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Voisin
Voisin
was a French aircraft manufacturing company, one of the first in the world. It was established in 1906 by Gabriel Voisin
Gabriel Voisin
and his brother Charles, and was continued by Gabriel after Charles died in an automobile accident in 1912; the full official company name then became Société Anonyme des Aéroplanes G. Voisin[1][2][n 1] (English: Aeroplanes Voisin
Voisin
public limited company). It created Europe's first manned, heavier-than-air powered aircraft capable of a sustained (1 km), circular, controlled flight, including take-off and landing, the Voisin-Farman I. On 28 December 1909, French aviator M. Albert Kimmerling made the first manned, heavier-than-air powered flight in South Africa or even Africa in a Voisin
Voisin
1907 biplane.[3] During World War I, it was a major producer of military aircraft, notably the Voisin
Voisin
III. After the war Gabriel Voisin
Gabriel Voisin
abandoned the aviation industry, and set up a company to design and produce luxury automobiles, called Avions Voisin.

Contents

1 Background 2 Early history 3 Designs of 1907-1914 4 Voisin
Voisin
designs in World War I

4.1 Voisin
Voisin
X ambulance variant

5 Post World War I 6 Other types of aircraft 7 Notes 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References

10.1 Bibliography

Background[edit]

Voisin-Farman 1 winning the Grand Prix de l'aviation, 13 January 1908

Gabriel Voisin
Gabriel Voisin
had been employed by Ernest Archdeacon
Ernest Archdeacon
to work on the construction of gliders and then entered into partnership with Louis Blériot, to form the company Ateliers d' Aviation Edouard Surcouf, Blériot et Voisin
Voisin
in 1905.[4] Gabriel Voisin
Gabriel Voisin
bought out Blériot and on 5 November 1906 established the Appareils d'Aviation Les Frères Voisin
Voisin
with his brother Charles [4] (English: Flying Machines of Voisin
Voisin
Brothers). The company, based in the Parisian suburb of Billancourt, was the first commercial aircraft factory in the world.[5] Early history[edit]

Edmond Poillot flying a Voisin
Voisin
biplane with a dog, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum

Like many early aircraft companies, Voisin
Voisin
were prepared to build machines to the designs of customers, this work supporting their own design experiments. The company's first customers were a M. Florencie,[6] who commissioned them to build an ornithopter he had designed, and Henri Kapferer, for whom they built a pusher configuration biplane of their own design. The latter was underpowered, having a Buchet engine of only 20 hp (15 kW), and it failed to fly. However, Kapferer introduced them to Leon Delagrange, for whom they built a similar machine, powered by a 50 hp (37 kW) Antoinette engine. This was first successfully flown by Charles Voisin
Charles Voisin
on 30 March 1907, achieving a straight-line flight of 60 m (200 ft).[7] In turn Delagrange introduced them to Henri Farman, who ordered an identical aircraft. These two aircraft are often referred to by their owners' names as the Voisin-Delagrange No.1[a] and the Voisin-Farman No.1,[b] and were the foundation of the company's success. On 13 January 1908 Farman used his aircraft to win the "Grand Prix de l'aviation" offered by Ernest Archdeacon and Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe
Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe
for the first closed-circuit flight of over a kilometre. Since the achievements of the Wright Brothers
Wright Brothers
were widely disbelieved at the time, this was seen as a major breakthrough in the conquest of the air, and brought Voisin Frères many orders for similar aircraft; around sixty were built. Designs of 1907-1914[edit]

1910 experimental two-seater biplane with mitrailleuse fired by the passenger

Voisin Canard
Voisin Canard
seaplane under trial on the Seine, on August 3, 1911. The front of the aircraft is to the right.

1907 Voisin
Voisin
1907 biplane 1909 Voisin
Voisin
Tractor[8]

Only one built.

1910 Voisin
Voisin
Type de Course 1910 Voisin
Voisin
Type Militaire 1910 Type Bordeaux 1911 Voisin
Voisin
Canard

Initially flown as a landplane but later fitted with floats. Examples were sold to the French Navy and to Russia.

1911 Type Tourism 1912 Type Monaco

Smaller version of the Canard floatplane. Two built to take part in the 1912 Monaco Aero Meeting.

1912 Voisin
Voisin
Icare Aero-Yacht

Flying boat built for Henry Deutsch de la Meurthe

1912 Voisin
Voisin
Type L or Voisin
Voisin
Type I

Developed for the French Army's 1912 trials. It performed successfully, and some seventy were built in France, and a small number in Russia

1914 Type LA or Voisin
Voisin
Type III

Voisin
Voisin
designs in World War I[edit]

Voisin
Voisin
VIII in June,1917

Main article: Voisin
Voisin
III production of the Type III increased with the outbreak of the First World War. The Voisin III
Voisin III
was followed by improved Type LB and Type LBS, or Voisin
Voisin
IV and Voisin V
Voisin V
aircraft. The larger Type LC, Voisin VII, followed in 1916, but was not a success and only a hundred were built. Soon after the outbreak of the First World War, it became apparent that the French aviation industry could not produce aircraft in sufficient numbers to meet military requirements. Manufacturers from various other fields became aviation subcontractors, and later license-builders. The earliest such partnership was between Louis Breguet and Michelin. Gabriel Voisin
Gabriel Voisin
was late to this field, although his designs were produced in quantity by Russian licensees. By 1918, Voisin
Voisin
was involved with the Voisin-Lafresnaye company, a major constructor of airframes, and the Voisin-Lefebvre company, a major builder of aircraft engines. Following the Voisin
Voisin
VII came the more powerful, and more successful, Type LAP and Type LBP, known as the Voisin
Voisin
VIII. This was the French army's main night bomber in 1916–1917, with over one thousand built. The Voisin
Voisin
IX, or Type LC, was an unsuccessful design for a reconnaissance aeroplane, which lost out to the superior Salmson 2
Salmson 2
and Breguet 14. The Voisin
Voisin
X, Type LAR and Type LBR, was the Voisin
Voisin
VIII with a more reliable Renault
Renault
engine in place of the previous Peugeot design. Deliveries were much delayed, but some nine hundred were built by the end of the war. The last significant Voisin
Voisin
design, the Voisin
Voisin
XII, was successful in trials in 1918, but with the end of the war, no production was ordered. Unlike previous Voisins, the Voisin
Voisin
XII was a large, twin-tractor-engined biplane night bomber, rather more elegant than previous, boxy Voisins. Voisin
Voisin
X ambulance variant[edit] In 1918, a Voisin
Voisin
X (No. 3500) was used to create the Voisin 'Aerochir' ('Ambulance'). The aircraft was capable of flying a surgeon, together with an operating table and support equipment, including an x-ray machine and autoclave, into the battlefield. Eight hundred pounds (360 kg) of equipment could be carried in under-wing panniers.[9] Post World War I[edit] Main article: Avions Voisin After 1918, Gabriel Voisin
Gabriel Voisin
abandoned the aviation industry in favor of automobile construction under the brand Avions Voisin. Other types of aircraft[edit]

Voisin
Voisin
Triplane

Notes[edit]

^ Gunston, 1993, says the full name was "Aéroplanes G. Voisin". On the other hand the avions-voisin.org webpage specifies the name as "Société Aéroplanes Voisin, Société Anonyme".

See also[edit]

Avions Voisin

Notes[edit]

^ marked on the side-curtains of the tail unit as Léon Delagrange No. 1 ^ marked on the side-curtains of the tail unit as Henri Farman
Henri Farman
No. 1

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Voisin
Voisin
aircraft.

^ Baldwin, Nick (1987). The World guide to automobile manufacturers. New York, N.Y.: Facts on File
File
Publications. p. 508. ISBN 0-8160-1844-8.  ^ http://www.avions-voisin.org/public/rubrique.php3?id_rubrique=12 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-08-20. Retrieved 2015-06-18.  1910 to 1920 - Early Flying in South Africa ^ a b Gunston, Bill (1993). World encyclopaedia of aircraft manufacturers: from the pioneers to the present day. Naval Institute Press. p. 318. ISBN 1-55750-939-5.  ^ Davilla & Soltan, p. 541 ^ Opdycke 1999 p.263 ^ Nouveaux Essais de l'Aéroplane Delagrangel'Aérophile , April 1907, p.105 ^ The New Voisin
Voisin
Biplane. Flight, 11 December 1909 p. 799 ^ Stamford, Lincs., U.K.: FlyPast, Key Publishing Ltd, Flying Hospital, April 2007 No. 309 p. 14

Bibliography[edit]

(in French) Carlier, Claude, Sera Maître du Monde, qui sera Maître de l'Air: La Création de l'Aviation militaire française. Paris: Economica/ISC, 2004. ISBN 2-7178-4918-1 Davilla, James J., & Soltan, Arthur M., French Aircraft
Aircraft
of the First World War. Stratford, Connecticut: Flying Machines Press, 1997. ISBN 0-9637110-4-0 Opdycke, Leonard E French Aeroplanes Before the Great War Atglen, PA: Schiffer, 1999 ISBN 0-7643-0752-5 Voisin, Gabriel, Mes 10,000 Cerfs-volants, Editions La Table Ronde, Paris, 1960. ( Italy ) Grassani, Enrico "Elisa Deroche alias Raymonde de Laroche. La presenza femminile negli anni pionieristici dell'aviazione" Editoriale Delfino, Milano 2015. ISBN 978-88-97323-46-4

v t e

Voisin
Voisin
aircraft

1907 biplane Type de Course Type Bordeaux Tractor biplane Icare Aero-Yacht Canard I III IV V Voisin
Voisin
Triplane VIII X XI XII

v t e

Defunct aircraft manufacturers of France

AAS Abraham ABS Aerolight Air Sylphe Amiot ANF Les Mureaux Antoinette Apex Arnoux/Simplex Arsenal Astra Astra Clément-Bayard Aubert Bernard Blanchard Bloch Blériot Boisavia Borel Breguet Brochet CAB CAMS CARMAM Caudron Centrair CFA Clément-Bayard Couzinet Dewoitine Donnet Druine Farman Fauvel FBA Ferber Fouga Gardan Gourdou-Leseurre Hanriot JDM Kellner-Béchereau Latham Lebaudy Letord Levasseur Lioré et Olivier Loire Mauboussin Max Holste Morane-Saulnier Nieuport Nord Aviation Peyret-Mauboussin Potez Romano Roussel SAB Salmson SAN Savary SCAL SCAN Scintex SEA SECAN SECM SFCA SIPA SNCAC SNCAM SNCAN SNCAO SNCASE SNCASO SPAD SPCA Sud Starck Synairgie Vois

.