Vulgar Latin
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Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-
literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mim ...
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
spoken from the Late Roman Republic onwards. Depending on the time period, its literary counterpart was either
Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Thro ...
or
Late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ar ...
.


Origin of the term

During the
Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical antiquity, in the Greco-Roman world *Classical India, an historic period of India (c. 322 BC - c. 550 CE) *Classical period (music), in music ...
, Roman authors referred to the informal, everyday variety of their own language as ''sermo plebeius'' or ''sermo vulgaris'', meaning "common speech". The modern usage of the term Vulgar Latin dates to the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in m ...

Renaissance
, when Italian thinkers began to theorize that their own language originated in a sort of "corrupted" Latin that they assumed formed an entity distinct from the literary
Classical Classical may refer to: European antiquity *Classical antiquity, a period of history from roughly the 7th or 8th century B.C.E. to the 5th century C.E. centered on the Mediterranean Sea *Classical architecture, architecture derived from Greek and ...
variety, though opinions differed greatly on the nature of this "vulgar" dialect. The early 19th-century French linguist Raynouard is often regarded as the father of modern
Romance philology Romance studies or Romance philology (in French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a coun ...
. Observing that the Romance languages have many features in common that are not found in Latin, at least not in "proper" or Classical Latin, he concluded that the former must have all had some common ancestor (which he believed most closely resembled
Old Occitan Old Occitan (Occitan language, Modern Occitan: ', ca, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries. Old Occitan ...
) that replaced Latin some time before the year 1000. This he dubbed ''la langue romane'' or "the Roman language". The first truly modern treatise on Romance linguistics, however, and the first to apply the
comparative method In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with genetic relationship (linguistics), common descent from a shared ancestor ...
, was
Friedrich Christian Diez Friedrich Christian Diez (15 March 179429 May 1876) was a German philologist Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection of textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics (w ...

Friedrich Christian Diez
's seminal ''Grammar of the Romance Languages''.


Sources

Evidence for the features of non-literary Latin comes from the following sources: * Recurrent grammatical, syntactic, or orthographic mistakes in Latin
epigraphy Epigraphy () is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with th ...
. * The insertion, whether intentional or not, of colloquial terms or constructions into contemporary texts. * Explicit mention of certain constructions or pronunciation habits by Roman grammarians. * The pronunciation of Roman-era lexical borrowings into neighboring languages such as
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a Basque culture, common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ...
,
Albanian Albanian may refer to: *Pertaining to Albania in Southeast Europe; in particular: **Albanians, an ethnic group native to the Balkans **Albanian language **Albanian culture **Demographics of Albania, includes other ethnic groups within the country ...
, or
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
.


History

By the end of the first century AD the Romans had conquered the entire
Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by ...
and established hundreds of
colonies In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though dominated by the foreign colonizers, colonies remain separate from the administration of the original country of the colonizers, the metropole, metropolitan ...
in the conquered provinces. Over time this—along with other factors that encouraged
linguistic Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include phonetics, phonet ...
and cultural assimilation, such as political unity, frequent travel and commerce, military service, etc.—made Latin the predominant language throughout the western Mediterranean. Latin itself was subject to the same assimilatory tendencies, such that its varieties had probably become more uniform by the time the Western Empire fell in 476 than they had been before it. That is not to say that the language had been static for all those years, but rather that ongoing changes tended to spread to all regions. All of these homogenizing factors were disrupted or voided by a long string of calamities. Although
Justinian Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός, Ioustinianós; 11 May 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor from 527 to 565. His reign is marked by the a ...
succeeded in reconquering
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peninsula and List of islands of Italy, se ...

Italy
,
Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are ...
, and the southern part of
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...

Iberia
in the period 533–554, the Empire was hit by one of the deadliest plagues in recorded history in 541, one that would recur six more times before 610. Under his successors most of the Italian peninsula was lost to the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Gr ...
by c. 572, most of southern Iberia to the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tr ...

Visigoths
by c. 615, and most of the Balkans to the Slavs and Avars by c. 620. All this was possible due to Roman preoccupation with wars against
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, also West Asia, is the westernmost subregion of Asia. It is entirely a part of the Greater Middle Ea ...

Persia
, the last of which lasted nearly three decades and exhausted both empires. Taking advantage of this, the Arabs
invaded An invasion is a Offensive (military), military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitics, geopolitical Legal entity, entity aggressively enter territory (country subdivision), territory owned by another such entity, gene ...
and occupied Syria and Egypt by 642, greatly weakening the Empire and ending its
centuries of domination
centuries of domination
over the Mediterranean. They went on to take the rest of North Africa by c. 699 and soon invaded the
Visigothic Kingdom The Visigothic Kingdom, officially the Kingdom of the Goths ( la, Regnum Gothorum), was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a cou ...

Visigothic Kingdom
as well, seizing most of
Iberia The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a penin ...
from it by c. 716. It is from approximately the seventh century onward that regional differences proliferate in the language of Latin documents, indicating the fragmentation of Latin into the incipient Romance languages. Until then Latin appears to have been remarkably homogenous, as far as can be judged from its written records, although careful statistical analysis reveals regional differences in the treatment of the Latin vowel /ĭ/ and in the progression of
betacism In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: # to describe and account for observed changes ...
by about the fifth century.


Vocabulary


Lexical turnover

Over the centuries, spoken Latin lost various lexical items and replaced them with native coinages; with borrowings from neighbouring languages such as
Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language of all the known Celtic ...
,
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...
, or
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
; or with other native words that had undergone
semantic shift Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is a form of language change Language change is variation over time in a language A language is a structured system of communication us ...
. The
literary language A literary language is the form of a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system c ...
generally retained the older words, however. A textbook example is the general replacement of the
suppletiveIn linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflection, inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate. For those learning a language, suppletive forms will be seen as "irregul ...
Classical verb
''ferre''
''ferre''
, meaning 'carry', with the regular
''portare''
''portare''
. Similarly, the Classical ''
loqui
loqui
'', meaning 'speak', was replaced by a variety of alternatives such as the native ''
fabulari
fabulari
'' and ''
narrare
narrare
'' or the Greek borrowing ''
parabolare
parabolare
''. Classical Latin
particles In the Outline of physical science, physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small wikt:local, localized physical body, object to which can be ascribed several physical property, physical or chemical , chemical properties ...
fared especially poorly, with all of the following vanishing from popular speech:
an
an
,
at
at
,
autem
autem
,
donec
donec
,
enim
enim
,
etiam
etiam
,
haud Haud (or Hawd) is a region of thorn-bush and grasslands in the Horn of Africa The Horn of Africa (HoA) om, Gaafa Afrikaa, am, የአፍሪካ ቀንድ, yäafrika qänd, so, Geeska Afrika 𐒌𐒜𐒈𐒏𐒖 𐒖𐒍𐒇𐒘𐒏𐒖, ti, ...

haud
,
igitur
igitur
,
ita
ita
,
nam
nam
,
postquam
postquam
,
quidem
quidem
,
quin
quin
,
quoad
quoad
,
quoque
quoque
,
sed sed ("stream editor") is a Unix Unix (; trademarked as UNIX) is a family of Computer multitasking, multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Corporation, AT&T Unix, whose development started in th ...

sed
,
sive
sive
,
utrum
utrum
, and
vel Vel ( ta, வேல், lit=Vēl) is a divine javelin A javelin is a light spear A spear is a pole weapon consisting of a shaft, usually of wood, with a pointed head. The head may be simply the sharpened end of the shaft itself, as is the ...

vel
.


Semantic drift

Many surviving words experienced a shift in meaning. Some notable cases are ''civitas'' ('citizenry' ''→'' 'city', replacing ''urbs''); ''focus'' ('hearth' ''→'' 'fire', replacing ''ignis''); ''manducare'' ('chew' ''→'' 'eat', replacing ''edere''); ''causa'' ('subject matter' ''→'' 'thing', competing with ''res''); ''mittere'' ('send' → 'put', competing with ''ponere''); ''necare'' ('murder' ''→'' 'drown', competing with ''submergere''); ''pacare'' ('placate' ''→'' 'pay', competing with ''solvere''), and ''totus'' ('whole' ''→'' 'all, every', competing with ''omnis'').


Phonological development


Consonantism


Loss of nasals

* Word-final /m/ was lost in polysyllabic words. In monosyllables it tended to survive as /n/. * /n/ was usually lost before
fricative Fricatives are consonant In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pron ...
s, resulting in
compensatory lengthening Compensatory lengthening in phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound system of any particular la ...
of the preceding vowel (e.g. ''
sponsa
sponsa
'' ‘fiancée’ > ''spōsa'').


Palatalization

Front vowel A front vowel is a class of vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary in qua ...
s in
hiatus Hiatus may refer to: *Hiatus (linguistics), the lack of a consonant separating two vowels in separate syllables *Hiatus (television), a break of several weeks or more in television scheduling *Hiatus (anatomy), a natural fissure in a structure *Hi ...
(after a consonant and before another vowel) became which palatalized preceding consonants. Fricativization /w/ (except after /k/) and
intervocalic In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical pr ...
/b/ merge as the bilabial fricative /β/.


Simplification of consonant clusters

* The cluster /nkt/ reduced to t * /kw/ delabialized to /k/ before
back vowel A back vowel is any in a class of vowel A vowel is a Syllable, syllabic speech sound pronounced without any stricture in the vocal tract. Vowels are one of the two principal classes of speech sounds, the other being the consonant. Vowels vary ...
s. * /ks/ before or after a consonant, or at the end of a word, reduced to /s/.


Vocalism


Monophthongization

*/ae̯/ and /oe̯/ monophthongized to ːand ːrespectively by around the second century AD.


Loss of vowel quantity

The system of phonemic vowel length collapsed by the fifth century AD, leaving
quality Quality may refer to: Concepts *Quality (business), the ''non-inferiority'' or ''superiority'' of something *Quality (philosophy), an attribute or a property *Quality (physics), in response theory *Energy quality, used in various science disciplin ...
differences as the distinguishing factor between vowels; the paradigm thus changed from /ī ĭ ē ĕ ā ă ŏ ō ŭ ū/ to /i ɪ e ɛ a ɔ o ʊ u/. Concurrently, stressed vowels in open syllables lengthened.


Loss of near-close front vowel

Towards the end of the Roman Empire /ɪ/ merged with /e/ in most regions, although not in Africa or a few peripheral areas in Italy.


Grammar


Romance articles

It is difficult to place the point in which the
definite article An article is any member of a class of dedicated words that are used with noun phrases to mark the identifiability of the referents of the noun phrases. The category of articles constitutes a part of speech In traditional grammar, a part of spee ...
, absent in Latin but present in all Romance languages, arose, largely because the highly colloquial speech in which it arose was seldom written down until the daughter languages had strongly diverged; most surviving texts in early Romance show the articles fully developed. Definite articles evolved from demonstrative
pronoun In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a word or a group of words that one may substitute for a noun or noun phrase. Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the part of speech, parts of ...

pronoun
s or
adjective In linguistics, an adjective (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a word that grammatical modifier, modifies a noun or noun phrase or describes its referent. Its Semantics, semantic role is to change information given by the noun. ...
s (an analogous development is found in many Indo-European languages, including
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
,
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...
and
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
); compare the fate of the Latin demonstrative adjective , , "that", in the
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance languages
, becoming French and (Old French ''li'', ''lo'', ''la''), Catalan and Spanish , and , Occitan and , Portuguese and (elision of -l- is a common feature of Portuguese) and Italian , and .
SardinianSardinian refers to anything related to the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean island of Sardinia. More specifically it can refer to: *Sardinian people *History of Sardinia *Sardinian language *Sardinian literature *Music of Sardinia *Cuisine of Sardin ...
went its own way here also, forming its article from , "this" (''su, sa''); some Catalan and Occitan dialects have articles from the same source. While most of the Romance languages put the article before the noun, Romanian has its own way, by putting the article after the noun, e.g. ''lupul'' ("the wolf" – from *''lupum illum'') and ''omul'' ("the man" – ''*homo illum''),Vincent (1990). possibly a result of being within the
Balkan sprachbund The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the sprachbund, ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans. Several features are found across these languages though ...
. This demonstrative is used in a number of contexts in some early texts in ways that suggest that the Latin demonstrative was losing its force. The
Vetus Latina ''Vetus Latina'' ("Old Latin" in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through th ...
Bible contains a passage ''Est tamen ille daemon sodalis peccati'' ("The devil is a companion of sin"), in a context that suggests that the word meant little more than an article. The need to translate
sacred text Religious texts are texts related to a religious tradition. They differ from Literature, literary texts by being a compilation or discussion of beliefs, mythologies, ritual practices, commandments or Religious law, laws, ethical conduct, spiritua ...
s that were originally in
Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, Greek spoken and written d ...
, which had a definite article, may have given Christian Latin an incentive to choose a substitute. Aetheria uses ''ipse'' similarly: ''per mediam vallem ipsam'' ("through the middle of the valley"), suggesting that it too was weakening in force.Harrington et al. (1997). Another indication of the weakening of the demonstratives can be inferred from the fact that at this time, legal and similar texts begin to swarm with , , and so forth (all meaning, essentially, "aforesaid"), which seem to mean little more than "this" or "that". Gregory of Tours writes, ''Erat autem... beatissimus Anianus in supradicta civitate episcopus'' ("Blessed Anianus was bishop in that city.") The original Latin demonstrative adjectives were no longer felt to be strong or specific enough. In less formal speech, reconstructed forms suggest that the inherited Latin demonstratives were made more forceful by being compounded with (originally an
interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction. It is a diverse category, encompassing many different parts of speech, such as exclamations ''(ouch!'', ''wow!''), curses ...
: "behold!"), which also spawned Italian through , a contracted form of ''ecce eum''. This is the origin of Old French (*''ecce ille''), (*''ecce iste'') and (*''ecce hic''); Italian (*''eccum istum''), (*''eccum illum'') and (now mainly Tuscan) (*''eccum tibi istum''), as well as (*''eccu hic''), (*''eccum hac''); Spanish and Occitan and Portuguese (*''eccum ille''); Spanish and Portuguese (*''eccum hac''); Spanish and Portuguese (*''eccum hic''); Portuguese (*''eccum illac'') and (*''eccum inde''); Romanian (*''ecce iste'') and (*''ecce ille''), and many other forms. On the other hand, even in the
Oaths of Strasbourg The Oaths of Strasbourg were a military pact made on the 14th of February, A.D. 842 by Charles the Bald and Louis the German against their older brother Lothair I, the designated heir of Louis the Pious, the successor of Charlemagne. One year late ...
, no demonstrative appears even in places where one would clearly be called for in all the later languages (''pro christian poblo'' – "for the Christian people"). Using the demonstratives as articles may have still been considered overly informal for a royal oath in the 9th century. Considerable variation exists in all of the Romance vernaculars as to their actual use: in Romanian, the articles are suffixed to the noun (or an adjective preceding it), as in other languages of the
Balkan sprachbund The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the sprachbund, ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans. Several features are found across these languages though ...
and the
North Germanic languages The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages—a sub-family of the Indo-European languages—along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages. The language group is also re ...

North Germanic languages
. The numeral , (one) supplies the
indefinite article Indefinite may refer to: * the opposite of definite in grammar ** indefinite article ** indefinite pronoun An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the ...
in all cases (again, this is a common semantic development across Europe). This is anticipated in Classical Latin;
Cicero Marcus Tullius Cicero ( ; ; 3 January 106 – 7 December 43 BC) was a Ancient Rome, Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher and Academic skepticism, Academic Skeptic, who tried to uphold republican principles during crisis of th ...

Cicero
writes ''cum uno gladiatore nequissimo'' ("with a most immoral gladiator"). This suggests that ''unus'' was beginning to supplant in the meaning of "a certain" or "some" by the 1st century BC.


Loss of neuter gender

The three grammatical genders of Classical Latin were replaced by a two-gender system in most Romance languages. The neuter gender of classical Latin was in most cases identical with the masculine both syntactically and morphologically. The confusion had already started in graffiti, e.g. ''cadaver mortuus'' for ''cadaver mortuum'' ("dead body"), and ''hoc locum'' for ''hunc locum'' ("this place"). The morphological confusion shows primarily in the adoption of the nominative ending ''-us'' (''-Ø'' after ''-r'') in the ''o''-declension. In
Petronius Gaius Petronius Arbiter"Gaius Petronius Arbiter"
Britannica.com.
(; ; c. A ...
's work, one can find ''balneus'' for ("bath"), ''fatus'' for ("fate"), ''caelus'' for ("heaven"), ''amphitheater'' for ("amphitheatre"), ''vinus'' for ("wine"), and conversely, ''thesaurum'' for ("treasure"). Most of these forms occur in the speech of one man: Trimalchion, an uneducated Greek (i.e. foreign)
freedman A freedman or freedwoman is a formerly enslaved person who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means. Historically, enslaved people were freed by manumission (granted freedom by their captor-owners), abolitionism, emancipation (gra ...

freedman
. In modern Romance languages, the nominative ''s''-ending has been largely abandoned, and all substantives of the ''o''-declension have an ending derived from ''-um'': ''-u'', ''-o'', or ''-Ø''. E.g., masculine ("wall"), and neuter ("sky") have evolved to: Italian , ; Portuguese , ; Spanish , , Catalan , ; Romanian , ''cieru>''; French , . However, Old French still had ''-s'' in the nominative and ''-Ø'' in the accusative in both words: ''murs'', ''ciels'' ominative– ''mur'', ''ciel'' blique For some neuter nouns of the third declension, the oblique stem was productive; for others, the nominative/accusative form, (the two were identical in Classical Latin). Evidence suggests that the neuter gender was under pressure well back into the imperial period. French ''(le)'' , Catalan ''(la)'' , Occitan ''(lo)'' , Spanish ''(la)'' , Portuguese ''(o)'' , Italian language ''(il)'' , Leonese ''(el) lleche'' and Romanian ''(le)'' ("milk"), all derive from the non-standard but attested Latin nominative/accusative neuter or accusative masculine . In Spanish the word became feminine, while in French, Portuguese and Italian it became masculine (in Romanian it remained neuter, /). Other neuter forms, however, were preserved in Romance; Catalan and French , Leonese, Portuguese and Italian , Romanian ("name") all preserve the Latin nominative/accusative ''nomen'', rather than the oblique stem form *''nominem'' (which nevertheless produced Spanish ). Most neuter nouns had plural forms ending in -A or -IA; some of these were reanalysed as feminine singulars, such as ("joy"), plural ''gaudia''; the plural form lies at the root of the French feminine singular ''(la)'' , as well as of Catalan and Occitan ''(la)'' (Italian ''la'' is a borrowing from French); the same for ("wood stick"), plural ''ligna'', that originated the Catalan feminine singular noun ''(la)'' , and Spanish ''(la)'' . Some Romance languages still have a special form derived from the ancient neuter plural which is treated grammatically as feminine: e.g., : BRACCHIA "arm(s)" → Italian ''(il)'' : ''(le) braccia'', Romanian : ''brațe(le)''. Cf. also
Merovingian The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Roman sources, and associated with tribes between the Lower Rhine and ...
Latin ''ipsa animalia aliquas mortas fuerant''. Alternations in Italian heteroclitic nouns such as ''l'uovo fresco'' ("the fresh egg") / ''le uova fresche'' ("the fresh eggs") are usually analysed as masculine in the singular and feminine in the plural, with an irregular plural in ''-a''. However, it is also consistent with their historical development to say that is simply a regular neuter noun (, plural ''ova'') and that the characteristic ending for words agreeing with these nouns is ''-o'' in the singular and ''-e'' in the plural. The same alternation in gender exists in certain Romanian nouns, but is considered regular as it is more common than in Italian. Thus, a relict neuter gender can arguably be said to persist in Italian and Romanian. In Portuguese, traces of the neuter plural can be found in collective formations and words meant to inform a bigger size or sturdiness. Thus, one can use ''/ovos'' ("egg/eggs") and ''/ovas'' ("roe", "a collection of eggs"), ''/bordos'' ("section(s) of an edge") and ''/bordas'' ("edge/edges"), ''/sacos'' ("bag/bags") and ''/sacas'' ("sack/sacks"), ''/mantos'' ("cloak/cloaks") and ''/mantas'' ("blanket/blankets"). Other times, it resulted in words whose gender may be changed more or less arbitrarily, like / ("fruit"), / (broth"), etc. These formations were especially common when they could be used to avoid irregular forms. In Latin, the names of trees were usually feminine, but many were declined in the second declension paradigm, which was dominated by masculine or neuter nouns. Latin ("
pear Pears are fruits produced and consumed around the world, growing on a tree and harvested in the Northern Hemisphere in late summer into October. The pear tree and shrub are a species In biology Biology is the natural science that stu ...

pear
tree"), a feminine noun with a masculine-looking ending, became masculine in Italian ''(il)'' and Romanian ; in French and Spanish it was replaced by the masculine derivations ''(le)'' , ''(el)'' ; and in Portuguese and Catalan by the feminine derivations ''(a)'' , ''(la)'' . As usual, irregularities persisted longest in frequently used forms. From the fourth declension noun ''manus'' ("hand"), another feminine noun with the ending ''-us'', Italian and Spanish derived ''(la)'' , Romanian ''mânu>'' pl (reg.)''mâini/'', Catalan ''(la)'' , and Portuguese ''(a)'' , which preserve the feminine gender along with the masculine appearance. Except for the Italian and Romanian heteroclitic nouns, other major Romance languages have no trace of neuter nouns, but still have neuter pronouns. French / / ("this"), Spanish / / ("this"), Italian: / / ("to him" /"to her" / "to it"), Catalan: , , , ("it" / ''this'' / ''this-that'' / ''that over there''); Portuguese: / / ("all of him" / "all of her" / "all of it"). In Spanish, a three-way contrast is also made with the definite articles , , and . The last is used with nouns denoting abstract categories: ''lo bueno'', literally "that which is good", from : good.


Loss of oblique cases

The Vulgar Latin vowel shifts caused the merger of several case endings in the nominal and adjectival declensions. Some of the causes include: the loss of final ''m'', the merger of ''ă'' with ''ā'', and the merger of ''ŭ'' with ''ō'' (see tables). Thus, by the 5th century, the number of case contrasts had been drastically reduced. There also seems to be a marked tendency to confuse different forms even when they had not become homophonous (like the generally more distinct plurals), which indicates that nominal declension was shaped not only by phonetic mergers, but also by structural factors. As a result of the untenability of the noun case system after these phonetic changes, Vulgar Latin shifted from a markedly
synthetic language A synthetic language uses inflection In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories A grammatical category or grammatical feature ...
to a more analytic one. The
genitive case In grammar, the genitive case ( abbreviated ) is the grammatical case Grammatical case is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the m ...
died out around the 3rd century AD, according to , and began to be replaced by "de" + noun (which originally meant "about/concerning", weakened to "of") as early as the 2nd century BC. Exceptions of remaining genitive forms are some pronouns, certain fossilized expressions and some proper names. For example, French ("Thursday") < Old French ''juesdi'' < Vulgar Latin ""; Spanish ''es'' ("it is necessary") < "est "; and Italian ("earthquake") < "" as well as names like ''Paoli'', ''Pieri''. The
dative case In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The te ...
lasted longer than the genitive, even though
Plautus Titus Maccius Plautus (; c. 254 – 184 BC), commonly known as Plautus, was a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the ...

Plautus
, in the 2nd century BC, already shows some instances of substitution by the construction "ad" + accusative. For example, "ad carnuficem dabo". The
accusative case The accusative case (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase ...
developed as a prepositional case, displacing many instances of the
ablative In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. T ...

ablative
. Towards the end of the imperial period, the accusative came to be used more and more as a general oblique case. Despite increasing case mergers, nominative and accusative forms seem to have remained distinct for much longer, since they are rarely confused in inscriptions. Even though Gaulish texts from the 7th century rarely confuse both forms, it is believed that both cases began to merge in Africa by the end of the empire, and a bit later in parts of Italy and Iberia. Nowadays,
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
maintains a two-case system, while
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...
and
Old Occitan Old Occitan (Occitan language, Modern Occitan: ', ca, occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries. Old Occitan ...
had a two-case subject-oblique system. This Old French system was based largely on whether or not the Latin case ending contained an "s" or not, with the "s" being retained but all vowels in the ending being lost (as with ''veisin'' below). But since this meant that it was easy to confuse the singular nominative with the plural oblique, and the plural nominative with the singular oblique, this case system ultimately collapsed as well, and Middle French adopted one case (usually the oblique) for all purposes, leaving the Romanian the only one to survive to the present day.


Wider use of prepositions

Loss of a productive noun case system meant that the
syntactic In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis includ ...

syntactic
purposes it formerly served now had to be performed by
preposition Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a part of speech, class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (''in'', ''under'', ''towards'', ''before'') or mark vario ...
s and other paraphrases. These particles increased in number, and many new ones were formed by compounding old ones. The descendant Romance languages are full of grammatical particles such as Spanish , "where", from Latin + , or French , "since", from + , while the equivalent Spanish and Portuguese is ''de'' + ''ex'' + ''de''. Spanish and Portuguese , "after", represent ''de'' + ''ex'' + . Some of these new compounds appear in literary texts during the late empire; French , Spanish ''de'' and Portuguese ''de'' ("outside") all represent ''de'' + (Romanian – ''ad'' + ''foris''), and we find
Jerome Jerome (; la, Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; grc-gre, Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; – 30 September 420), also known as Jerome of Stridon, was a Christian priest A priest is a religious leader authorize ...

Jerome
writing ''stulti, nonne qui fecit, quod de foris est, etiam id, quod de intus est fecit?'' (Luke 11.40: "ye fools, did not he, that made which is without, make that which is within also?"). In some cases, compounds were created by combining a large number of particles, such as the Romanian ("just recently") from ''ad'' + ''de'' + ''in'' + ''illa'' + ''hora''.Romanian Explanatory Dictionary
DEXOnline.ro
Classical Latin: :''Marcus patrī librum dat.'' "Marcus is giving father /thebook." Vulgar Latin: :''*Marcos da libru a patre.'' "Marcus is giving /thebook to father." Just as in the disappearing dative case, colloquial Latin sometimes replaced the disappearing genitive case with the preposition ''de'' followed by the ablative, then eventually the accusative (oblique). Classical Latin: :''Marcus mihi librum patris dat.'' "Marcus is giving me father's book. Vulgar Latin: :''*Marcos mi da libru de patre.'' "Marcus is giving me book of father."


Pronouns

Unlike in the nominal and adjectival inflections, pronouns kept great part of the case distinctions. However, many changes happened. For example, the of ''ego'' was lost by the end of the empire, and ''eo'' appears in manuscripts from the 6th century.


Adverbs

Classical Latin had a number of different suffixes that made
adverb An adverb is a word or an expression that modifies a verb A verb, from the Latin ''wikt:verbum#Latin, verbum'' meaning ''word'', is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), ...

adverb
s from
adjective In linguistics, an adjective (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a word that grammatical modifier, modifies a noun or noun phrase or describes its referent. Its Semantics, semantic role is to change information given by the noun. ...
s: , "dear", formed , "dearly"; , "fiercely", from ; , "often", from . All of these derivational suffixes were lost in Vulgar Latin, where adverbs were invariably formed by a feminine
ablative In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. T ...

ablative
form modifying , which was originally the ablative of ''mēns'', and so meant "with a ... mind". So ("quick") instead of ("quickly") gave ''veloci mente'' (originally "with a quick mind", "quick-mindedly") This explains the widespread rule for forming adverbs in many Romance languages: add the suffix -''ment(e)'' to the feminine form of the adjective. The development illustrates a textbook case of
grammaticalization In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: # to describe and account for observed changes i ...
in which an autonomous form, the noun meaning 'mind', while still in free lexical use in e.g. Italian ''venire in mente'' 'come to mind', becomes a productive suffix for forming adverbs in Romance such as Italian , Spanish 'clearly', with both its source and its meaning opaque in that usage other than as adverb formant.


Verbs

In general, the verbal system in the Romance languages changed less from Classical Latin than did the nominal system. The four conjugational classes generally survived. The second and third conjugations already had identical imperfect tense forms in Latin, and also shared a common present participle. Because of the merging of short ''i'' with long ''ē'' in most of Vulgar Latin, these two conjugations grew even closer together. Several of the most frequently-used forms became indistinguishable, while others became distinguished only by stress placement: These two conjugations came to be conflated in many of the Romance languages, often by merging them into a single class while taking endings from each of the original two conjugations. Which endings survived was different for each language, although most tended to favour second conjugation endings over the third conjugation. Spanish, for example, mostly eliminated the third conjugation forms in favour of second conjugation forms. French and Catalan did the same, but tended to generalise the third conjugation infinitive instead. Catalan in particular almost eliminated the second conjugation ending over time, reducing it to a small relic class. In Italian, the two infinitive endings remained separate (but spelled identically), while the conjugations merged in most other respects much as in the other languages. However, the third-conjugation third-person plural present ending survived in favour of the second conjugation version, and was even extended to the fourth conjugation. Romanian also maintained the distinction between the second and third conjugation endings. In the
perfect Perfect commonly refers to: * Perfection, a philosophical concept * Perfect (grammar), a grammatical category in certain languages Perfect may also refer to: Film * Perfect (1985 film), ''Perfect'' (1985 film), a romantic drama * Perfect (2018 ...
, many languages generalized the ''-aui'' ending most frequently found in the first conjugation. This led to an unusual development; phonetically, the ending was treated as the diphthong rather than containing a semivowel , and in other cases the sound was simply dropped. We know this because it did not participate in the sound shift from to . Thus Latin ''amaui'', ''amauit'' ("I loved; he/she loved") in many areas became proto-Romance *''amai'' and *''amaut'', yielding for example Portuguese ''amei'', ''amou''. This suggests that in the spoken language, these changes in conjugation preceded the loss of . Another major systemic change was to the
future tense In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as w ...
, remodelled in Vulgar Latin with
auxiliary verbs An auxiliary verb ( abbreviated ) is a verb A verb, from the Latin ''wikt:verbum#Latin, verbum'' meaning ''word'', is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (''bring'', ''read'', ''walk'', ''run'', ''learn''), an occurrence (' ...
. A new future was originally formed with the auxiliary verb , *''amare habeo'', literally "to love I have" (cf. English "I have to love", which has shades of a future meaning). This was contracted into a new future suffix in Western Romance forms, which can be seen in the following modern examples of "I will love": * french: j'aimerai (''je'' + ''aimer'' + ''ai'') ← ''aimer'' ["to love"] + ''ai'' ["I have"]. * Portuguese language, Portuguese and gl, amarei (''amar'' + [''h'']''ei'') ← ''amar'' ["to love"] + ''hei'' ["I have"] * Spanish language, Spanish and ca, amaré (''amar'' + [''h'']''e'') ← ''amar'' ["to love"] + ''he'' ["I have"]. * it, amerò (''amar'' + [''h'']''o'') ← ''amare'' ["to love"] + ''ho'' ["I have"]. A periphrasis, periphrastic construction of the form 'to have to' (late Latin ''habere ad'') used as future is characteristic of
SardinianSardinian refers to anything related to the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean island of Sardinia. More specifically it can refer to: *Sardinian people *History of Sardinia *Sardinian language *Sardinian literature *Music of Sardinia *Cuisine of Sardin ...
: * ''Ap'a istàre'' < ''apo a istàre'' 'I will stay' * ''Ap'a nàrrere'' < ''apo a nàrrer'' 'I will say' An innovative conditional mood, conditional (distinct from the subjunctive mood, subjunctive) also developed in the same way (infinitive + conjugated form of ''habere''). The fact that the future and conditional endings were originally independent words is still evident in literary Portuguese, which in these tenses allows clitic object pronouns to be incorporated between the root of the verb and its ending: "I will love" (''eu'') ''amarei'', but "I will love you" ''amar-te-ei'', from ''amar'' + ''te'' ["you"] + (''eu'') ''hei'' = ''amar'' + ''te'' + [''h'']''ei'' = ''amar-te-ei''. In Spanish, Italian and Portuguese, personal pronouns can still be omitted from verb phrases as in Latin, as the endings are still distinct enough to convey that information: ''venio'' > Sp ''vengo'' ("I come"). In French, however, all the endings are typically homophonous except the first and second person (and occasionally also third person) plural, so the pronouns are always used (''je viens'') except in the imperative mood, imperative. Contrary to the millennia-long continuity of much of the active verb system, which has now survived 6000 years of known evolution, the synthetic passive voice was utterly lost in Romance, being replaced with periphrastic verb forms—composed of the verb "to be" plus a passive participle—or impersonal reflexive verb, reflexive forms—composed of a verb and a passivizing pronoun. Apart from the grammatical and phonetic developments there were many cases of verbs merging as complex subtleties in Latin were reduced to simplified verbs in Romance. A classic example of this are the verbs expressing the concept "to go". Consider three particular verbs in Classical Latin expressing concepts of "going": , , and *''ambitare''. In Spanish and Portuguese ''ire'' and ''vadere'' merged into the verb ''ir'', which derives some conjugated forms from ''ire'' and some from ''vadere''. ''andar'' was maintained as a separate verb derived from ''ambitare''. Italian instead merged ''vadere'' and ''ambitare'' into the verb . At the extreme French merged three Latin verbs with, for example, the present tense deriving from ''vadere'' and another verb ''ambulare'' (or something like it) and the future tense deriving from ''ire''. Similarly the Romance distinction between the Romance verbs for "to be", and , was lost in French as these merged into the verb . In Italian, the verb inherited both Romance meanings of "being essentially" and "being temporarily of the quality of", while specialized into a verb denoting location or dwelling, or state of health.


Copula

The copula (linguistics), copula (that is, the verb signifying "to be") of Classical Latin was . This evolved to *''essere'' in Vulgar Latin by attaching the common infinitive suffix ''-re'' to the classical infinitive; this produced Italian and French through Proto-Gallo-Romance *''essre'' and Old French as well as Spanish and Portuguese (Romanian ''a'' derives from ''fieri'', which means "to become"). In Vulgar Latin a second copula developed utilizing the verb , which originally meant (and is cognate with) "to stand", to denote a more temporary meaning. That is, *''essere'' signified the ''esse''nce, while ''stare'' signified the ''state.'' ''Stare'' evolved to Spanish and Portuguese and Old French (both through *''estare''), while Italian and Romanian retained the original form. The semantic shift that underlies this evolution is more or less as follows: A speaker of Classical Latin might have said: ''vir est in foro'', meaning "the man is in/at the marketplace". The same sentence in Vulgar Latin could have been *''(h)omo stat in foro'', "the man stands in/at the marketplace", replacing the ''est'' (from ''esse'') with ''stat'' (from ''stare''), because "standing" was what was perceived as what the man was actually doing. The use of ''stare'' in this case was still semantically transparent assuming that it meant "to stand", but soon the shift from ''esse'' to ''stare'' became more widespread. In the Iberian peninsula ''esse'' ended up only denoting natural qualities that would not change, while ''stare'' was applied to transient qualities and location. In Italian, ''stare'' is used mainly for location, transitory state of health (''sta male'' 's/he is ill' but ''è gracile'' 's/he is puny') and, as in Spanish, for the eminently transient quality implied in a verb's progressive form, such as ''sto scrivendo'' to express 'I am writing'. The historical development of the ''stare'' + gerund progressive in those Romance languages that have it seems to have been a passage from a usage such as ''sto pensando'' 'I stand/stay (here) thinking', in which the ''stare'' form carries the full semantic load of 'stand, stay' to
grammaticalization In historical linguistics Historical linguistics, also termed diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time. Principal concerns of historical linguistics include: # to describe and account for observed changes i ...
of the construction as expression of progressive Grammatical aspect, aspect (Similar in concept to the English verbal construction of "I am still thinking"). The process of reanalysis that took place over time semantic bleaching, bleached the semantics of ''stare'' so that when used in combination with the gerund the form became solely a grammatical marker of subject and tense (e.g. ''sto'' = subject first person singular, present; ''stavo'' = subject first person singular, past), no longer a lexical verb with the semantics of 'stand' (not unlike the auxiliary in compound tenses that once meant 'have, possess', but is now semantically empty: ''j'ai écrit'', ''ho scritto'', ''he escrito'', etc.). Whereas ''sto scappando'' would once have been semantically strange at best (?'I stay escaping'), once grammaticalization was achieved, collocation with a verb of inherent mobility was no longer contradictory, and ''sto scappando'' could and did become the normal way to express 'I am escaping'. (Although it might be objected that in sentences like Spanish ''la catedral está en la ciudad'', "the cathedral is in the city" this is also unlikely to change, but all locations are expressed through ''estar'' in Spanish, as this usage originally conveyed the sense of "the cathedral ''stands'' in the city").


Word order typology

Classical Latin in most cases adopted an Subject–object–verb, SOV word order in ordinary prose, although other word orders were employed, such as in poetry, enabled by inflectional marking of the grammatical function of words. However, word order in the modern Romance languages generally adopted a standard SVO word order. Fragments of SOV word order still survive in the placement of clitic object pronouns (e.g. Spanish ''yo te amo'' "I love you").


See also

* Romance copula *
Romance languages The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance languages
* Reichenau Glosses *
Oaths of Strasbourg The Oaths of Strasbourg were a military pact made on the 14th of February, A.D. 842 by Charles the Bald and Louis the German against their older brother Lothair I, the designated heir of Louis the Pious, the successor of Charlemagne. One year late ...
* Veronese Riddle * Glosas Emilianenses * Gallo-Romance languages, Gallo-Romance * Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Italic * Ibero-Roman * Common Romanian * Daco-Roman * Thraco-Roman


History of specific Romance languages

* Sicilian language, Sicilian * Catalan phonology * History of French * History of Italian * History of Portuguese * History of the Spanish language * History of the Romanian language *
Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spok ...


References


Citations


Works consulted

; General * * * * * * Carlton, Charles Merritt. 1973. ''A linguistic analysis of a collection of Late Latin documents composed in Ravenna between A.D. 445–700''. The Hague: Mouton. * * * * * Gouvert, Xavier. 2016. Du protoitalique au protoroman: Deux problèmes de reconstruction phonologique. In: Éva Buchi, Buchi, Éva & Schweickard, Wolfgang (eds.), ''Dictionnaire étymologique roman'' 2, 27–51. Berlin: De Gruyter. * * * * * * Leppänen, V., & Alho, T. 2018. On the mergers of Latin close-mid vowels. Transactions of the Philological Society 116. 460–483. * * * Nandris, Grigore. 1951. The development and structure of Rumanian. ''The Slavonic and East European Review'', 30. 7-39. * * Pei, Mario. 1941. ''The Italian language''. New York: Columbia University Press. * Pei, Mario & Gaeng, Paul A. 1976. ''The story of Latin and the Romance languages''. New York: Harker & Row. * * * * Treadgold, Warren. 1997. ''A history of the Byzantine state and society''. Stanford University Press. * * * * * *


Transitions to Romance languages

; To Romance in general * * * Ledgeway, Adam (2012). ''From Latin to Romance: Morphosyntactic Typology and Change''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * * (esp. parts 1 & 2, ''Latin and the Making of the Romance Languages''; ''The Transition from Latin to the Romance Languages'') * * ; To French * * * * * ; To Italian * * ; To Spanish * * * * ; To Portuguese * * * ; To Occitan * ; To Sardinian *


Further reading

* Adams, James Noel. 1976. ''The Text and Language of a Vulgar Latin Chronicle (Anonymus Valesianus II).'' London: University of London, Institute of Classical Studies. * --. 1977. ''The Vulgar Latin of the letters of Claudius Terentianus.'' Manchester, UK: Manchester Univ. Press. * --. 2013. ''Social Variation and the Latin Language.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. * Burghini, Julia, and Javier Uría. 2015. "Some neglected evidence on Vulgar Latin 'glide suppression': Consentius, 27.17.20 N." ''Glotta; Zeitschrift Für Griechische Und Lateinische Sprache'' 91: 15–26. . * Jensen, Frede. 1972. ''From Vulgar Latin to Old Provençal.'' Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. * Lakoff, Robin Tolmach. 2006. Vulgar Latin: Comparative Castration (and Comparative Theories of Syntax). ''Style'' 40, nos. 1–2: 56–61. . * Rohlfs, Gerhard. 1970. ''From Vulgar Latin to Old French: An Introduction to the Study of the Old French Language.'' Detroit: Wayne State University Press. * Weiss, Michael. 2009. ''Outline of the historical and comparative grammar of Latin.'' Ann Arbor, MI: Beechstave. *


External links

* * * {{Authority control Latin language in ancient Rome Forms of Latin Gallo-Roman culture