lived to 96 years and was buried at the
Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow.
Molotov, like Stalin, was pathologically mistrustful of others, and
because of it, much crucial information disappeared. As Molotov once
said "One should listen to them, but it is necessary to check up on
them. The intelligence officer can lead you to a very dangerous
position... There are many provocateurs here, there, and
everywhere." Molotov continued to claim, in a series of published
interviews, that there never was a secret territorial deal between
Stalin and Hitler during the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Like Stalin, he
never recognised the
Cold War as an international event. He saw the
Cold War as, more or less, the everyday conflict between communism and
capitalism. He divided the capitalist countries into two groups, the
"smart and dangerous imperialists" and the "fools". Before his
retirement, Molotov proposed establishing a socialist confederation
with the People's Republic of China (PRC); Molotov believed socialist
states were part of a bigger, supranational entity. In retirement,
Nikita Khrushchev for being a "right-wing
Molotov cocktail is a term coined by the
Finns during the Winter
War, as a generic name used for a variety of improvised incendiary
weapons. During the Winter War, the Soviet air force made
extensive use of incendiaries and cluster bombs against Finnish troops
and fortifications. When Molotov claimed in radio broadcasts that they
were not bombing, but rather delivering food to the starving Finns,
Finns started to call the air bombs Molotov bread baskets.
Soon they responded by attacking advancing tanks with "Molotov
cocktails," which were "a drink to go with the food." According to
Molotov cocktail was one part of Molotov's "cult of
personality that the vain Premier surely did not appreciate."
Winston Churchill in his wartime memoirs lists many meetings with
Molotov. Acknowledging him as a "man of outstanding ability and
cold-blooded ruthlessness," Churchill concluded: "In the conduct of
foreign affairs, Mazarin, Talleyrand, Metternich, would welcome him to
their company, if there be another world to which Bolsheviks allow
themselves to go."
At the end of 1989, two years before the final collapse of the Soviet
Union, the Congress of People's Deputies of the
Soviet Union and
Mikhail Gorbachev's government formally denounced the
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, acknowledging that the bloody annexation of
Baltic States and the partition of
Poland had been illegal.
In January 2010 a Ukrainian court accused Molotov and other Soviet
officials of allegedly organizing a man-made famine in
1932–33. The same Court then ended criminal proceedings against
them, as the trial would be posthumous.
Decorations and awards
Hero of Socialist Labour
Four Orders of
Lenin (including 1945)
Order of the October Revolution
Order of the Red Banner of Labour
Order of the Badge of Honour
Medal "For the Defence of Moscow"
Medal "For the Victory over Germany in the Great Patriotic War
Medal "For Valiant Labour in the
Great Patriotic War
Great Patriotic War 1941–1945"
Medal "In Commemoration of the 800th Anniversary of Moscow"
Soviet Union portal
Molotov bread basket
Soviet-German relations before 1941
The character of Squealer in
Animal Farm by
George Orwell is based on
^ Russian: Вячесла́в Миха́йлович Мо́лотов,
IPA: [vʲɪt͡ɕɪˈslaf mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪt͡ɕ ˈmolətəf]
^ Russian: Скря́бин
^ "Molotov". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ Jessup, John E. (1998). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Conflict and
Conflict Resolution, 1945-1996. Greenwood Publishing Group.
^ a b c Montefiore 2005, p. 40.
^ a b Geoffrey Roberts, Molotov: Stalin's Cold Warrior. Washington,
DC: Potomac Books, 2012; pg. 5.
^ a b c d e f Roberts, Molotov, pg. 6.
^ Молотов, Вячеслав Михайлович [Mikhailovich
Molotov, Vyacheslav] (in Russian). warheroes.ru. Retrieved 22 May
^ a b Montefiore 2005, p. 36.
^ Molotov, Vyacheslav; Chuev, Felix;
Resis, Albert (1993). Molotov
remembers: inside Kremlin politics: conversations with Felix Chuev.
I.R. Dee. p. 94. ISBN 1-56663-027-4. CS1 maint:
Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Service 2003, p. 151.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 40–41.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 36–37.
^ Rywkin, Michael (1989). Soviet Society Today. M.E. Sharpe.
^ Service 2003, p. 176.
^ Service 2003, p. 179.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 63–64.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 47.
^ a b c Montefiore 2005, p. 94.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 46.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 45 and 58.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 148–149.
^ Brown 2009, p. 71.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 244.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 222.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 240.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 237.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 225.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 289.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 260.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 125.
^ Scott Dunn, Walter (1995). The Soviet economy and the Red Army,
1930–1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 22.
^ William Davies, Robert; Harrison, Mark; Wheatcroft, S.G. (1994). The
Economic transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 250–251. ISBN 0-521-45770-X.
^ Brown 2009, p. 65.
^ "Stalin's legacy". country-data.com. Retrieved 17 January
^ http://ww2db.com/person_bio.php?person_id=58 In 1938 American
journalist John Gunther wrote: " He [Molotov] is... a man of
first-rate intelligence and influence. Molotov is a vegetarian and a
^ Djilas Milovan: Conversations with Stalin. Translated by Michael B.
Petrovich. Rupert Hart-Davis, Soho Square London 1962, pp. 59.
^ Brown 2009, pp. 90–91.
^ a b Service 2003, p. 256.
^ a b Brown 2009, p. 141.
^ Brown 2009, pp. 90–92.
^ Service 2003, pp. 256–257.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 320, 322 and 342.
^ Cameron Watt, Donald (2004).
Peace and Diplomacy.
Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 276–286.
^ Service 2003, pp. 158–160.
^ Service 2003, p. 261.
^ Service 2003, p. 262.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 417–418.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 508.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 510.
^ Zhukov, Georgi Konstantinovich. "The Memoirs of Marshal Zhukov." New
York: Delacorte Press, 1971.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 468.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 472.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 489.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 507.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 477.
^ Roberts, Geoffrey (1999). The
Soviet Union in world politics:
coexistence, revolution, and cold war, 1945–1991. Routledge.
pp. 284–285. ISBN 0-415-14435-3.
^ Brown 2009, pp. 199–201.
^ a b Montefiore 2005, p. 604.
^ Johnson, Paul (1987), A History of the Jews, p. 527
^ V. Erofeev, Diplomat, Moskva, 2005
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 666.
^ a b Brown 2009, p. 231.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 640.
^ Montefiore 2005, pp. 645–647.
^ "Russia: The Survivor". Time. 16 September 1957. Retrieved 19
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 662.
^ Brown 2009, p. 227.
^ Marlowe, Lynn Elizabeth (2005). GED Social Studies: The Best Study
Series for GED. Research and Education Association. p. 140.
^ Taubman, William (2003). Khrushchev: The Man and His Era. W.W.
Norton & Company. p. 258. ISBN 0-393-32484-2.
^ Brown 2009, p. 666.
^ Brown 2009, pp. 236–237.
^ Bischof, Günter; Dockrill, Saki (2000).
Cold War respite: the
Geneva Summit of 1955. Louisiana State University Press.
pp. 284–285. ISBN 0-8071-2370-6.
^ a b Montefiore 2005, pp. 666–667.
^ Brown 2009, p. 245.
^ a b Brown 2009, p. 252.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 668.
^ Goudoever 1986, p. 100.
^ a b Montefiore 2005, p. 669.
^ Nikolaevna Vasilʹeva, Larisa (1994). Kremlin wives. Arcade
Publishing. p. 159.
^ Medvedev, Roy (1984). All Stalin's Men. Anchor Press/Doubleday.
p. 109. ISBN 0-385-18388-7.
^ The Bukovsky Archives, 12 July 1984.
^ Goudoever 1986, p. 108.
^ Человек, который знал всё. Личное
дело наркома Молотова aif.ru. 09/03/2014.
^ Zubok & Pleshakov 1996, p. 88.
^ Felix, Chuev (1993). Molotov Remembers: Inside Kremlin Politics –
Conversations with Felix Cheuv. Chicago, IL. p. 84.
^ Zubok & Pleshakov 1996, p. 89.
^ Zubok & Pleshakov 1996, pp. 90–91.
^ Zubok & Pleshakov 1996, p. 90.
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 335.
^ Langdon-Davies, John (June 1940). "The Lessons of Finland". Picture
^ Montefiore 2005, p. 328.
^ Churchill, Winston (1948). The Gathering Storm. 1. Houghton Mifflin
Harcourt. pp. 368–369. ISBN 0-395-41055-X.
^ W. Borejsza, Jerzy; Ziemer, Klaus; Hułas, Magdalena (2006).
Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes in Europe. Berghahn Books.
p. 521. ISBN 1-57181-641-0.
^ Kyiv court accuses Stalin leadership of organizing famine, Kyiv Post
(13 January 2010)
Brown, Archie (2009). The Rise & Fall of Communism. Bodley
van Goudoever, A.P. (1986). The limits of destalinization in the
Soviet Union: political rehabilitations in the
Soviet Union since
Stalin. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-7099-2629-4.
McCauley, Martin. Who's Who in
Russia since 1900 (1997) pp 146–47
Roberts, Geoffrey. Molotov: Stalin's Cold Warrior (Washington, DC:
Potomac Books, 2012)
Sebag-Montefiore, Simon (2005). Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar.
Vintage Books. ISBN 1-4000-7678-1.
Service, Robert (2003). History of Modern Russia: From Tsarism to the
Twenty-first Century. Penguin Books Ltd.
Martinovich Zubok, Vladislav; Pleshakov, Konstantin (1996). Inside the
Kremlin's Cold War: from Stalin to Khrushchev. Harvard University
Press. ISBN 0-674-45531-2.
Molotov, Vyacheslav Mikhaylovich, and Feliz Chuev. Molotov Remembers:
Inside Kremlin Politics (Ivan R. Dee, 2007), his memoirs
external links to books and articles
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Vyacheslav Molotov
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vyacheslav Molotov.
Works by or about
Vyacheslav Molotov at Internet Archive
Annotated bibliography for
Vyacheslav Molotov from the Alsos Digital
Library for Nuclear Issues
The Meaning of the Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact Molotov speech to
the Supreme Soviet on 31 August 1939
Reaction to German Invasion of 22 June 1941
Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Soviet Ambassador to Mongolia
Soviet Representative to International Atomic Energy Agency
Party political offices
Secretary of the Communist Party of Donetsk Governorate
Stanislav Kosior (temporary)
1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine
Feliks Kon (acting)
Secretary of the Communist Party of
Premiers of the Soviet Union
Pavlov (Jan.–Aug. 1991)
Silayev (Sep.–Dec. 1991)
Beria (Mar.–June 1953)
Velichko (Jan.–Nov. 1991)
Doguzhiyev (Jan.–Nov. 1991)
First Deputy Premiers
Prime Ministers of Russia
Foreign ministers of
Russia and the Soviet Union
Tsardom of Russia
Vasily and Andrey Shchelkalov
Nikita I. Panin
Nikita P. Panin
Adam Jerzy Czartoryski
Karl Robert Nesselrode
the Soviet Union
Ukrainian SSR before 1938
Chairman of VUTsVK
First Secretary of the
Communist Party of the
Ukrainian SSR (1918–1938)
People's Secretariat / Sovnarkom
Yuriy Kotsiubynsky (Austria)
Waldemar Aussem (Germany)
Mikhail Levitskiy (Czechoslovakia)
Mikhail Frunze (Turkey)
Mieczislaw Loganowski/Oleksandr Shumsky (Poland)
Yevgeniy Terletskiy (Baltics)
Communism in Ukraine
Political parties and
Communist Party of Ukraine
All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets
Ukrainian Communist Party (1920–1925)
Ukrainian Communist Party (Borotbists) (1918–1920)
Jewish Communist Party (Poalei Zion)
Ukrainian Communist Union (Bund)
Communist Party of Western Ukraine
Ukrainian Peasants-Workers Socialist Association (''Sel-Rob'')
Group of Ukrainian Communists Abroad
Communist Party of Ukraine
Socialist Party of Ukraine
Peasant Party of Ukraine
Communist Party of
Communist Party of Workers and Peasants
Workers Party of
Communist Party of
Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine
Georgy Pyatakov (1918)
Serafima Gopner (1918)
Emanuil Kviring (1918–1919)
Georgy Pyatakov (1919)
Stanislav Kosior (1919)
Nikolay Bestchetvertnoi (1920)
Vyacheslav Molotov (1920–1921)
Dmitry Manuilsky (1921–1923)
Emanuil Kviring (1923–1925)
Lazar Kaganovich (1925–1928)
Stanislav Kosior (1928–1938)
Nikita Khrushchev (1938–1947)
Lazar Kaganovich (1947)
Nikita Khrushchev (1947–1949)
Leonid Melnikov (1949–1953)
Aleksey Kirichenko (1953–1957)
Nikolay Podgorny (1957–1963)
Petr Shelest (1963–1972)
Vladimir Shcherbitsky (1972–1989)
Vladimir Ivashko (1989–1990)
Stanislav Gurenko (1990–1991)
Antin Drahomyretsky (1920–????)
Post Soviet leaders
Communist Party of Ukraine:
Petro Symonenko (1993– )
Socialist Party of Ukraine: Oleksandr Moroz (1992–2012), Petro
Ustenko (2012– )
Progressive Socialist Party of Ukraine:
Natalia Vitrenko (1996– )
History and main
Kiev Arsenal January Uprising
All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Donetsk-Krivoi Rog Soviet Republic
Odessa Soviet Republic
Armed Forces of South Russia
Peace of Riga
Galician Soviet Socialist Republic
1954 transfer of Crimea
ISNI: 0000 0001 2148 0072
BNF: cb12174411s (data)