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Vukovar
Vukovar
(Croatian pronunciation: [ʋûkoʋaːr], Serbian Cyrillic: Вуковар[Note 1]) is a city in eastern Croatia. It contains Croatia's largest river port, located at the confluence of the Vuka and the Danube. Vukovar
Vukovar
is the seat of Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
County. The city's registered population was 26,468 in the 2011 census, with a total of 27,683 in the municipality.[1]

Contents

1 Name 2 Municipal area 3 Geography 4 History

4.1 Early history 4.2 Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and Yugoslavia 4.3 Croatian War of Independence

5 Demographics

5.1 Minority languages

6 Economy 7 Cultural heritage 8 Museums

8.1 Vukovar
Vukovar
Municipal Museum 8.2 Vučedol Culture
Vučedol Culture
Museum

9 Events 10 Institutions 11 Education and media

11.1 History and today

12 Sport 13 Use in popular culture 14 Notable people 15 International relations

15.1 Foreign representatives 15.2 Twin towns — Sister cities

16 Picture gallery 17 Notes 18 References 19 Bibliography 20 External links

Name[edit]

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The name Vukovar
Vukovar
means 'town on the Vuka River' (Vuko from the Vuka River, and vár from the Hungarian word for 'fortress'). The river was called "Ulca" in antiquity, probably from an Illyrian language. Its name might be related to the name of the river "Volga".[2] Folk etymology has connected it to the Croatian word "vuk", meaning "wolf". In other languages, the city in German is known as Wukowar and in Hungarian as Vukovár or Valkóvár. In the late 17th century, the medieval Croatian name Vukovo was supplanted by the Hungarian Vukovár.[3] Municipal area[edit] The administrative municipal area of the city contains the following settlements:[1]

Grabovo, population 47 Lipovača, population 386 Sotin, population 782 Vukovar, population 26,468

In SFR Yugoslavia, the municipalities were generally larger, and the Vukovar
Vukovar
municipality spanned the region from Vera and Borovo in the north, Ilok
Ilok
in the east and Tovarnik
Tovarnik
in the south, but it has since been divided into several municipalities. Historically, Vukovar
Vukovar
was divided into the Old Vukovar, New Vukovar and former workers' Bata village with Bata Shoes
Bata Shoes
(now Borovo) factory, today known as the Vukovar
Vukovar
suburb Borovo Naselje. Geography[edit]

Satellite picture of Vukovar
Vukovar
on the Danube
Danube
river.

Vukovar
Vukovar
is located in the Eastern part of the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
and is the centre of the Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
County. Its location places it at the border of historical provinces Eastern Slavonia
Slavonia
and Western Syrmia. The city is positioned on important transport routes. Since time immemorial transport routes from the northwest to the southeast were active in the Danube
Danube
Valley through the Vukovar
Vukovar
area. After steam ships were introduced in the mid-19th century, and with the arrival of present-day tourist ships, Vukovar
Vukovar
is connected with Budapest
Budapest
and Vienna
Vienna
upstream and all the way to Romania
Romania
downstream. The Vukovar
Vukovar
harbour is an important import and export station. The Danube
Danube
has always been and remains the connection of the people of Vukovar
Vukovar
with Europe
Europe
and the world. Vukovar
Vukovar
is located 20 km (12 mi) northeast of Vinkovci
Vinkovci
and 36 km (22 mi) southeast of Osijek, with an elevation of 108 m (354 ft). Vukovar
Vukovar
is located on the main road D2 Osijek—Vukovar— Ilok
Ilok
and on the Vinkovci— Vukovar
Vukovar
railway (and road D55). History[edit] Early history[edit]

Vučedol Dove, historical simbol of the Vukovar.

Slavic tribes settled in this area in the 6th century. In the 9th century the region was part of the Slavic Balaton Principality
Balaton Principality
ruled by prince Pribina, part of the Principality of Pannonian Croatia
Croatia
ruled by prince Ljudevit, and part of the Bulgarian Empire. In the 11th–12th century, the region was part of the Kingdom of Croatia; from the 13th to 16th century part of the Kingdom of Hungary; and between 1526-1687[4] under Ottoman rule. Vukovar
Vukovar
was mentioned first in the 13th century as Volko, Walk, Wolkov (original Croatian/Slavic name of the town was Vukovo). In 1231, Vukovo obtained its first privileges and later the right to levy taxes on passages along the Danube
Danube
and the Vuka.[5] During administration of the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, the town was a seat of Valkó (Croatian: Vuka) county, which was located between the Drava
Drava
and Sava rivers, while during Ottoman administration it was part of the Sanjak of Syrmia. At the end of the 17th century, the town's population numbered about 3,000 inhabitants. Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
and Yugoslavia[edit]

Vukovar
Vukovar
1917, view from the river Danube.

After the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
in 1699, Vukovar
Vukovar
was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, Slavonia
Slavonia
( Transleithania
Transleithania
after the compromise of 1867), and soon after in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, created when the Kingdom of Slavonia
Slavonia
and the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
were merged in 1868. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Vukovar
Vukovar
was the seat of Syrmia
Syrmia
County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, Vukovar
Vukovar
became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes ( Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
in 1929). Between 1918 and 1922, Vukovar
Vukovar
was the administrative seat of the county of Syrmia
Syrmia
(Srijem), and between 1922 and 1929 it was the administrative seat of Syrmia oblast. After 1929, Vukovar
Vukovar
was part of the Sava
Sava
Banovina, and beginning in 1939 it was part of the Banovina of Croatia. Between 1941 and 1944, Vukovar
Vukovar
was part of the Independent State of Croatia. During World War II
World War II
the city was bombed by the Allies. In 2008 an unexploded bomb was found in the city from this period.[6] From 1945, it was part of the People's Republic of Croatia
Croatia
within the new Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats
Croats
and Slovenes and in the wake of communism gaining popularity throughout Europe, Vukovar
Vukovar
became the location where in 1920 the Socialist Labor Party of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(Communists) (Socijalistička radnička partija Jugoslavije - komunista) was renamed the Communist Party of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(Komunistička partija Jugoslavije). Croatian War of Independence[edit] Main articles: Battle of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar
and Vukovar
Vukovar
massacre

Vukovar
Vukovar
Korzo in the Early 20th Century

Vukovar
Vukovar
was heavily damaged during the Croatian War of Independence. Approximately 2,000 self-organised defenders (the army of Croatia
Croatia
was still in an embryonic stage at that time) defended the city for 87 days against approximately 36,000 JNA troops supplemented with 110 vehicles and tanks and dozens of planes. The city suffered heavy damage during the siege and was eventually overrun. It is estimated that 2,000 defenders of Vukovar
Vukovar
and civilians were killed, 800 went missing and 22,000 civilians were forced into exile.[7] The damage to Vukovar
Vukovar
during the siege has been called the worst in Europe
Europe
since World War II, drawing comparisons with Stalingrad.[8][9] The city's water tower, riddled with bullet holes, was retained by city planners to serve as a testimony to the events of the early 1990s. On 18 November 2006 approximately 25,000 people from all over the country gathered in Vukovar
Vukovar
for the 15th anniversary of the fall of the city to commemorate those who were killed during the siege. A museum dedicated to the siege was opened in the basement of a now rebuilt hospital that had been damaged during the battle.[10] On 27 September 2007 the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
convicted two former Yugoslav Army officers and acquitted a third of involvement in the hospital massacre.[11] As a result of the conflict, a deep ethnic divide exists between the Croat and Serb populations. Demographics[edit]

Historical population of Vukovar

Year Pop. ±%

1857 8,162 —    

1869 9,453 +15.8%

1880 10,234 +8.3%

1890 11,205 +9.5%

1900 11,557 +3.1%

1910 12,149 +5.1%

1921 12,116 −0.3%

1931 12,738 +5.1%

1948 18,994 +49.1%

1953 20,616 +8.5%

1961 25,763 +25.0%

1971 38,830 +50.7%

1981 41,959 +8.1%

1991 46,735 +11.4%

2001 31,670 −32.2%

2011 27,683 −12.6%

Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005 & Popis stanovništva 2011

In the years from 1948 until 1991 Vukovar's population increased quickly due to industrial development. Primarily it was immigration that fed the growth in the Vukovar
Vukovar
region and in the town particularly. The region's population distribution changed notably too when the town of Ilok
Ilok
became the second largest town in the region.

National structure of the population of Vukovar:[12][13][14]

Year Total Croats Serbs Germans Hungarians Others

2011 27,683 15,881 57.37% 9,654 34.87% 58 0.21% 347 1.25% 1,743 6.30%

2001 31,670 18,199 57.5% 10,412 32.9% 58 0.2% 387 1.2% 2,614 8.3%

1990 44,639 21,065 47.2% 14,425 32.3% 94 0.2% 694 1.5% 8,361 18.8%

1971 30,222 14,694 48.6% 9,132 30.2% 60 0.2% 835 2.8% 5,501 18.2%

1948 17,223 10,943 63.5% 4,390 25.5% 54 0.3% 913 5.3% 923 5.3%

1931 10,242 5,048 49.6% 1,702 16.6% 2,670 26.1% 571 5.6% 215 2.0%

1910 10,359 4,092 39.5% 1,628 15.7% 3,503 33.8% 954 9.2% 183 1.8%

Eltz Manor
Eltz Manor
early 20th century

The most significant change was the forced displacement and internment of the German civilian population after World War II. The confiscated houses and properties were given to Croat and Serb colonists during the years of Communist Yugoslavia.

National structure (2011)    Croats
Croats
(57.37%)    Serbs
Serbs
(34.87%)   Others (7.76%)

National structure of the population in the municipality of Vukovar:[clarification needed]

Year of census total Croats Serbs Others

2001 31,670 18,199 (57.46%) 10,412 (32.88%) 3,059 (9.66%)

1991 84,024 36,910 (43.93%) 31,910 (37.98%) 15,204 (18.09%)

1981 81,203 30,157 (37.14%) 25,146 (30.97%) 25,903 (31.89%)

1971 76,602 34,629 (45.21%) 28,470 (37.17%) 13,593 (17.09%)

1961 54,707 24,527 (44.83%) 22,774 (41.63%) 7,406 (13.54%)

The Croats
Croats
were in the majority in most villages and in the region's eastern part, whereas the Serbs
Serbs
dominated in the northwest. Vukovar's population was ethnically mixed and had 28 ethnic groups before the war. Since the boundaries of the municipality have changed a few times, there are significant differences in the population census between '61 and '71, and '91 and '01. Particularly since the war in Croatia, much of the native Croat population has moved to other areas of Croatia
Croatia
or emigrated to Western Europe
Europe
(notably Germany or Austria) and many Serbs
Serbs
have either moved to Serbia
Serbia
or to Canada and Western Europe. Fifteen years after the war, in 2006, the city's ethnic makeup showed equal percentages of Croat and Serb residents.[15] The city remains very divided, as a deeper sense of reconciliation has failed to take root. The ethnic communities remain separated by mistrust, divided institutions and disappointment. Separate schooling for Croat and Serb children remains in place. Incidents involving Croats
Croats
and Serbs
Serbs
occur regularly, and public spaces have become identified not by the services they offer but by the ethnicity of those who gather there. Even coffee shops are identified as Croat or Serb.[16] In 2013, the government's intention to implement in Vukovar
Vukovar
the Constitutional Law on the Rights of Ethnic Minorities in Croatia
Croatia
that allowed for minorities, where they made up more than a third of a city's population, to be entitled to have their language used for official purposes,[17] provoked considerable popular opposition.[18] Minority languages[edit] Further information: Anti-Cyrillic protests in Croatia Further information: Serbs
Serbs
of Vukovar According to the 2011 Croatian census, the Serb population of the city has exceeded one third, which is the legal prerequisite for the Serbian Cyrillic
Serbian Cyrillic
script to become co-official. In 2013, this re-ignited political discussion on the matter, which had already arisen in 2009 after the local promulgation of Serbian Cyrillic
Serbian Cyrillic
as available for public use.[19]

The Vukovar Synagogue
Vukovar Synagogue
was devastated by the Nazis in 1941 and demolished in 1958.

Economy[edit]

Factories and mass housing at city suburb Borovo Naselje, today protected industrial cultural heritage

Vukovar
Vukovar
is the largest Croatian town and river port on the Danube. Its economy is based on trade, farming, viticulture, livestock breeding, textiles, the food-processing industry, the footwear industry and tourism. Vukovar
Vukovar
port is situated on 1,335 kilometres (830 miles) of the downstream flow of Danube
Danube
river, on its right coast, and is the biggest official concessioner in the Vukovar
Vukovar
region. The Company focuses its business on the transshipment of general and bulk cargo. The Port (850m long and 45m wide) is conveniently situated on the main current of the river, enabling navigation throughout the whole year regardless of water level. The Port recorded productivity growth and increase in cargo transshipment from 123,570 tons in 2009 to 295,199 tons in 2011. The majority of transshipment was in the category of bulk cargo (237,119 tons in 2011), while packaged goods and heavy cargo accounted for a total of 58,080 tons. However, the port infrastructure in Vukovar, only partly reconstructed, still does not meet the requirements of the market. The layout of the port area, particularly the access to railway tracks and the quay operational area, are technologically inappropriate and not compatible with market standards. There is also a lack of warehouse capacity. Altogether, it affects the quality of the service provided in the Port and thus decreases the port competitiveness.[20] Borovo, a manufacturer of footwear located in Vukovar, ended up devastated and demolished in 1991 during the war. In its prime it employed 24,000 employees and tried to break into foreign markets with innovations in the manufacture of footwear, but today there are fewer than 1000 employees. The Business Innovation Centre BIC- Vukovar
Vukovar
is a rounded concept for the support of innovative, technologically-oriented entrepreneurship independent of the size or maturity of the company. The goal of this centre is to attract or provide incentives for the creation and growth of technologically-oriented companies in all phases of their life-cycle and provide them with a complete package of services to support their businesses, from workspaces, support for innovations, growth and export, as well as various intellectual and administrative services [21]

Religion in Vukovar

Orthodox Church of Saint Nicholas

Church of Saints Philip and James

Since the end of the war, much of the infrastructure in Vukovar
Vukovar
has remained unrestored and unemployment is estimated to stand at 40 percent.[16] Cultural heritage[edit]

Arcades in the old city center

Among a number of attractive buildings, severely damaged in the recent war, the most interesting are the Eltz Manor
Eltz Manor
of the Eltz
Eltz
noble family from the 18th century, Baroque
Baroque
buildings in the centre of the town, the Franciscan
Franciscan
monastery with the parish church of Sts. Philip and James, the water tower, the birth house of Nobel prize
Nobel prize
winner Lavoslav Ružička, the Orthodox church of St Nicholas, the palace of Syrmia County etc. Since the peaceful reintegration under Croatian control in 1998, many buildings have been rebuilt, but there are many ruins still in the town. Outside the town, on the banks of the Danube
Danube
toward Ilok, lies a notable archaeological site, Vučedol. The ritual vessel called the Vučedol Dove (vučedolska golubica) is considered the symbol of Vukovar. Vučedol is also a well-known excursion destination, frequented by anglers and bathers, especially the beautiful sand beach on Orlov Otok (Eagle's Island). Great Vukovar Synagogue
Vukovar Synagogue
was built in 1889, it was devastated in 1941 and completely demolished by the communist regime of SFR Yugoslavia
SFR Yugoslavia
in 1958. Museums[edit] Vukovar
Vukovar
Municipal Museum[edit]

Municipal Museum in Eltz
Eltz
Manor.

Vukovar
Vukovar
Municipal Museum[22] was founded in 1948 by a donation of Roman money, furniture, weapons, and paintings given to his city by Dr. Antun Bauer. The museum started in the Coach Post Building in the old baroque centre, but was moved to Castle Eltz
Eltz
in 1966. Up until 1991 the museum had about 50 thousand exhibits in four separate divisions: The Heritage Museum displayed the history of Vukovar
Vukovar
from prehistory to modern times and some of its most important collections included the items excavated at the archaeological site Vučedol and the Culture and History Collection, which contained documents, furniture, and pieces of art, and provided an authentic display of the life of the citizens of Vukovar
Vukovar
and the Eltz
Eltz
family.

One of houses with wine cellar in Eltz Manor
Eltz Manor
complex

The Bauer Collection contained the most complete overview of modern Croatian art from the end of the 19th and the early 20th century with special emphasis on the period between the two world wars. Among more than one thousand pieces of art the Collection contained the works of Vlaho Bukovac
Vlaho Bukovac
, Mato Celestin Medović
Mato Celestin Medović
, Ico Kršnjavi, Ivan Meštrović , Fran Kršinić , Emanuel Vidović
Emanuel Vidović
, and many others. Memorial Museum of the Nobel Prize Winner Lavoslav Ružička, located in the house where he was born, it displayed original documents and medals from the life and work of the famous Nobel Prize winner, who received this prestigious award in 1939 for chemistry. Memorial Museum of the 2nd Congress of the Communist Party
Communist Party
of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was located in the Workers' Hall building, former Grand Hotel, where the congress was held in 1920. The materials connected to the development of the labour movement and the founding of the Communist Party
Communist Party
of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
was exhibited and presented here. During Croatian War of Independence, Castle Eltz
Eltz
suffered significant damage and the collections which were kept there were also damaged: some of the exhibits were completely destroyed, some have disappeared and cannot be recovered, and some of them were taken to Serbia. After years of effort and diplomatic activity by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
that part of the collection was returned to Vukovar
Vukovar
on 13 December 2001. In the period from 1991 to 1997 the Vukovar
Vukovar
City Museum was operating in the Mimara Museum
Mimara Museum
in Zagreb.

Catholic Church of Saint Roch

Near the end of 1992 a collection was founded with the name Vukovar Museum in Exile which began the creation of a collection of donations by Croatian, and soon after also European, artists for the City of Vukovar. To this day that collection has gathered over 1400 pieces of modern Croatian and European art. This collection represented the beginning of the cultural restoration of Vukovar
Vukovar
and it is displayed at the restored Castle Eltz
Eltz
today, along with other museum collections which are part of the permanent collection of the museum. Now that it is renovated, the Castle Eltz
Eltz
complex represents a unique museum and gallery , science, and multimedia centre, which preserves and presents cultural heritage as an element of national identity and the continuity of life in this area. In 2013 the Vukovar
Vukovar
City Museum won a prestigious Anton Štifanić Award for special contributions to the development of tourism in the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
and in 2014 won the Simply the Best award. Vučedol Culture
Vučedol Culture
Museum[edit]

Vučedol Culture
Vučedol Culture
Museum.

Vučedol Culture
Vučedol Culture
Museum[23] is open on the tenth of June 2015. Is one of the most modern museums in Croatia. In addition to the specificity and uniqueness which the museum is drawing from its contents, the attractiveness of the museum is guaranteed by its location and architectural design. Namely, the museum is positioned on one side almost at the very Danube riverbank and on the other side, on four floors, in the hill, while its flat green roof is a promenade which leads to the archaeological site. As for the content, the permanent exhibition is displayed in 19 rooms on almost 1200 square meters. In addition to using state of the art technologies, multimedia and interactive content, the way of life on Vučedol culture localities, spreading through 12 European countries, is displayed. Events[edit]

Vukovar
Vukovar
water tower

Vukovar
Vukovar
City Theater - " Hrvatski Dom".

In Vukovar
Vukovar
during the year there are many cultural events. Certainly the most important is the Danube
Danube
region Vukovar
Vukovar
Film Festival.

The Vukovar Film Festival is unique due to many things. It is the only film festival of the community of Danube
Danube
region countries and the only one held literally on the Danube. It is designed to promote and spread the creative development of filmmakers from the region and it is organized with the intent to contribute to cultural restoration in the city destroyed in the Homeland War.The theme of the festival, the films from the Danube
Danube
region countries, is logically connected to Vukovar
Vukovar
as a centre of the Croatian part of the community of the Danube
Danube
region. Cultural influences have always spread along the Danube. Since the Vukovar
Vukovar
film festival is the only film festival focused on this region, on the international level it seeks to connect filmmakers from the Danube
Danube
region countries, whose film making industries are some of the most vital in the world. The Vukovar
Vukovar
Chamber music
Chamber music
Festival is held in the first half of June at the area of Castle Eltz, the Chapel of Saint Rok, and the Church of Saint Filip and Jakov in Vukovar, and it traditionally starts with a concert by the Zagreb
Zagreb
Philharmonic Orchestra. The guests of the festival are solo performers and chamber ensembles from Croatia
Croatia
and Europe. The Vukovar
Vukovar
Puppet Spring Festival was founded in 1996 as a national theatre conference. There are around 15 puppet theatres performing every year and in the five days of the festival they give around 100 performances in the towns and municipalities of Vukovarsko-Srijemska County. The center of the festival is the town of Vukovar
Vukovar
where 16 performances are played and where various workshops and an awards ceremony are held (for the award for life achievement in contribution to Croatian puppetry). The festival is held at the same time every year, the week before the Holy Week
Holy Week
before Easter. In 2011 there were 16 puppet theatres from Croatia
Croatia
and abroad (Pecs, Mostar) that participated the festival.[24][25] Saint Vinko's Day in Vučedol is an event held traditionally every year on 22 January at the Goldschmidt farm grounds. This event marks the beginning of the year's work in the vineyards and it starts with a blessing of the vineyards. Sausages and other cured meat products are hung on the vines, because of a tradition that by hanging large sausages on the vines, the grape vines will be more fruitful and the grape clusters will be large. The same legend claims that if on that day, before noon, icicles or snow melts and creates puddles in which a sparrow can bathe, the year will be fruitful and there will be so much wine that people can bathe in it. Along with an accompanying culture and art programme, this event represents a true vineyard experience, with mulled wine and delicacies that the visitors may taste or prepare for themselves, on the fire. Bonofest is held every year in the middle of May. It is a festival of spiritual music held in the church of Saint Filip and Jakov. The two evenings of the festival feature famous musicians as well as lesser known young musicians who were selected by a committee of professionals. Aside from showing the beauty and richness of spiritual music it encourages lyricists and composers to write new material and carries the message about the beauty of faith and the human need for spirituality.[26] The Ethno fair is organised each year by the Vukovar
Vukovar
City Tourist Board and takes place in September in the city centre in the "Hotel Grand" building. Various craftsmen, winemakers and other manufacturers sell their handmade products which represent the heritage of this part of Croatia. The Vukovar
Vukovar
Advent Festivities start four weeks during Advent during which a series of musical and performance events are organised. Each event is special as the traditional lighting of the candles is performed. Silent night in Vukovar
Vukovar
is a traditional Christmas concert of Croatian National Television. It is held during Vukovar's Advent Festivities in the Church of St. Philip and James The Christmas Fair is held a couple of days before Christmas.

Institutions[edit] Vukovar
Vukovar
is the seat of several local organizations and institutions such as Vukovar-Srijem County, Polytechnic Lavoslav Ružička
Lavoslav Ružička
Vukovar, Gymnasium Vukovar, etc. It is also the seat of several organizations and institutions of the Serb minority in Croatia
Croatia
such as the Joint Council of Municipalities, the Association for Serbian language and literature in the Republic of Croatia, the Independent Democratic Serb Party, the Party of Danube
Danube
Serbs
Serbs
as well as the seat of the Consulate General of Republic of Serbia
Serbia
in Vukovar. Education and media[edit] History and today[edit]

Palace Jirkovsky, College of Applied Sciences „Lavoslav Ružička“ in Vukovar.

Vukovar
Vukovar
is Croatia's biggest river port.

In accordance with its position in the economic and administrative terms of Vukovar
Vukovar
developed in educational, cultural and health center. For the 1730th Vukovar
Vukovar
has developed popular education. From the Franciscan
Franciscan
School has developed elementary school in Old Vukovar. New Vukovar
Vukovar
has its own school. They worked and denominational schools for children and Orthodox Jewish religion, and schools in the German , Serbian orthodox and Hungarian. Apprentice school was established in 1886. year, a gymnasium 1891st. Printing was opened 1867th when they first came out and Vukovar
Vukovar
in German newspaper "Der Syrmier-Bote". Vukovar
Vukovar
has seven primary schools and five high schools, including one gymnasium (Gymnasium Vukovar) and one music school. The city is also home to the Lavoslav Ružička
Lavoslav Ružička
polytechnic, which offers study opportunities in the fields of economics and trade, law and kinesitherapy. Additionally, the University of Split
University of Split
runs dislocated studies in information technology, economics and law in Vukovar. Similarly, the University of Osijek
Osijek
offers programmes in economics and law. Sport[edit] Major sports facilities in the city of Vukovar
Vukovar
are: Borovo Sports Hall (capacity 3,000 spectators) opened for maintenance International Table Tennis
Tennis
Championship
Championship
of Yugoslavia, (Borovo 1978),[27] stadium FC Vukovar
Vukovar
'91, sport and recreation center "Lijeva Bara" with a hall for martial arts, swimming pools Borovo Naselje
Borovo Naselje
, Borovo naselje Tennis Center, Sports Center "Hrgović" - tennis courts and horse riding, firing range, "Hill-7" as well as several football stadiums including Vukovar
Vukovar
City Stadium and the FC Vuteks Sloga Stadium.

Main Railway Station "Vukovar-Borovo"

Use in popular culture[edit]

The siege of Vukovar
Vukovar
is an important part in the background of the novel The Redeemer by popular Norwegian crime-writer Jo Nesbø, in whose plot traumatized survivors of the siege arrive in Oslo
Oslo
and play a major role in the murder mystery which Inspector Harry Hole
Harry Hole
must solve. Harrison's Flowers
Harrison's Flowers
is a French war drama from 2000, directed by Elie Chouraqui based on the novel " Diable à l' avantage " by Isabel Ellsen. The story takes place during the battle of Vukovar, in the middle of which an American woman ( Andie MacDowell
Andie MacDowell
) searches for her missing husband, a journalist named Harrison, who disappeared during the siege. The film was shot in the United States
United States
and the Czech Republic. Starring: Andie MacDowell
Andie MacDowell
, Elias Koteas
Elias Koteas
, Brendan Gleeson
Brendan Gleeson
, Adrien Brody
Adrien Brody
and David Strathairn. A movie actually filmed in Vukovar
Vukovar
is Vukovar, jedna priča
Vukovar, jedna priča
(Vukovar: A Story). Also known as Vukovar
Vukovar
poste restante, it is a Serbian war film directed by Boro Drašković. The film was selected as the Serbian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 67th Academy Awards, but was not accepted as a nominee. The film shows the Serbian side of the story related to the war in Vukovar
Vukovar
in 1991. The 1991 siege and hospital massacre by JNA paramilitaries is remembered in Croatian singer-songwriter Nenad Bach's song "Vukovar." Dr. Luka Kovač, played by Goran Visnjic from the ER TV series, is supposedly from this city.

Notable people[edit]

Leopold Ružička, winner of the 1939 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

Pavao Pavličić, Croatian writer, literary historian and translator, academician

Károly (Dragutin) Unkelhäusser, Croatian politician who served as Minister of Croatian Affairs of Hungary

Siniša Mihajlović

Károly Unkelhäusser
Károly Unkelhäusser
- Croatian politician Marko Babić – Croatian soldier Franjo Benzinger – Croatian pharmacist Damir Bičanić
Damir Bičanić
– Croatian handballer Dražen Bošnjaković – Croatian politician Aleksandar Čavrić
Aleksandar Čavrić
– Serbian footballer Saša Drakulić – Serbian footballer Jakob Eltz
Eltz
– German nobleman and former member of Croatian parliament Milan Gajić - Serbian football midfielder, U-20 World champion Jovan Gavrilović (sr) - politician and regent to adulthood of King Milan I of Serbia Siniša Glavašević – Croatian reporter Dinko Jukić
Dinko Jukić
– Austrian swimmer, European champion Mirna Jukić
Mirna Jukić
– Austrian swimmer, European champion and Olympic Games bronze medalist Damir Kreilach
Damir Kreilach
– Croatian footballer Milan Mačvan
Milan Mačvan
– Serbian basketball player, Olympic Games and Eurobasket silver medalist Damir Martin
Damir Martin
- Croatian rower Tomislav Merčep – Croatian politician Siniša Mihajlović
Siniša Mihajlović
– Serbian footballer, European Cup champion Tomislav Mikulić – Croatian footballer Ante Miše – Croatian footballer Petar Mlinarić – Member of Croatian parliament Josip Mrzljak
Josip Mrzljak
– Croatian priest, bishop of Varaždin Zaharije Orfelin
Zaharije Orfelin
– Serbian poet Pavao Pavličić
Pavao Pavličić
– Croatian novelist Leopold Ružička
Leopold Ružička
Nobel prize
Nobel prize
winner in chemistry Vladimir Štengl – Former Member of the Croatian Parliament
Croatian Parliament
and former mayor of Vukovar Blago Zadro
Blago Zadro
– Croatian Army general Dario Zahora
Dario Zahora
– Croatian footballer Tezija Zararić – Croatian musician

International relations[edit] See also: List of diplomatic missions in Croatia
Croatia
and List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia Foreign representatives[edit]

The Consulate General of Republic of Serbia
Serbia
in the city of Vukovar.[28]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] Vukovar
Vukovar
is twinned[29] with:

Dugopolje, Croatia Dubrovnik, Croatia Sinj, Croatia Šibenik, Croatia Trogir, Croatia

Bač, Serbia Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina Bački Petrovac, Serbia Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Škabrnja, Croatia Makarska, Croatia Knin, Croatia Zagreb, Croatia

Picture gallery[edit]

Panoramic view of the Vukovar
Vukovar
from the Danube
Danube
river.

Hotel Lav

Dudik World War II
World War II
Memorial park

Vukovar
Vukovar
Memorial Cemetery – Eternal Flame

Wooden bridge in Adica park

"Saint Bono" border police patrol boat

SA-9 Gaskin at Homeland War memorial center

Vukovar
Vukovar
Homeland War memorial Cross

Memorial cemetery of Homeland War victims

Ovčara Memorial Center

Notes[edit]

^ The official use of Serbian Cyrillic
Serbian Cyrillic
in Vukovar
Vukovar
is subject to a dispute involving the local and national authorities, and is the source of a current political controversy. See #Minority languages.

References[edit]

^ a b c "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Vukovar". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.  ^ Antun, Mayer, (1 April 1935). "Ime Mursa". Vjesnik Arheološkog muzeja u Zagrebu. 16 (1). Retrieved 3 April 2018.  More than one of website= and journal= specified (help) ^ Treasures of Yugoslavia, p.249. ^ Treasures of Yugoslavia, published by Yugoslaviapublic, Beograd, available in English, German and Serbo-Croatian, 664 pages, 1980 ^ Treasures of Yugoslavia, p.249 ^ "Bombs from the II World War found in Vukovar" (in Croatian). vktel.com. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.  ^ Tucker, Spencer (2010). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC. p. 2617. ISBN 978-1-85109-667-1.  ^ President after meeting with Del Ponte: Someone has to match what turned Vukovar
Vukovar
into Stalingrad
Stalingrad
(in Croatian) ^ Seeney, Helen (22 August 2006). "Croatia: Vukovar
Vukovar
is Still Haunted by the Shadow of its Past". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2009.  ^ "Tens of thousands gather for 15th anniversary of Vukovar
Vukovar
siege 1991 – 2006". Croatian World Network. AFP. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.  ^ "Two jailed over Croatia
Croatia
massacre". news.bbc.co.uk. BBC
BBC
NEWS. 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 18 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.  ^ "Stanovništvo grada Vukovara" (in Croatian). Retrieved 4 May 2013.  ^ "SAS Output". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 2009-06-23.  ^ "Državni zavod za statistiku Republike Hrvatske". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ Vukovar: Day of remembrance Archived 13 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine., B92, 18 November 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2007. ^ a b Vukovar
Vukovar
still divided 15 years on, B92, 27 November 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2007. ^ Croatia
Croatia
plans Cyrillic signs for Serbs
Serbs
in Vukovar
Vukovar
BBC, 3 January 2013. ^ 25,000 protest against Cyrillic signs in 'Croatian Stalingrad' RT, 8 April 2013. ^ Drago Hedl
Drago Hedl
(1 February 2013). "Ekskluzivna reportaža iz Vukovara – Ćirilica će nevidljivi zid koji dijeli Hrvate i Srbe pretvoriti u betonski". Jutarnji list
Jutarnji list
(in Croatian). Retrieved 2013-02-09.  ^ http://www.aik-invest.hr/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/PortVukovarEN.pdf ^ User, Super. "About project". bic-vukovar.hr. Retrieved 3 April 2018.  ^ "Gradski muzej Vukovar
Vukovar
/ Vukovar
Vukovar
Municipal Museum". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018.  ^ " Vukovar
Vukovar
– Home of the Vučedol Dove – Way to Croatia". waytocroatia.hr.  ^ " Vukovar
Vukovar
puppets spring - Assitej International". www.assitej-international.org. Retrieved 3 April 2018.  ^ "Na Lutkarsko proljeće dolaze 84 predstave, Vinkovci". Portal Vinkovci. Retrieved 3 April 2018.  ^ "VUKOVAR TOURIST BOARD - Bonofest". turizamvukovar.hr.  ^ "Table Tennis
Tennis
- Championship
Championship
of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Borovo 1978". delcampe.net.  ^ "Consulates- Vukovar, Croatia". mfa.gov.rs.  ^ shegrt1. "Gradovi i općine prijatelji Grada Vukovara". vukovar.hr. 

Bibliography[edit]

Cresswell, Peterjon; Atkins, Ismay; Dunn, Lily (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia
Croatia
(First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SV1V 2SA. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vukovar.

Official site (in Croatian) Tourist office Vukovar Photo Gallery of Vukovar

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vukovar.

v t e

Vukovar

History

History of Vukovar Battle of Vukovar Vukovar
Vukovar
massacre

Districts

Borovo Naselje Centar Lužac Mitnica Petrova gora Sajmište Supoderica Trpinjska cesta

Buildings and landmarks

Eltz
Eltz
Manor Franciscan
Franciscan
monastery Hospital Palace of Syrmia
Syrmia
County Water tower

Places of worship

St. Philip and James Church St. Roch's Church Our Lady of Fatima Church Vukovar
Vukovar
Synagogue St. Nicholas Orthodox Church

Culture

Croatian Home Vukovar City Museum Vukovar

Education

Polytechnic Lavoslav Ružička Gymnasium Vukovar

Transport

Vukovar
Vukovar
Port

Manifestations

Bonofest Vukovar
Vukovar
Film Festival Festival of chamber music

v t e

Subdivisions of Vukovar-Srijem County

Towns

Ilok Otok Vinkovci Vukovar
Vukovar
(seat) Županja

Municipalities

Andrijaševci Babina Greda Bogdanovci Borovo Bošnjaci Cerna Drenovci Gradište Gunja Ivankovo Jarmina Lovas Markušica Negoslavci Nijemci Nuštar Privlaka Stari Jankovci Stari Mikanovci Štitar Tompojevci Tordinci Tovarnik Trpinja Vođinci Vrbanja

v t e

County seats of Croatia

   

Bjelovar, Bjelovar-Bilogora Slavonski Brod, Brod-Posavina Dubrovnik, Dubrovnik-Neretva Pazin, Istria

Karlovac, Karlovac Koprivnica, Koprivnica-Križevci Krapina, Krapina-Zagorje Gospić, Lika-Senj

Čakovec, Međimurje Osijek, Osijek-Baranja Požega, Požega-Slavonia Rijeka, Primorje-Gorski Kotar

Sisak, Sisak-Moslavina Split, Split-Dalmatia Šibenik, Šibenik-Knin Varaždin, Varaždin

Virovitica, Virovitica-Podravina Vukovar, Vukovar-Srijem Zadar, Zadar Zagreb, Zagreb

v t e

Cities and towns of Croatia
Croatia
by population

100,000+

Osijek Rijeka Split Zagreb

35,000+

Bjelovar Dubrovnik Karlovac Kaštela Pula Samobor Šibenik Sisak Slavonski Brod Varaždin Velika Gorica Vinkovci Zadar

10,000+

Beli Manastir Belišće Benkovac Čakovec Crikvenica Đakovo Daruvar Donji Miholjac Duga Resa Dugo Selo Garešnica Gospić Imotski Ivanec Ivanić-Grad Jastrebarsko Kastav Knin Koprivnica Krapina Križevci Kutina Labin Makarska Metković Našice Nova Gradiška Novi Marof Novska Ogulin Omiš Opatija Petrinja Pleternica Ploče Popovača Poreč Požega Rovinj Sinj Slatina Solin Sveta Nedelja Sveti Ivan Zelina Trogir Umag Valpovo Virovitica Vrbovec Vukovar Zaprešić Županja

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158320

.