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In Judaism and Christianity, the voice of God
God
(Hebrew: בּת קול, bat kol or bath ḳōl, literally daughter of a voice; Latin: vox dei) is a "heavenly or divine voice which proclaims God's will or judgment."[1] It is "identified with the Holy Spirit, even with God; but it differed essentially from the Prophets, though these spoke as the medium of the Holy Spirit."[1]

Contents

1 Revelation

1.1 In the New Testament 1.2 Interpretation

2 In media 3 People called the "Voice of God" 4 References 5 Sources

Revelation[edit] The characteristic attributes of the voice of God
God
are the invisibility of the speaker and a certain remarkable quality in the sound, regardless of its strength or weakness. A sound proceeding from some invisible source was considered a heavenly voice, since the revelation on Sinai was given in that way in Deuteronomy 4:12: "Ye heard the voice of the words, but saw no similitude; only ye heard a voice". In this account, God
God
reveals himself to man through his organs of hearing, not through those of sight. Even the prophet Ezekiel, who sees many visions, "heard a voice of one that spake" (Ezek 1:28); similarly, Elijah
Elijah
recognized God
God
by a "still, small voice," and a voice addressed him (I Kings 19:12–13; compare Job 4:16); sometimes God's voice rang from the heights, from Jerusalem, from Zion (Ezek. 1:25; Jer 25:30; Joel 3:16–17; Amos 1:2, etc.); and God's voice was heard in the thunder and in the roar of the sea.[1] The concept appears in Dan 4:31:[2]

עוד מלתא בפם מלכא קל מן־שׁמיא נפל לך אמרין נבוכדנצר מלכא מלכותה עדת מנך [T]here fell a voice from heaven, saying, O king Nebuchadnezzar, to thee it is spoken; The kingdom is departed from thee (emphasis added).

In Jewish art the Bat Ḳol was often represented by the Hand of God, as in the Synagogue of Dura-Europas, which Christian art also adopted for the relevant New Testament
New Testament
scenes. In the New Testament[edit] In the New Testament
New Testament
mention of “a voice from heaven” occurs in the following passages: Matt 3:17; Mark 1:11;[3] Luke 3:22 (at the baptism of Jesus); Matt 17:5; Mark 9:7; Luke 9:35 (at the transfiguration); John 12:28 (shortly before the Passion); Acts 9:4; Acts 22:7; Acts 26:14 (conversion of Paul), and Acts 10:13, Acts 10:15 (instruction of Peter concerning the clean and unclean). In the period of the Tannaim (circa 100 BCE-200 CE) the term bath ḳōl was in very frequent use and was understood to signify not the direct voice of God, which was held to be supersensible, but the echo of the voice (the bath being somewhat arbitrarily taken to express the distinction). The rabbis held that bath ḳōl had been an occasional means of divine communication throughout the whole history of Israel and that since the cessation of the prophetic gift it was the sole means of Divine revelation. It is noteworthy that the rabbinical conception of bath ḳōl sprang up in the period of the decline of Old Testament prophecy and flourished in the period of extreme traditionalism. Where the gift of prophecy was believed to be lacking – perhaps even because of this lack – there grew up an inordinate desire for special divine manifestations. Often a voice from heaven was looked for to clear up matters of doubt and even to decide between conflicting interpretations of the law. So strong had this tendency become that Rabbi Joshua (c. 100 CE) felt it to be necessary to oppose it and to insist upon the supremacy and the sufficiency of the written law. It is clear that we have here to do with a conception of the nature and means of divine revelation that is distinctly inferior to the Biblical view. For even in the Biblical passages where mention is made of the voice from heaven, all that is really essential to the revelation is already present, at least in principle, without the audible voice.[2] Interpretation[edit] Josephus
Josephus
(Ant., XIII, x, 3) relates that John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus
(135–104 BCE) heard a voice while offering a burnt sacrifice in the temple, which Josephus
Josephus
expressly interprets as the voice of God.[2] Christian scholars interpreted Bath Kol as the Jews' replacement for the great prophets when, "after the death of Malachi, the spirit of prophecy wholly ceased in Israel" (taking the name to refer to its being "the daughter" of the main prophetic "voice").[4] In media[edit] The generic term "voice of God" is commonly used in theatrical productions and staging, and refers to any anonymous, disembodied voice used to deliver general messages to the audience. Examples may include speaker introductions, audience directions and performer substitutions. The origin of the "Voice of God" narration style was most probably in Time Inc's "March of Time"[5] news-radio and news-film series, for which Orson Welles
Orson Welles
was an occasional voice-over actor, and was subsequently duplicated in Welles' "Citizen Kane"[6] News On The March sequence (the first reel of the film), much to the delight of Henry R. Luce, Time's president. People called the "Voice of God"[edit]

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James Earl Jones, television, film and voice actor, best known for his role as the voice of Darth Vader
Darth Vader
in Star Wars. Bob Sheppard, public-address announcer for New York Yankees baseball games from 1951 to 2007 and for New York Giants
New York Giants
football games from 1956 to 2005 Don LaFontaine, narrator of many film trailers Reed Hadley, narrator of numerous "docudrama" feature films and television programs Harry Kalas, Philadelphia Phillies broadcaster, narrated several NFL Films Productions from 1984 until his death in 2009 John Facenda, Philadelphia newscaster who narrated several NFL Films Productions from 1966 to 1984 Metatron, an archangel and God's celestial scribe, according to Hebrew traditions Morgan Freeman, narrator of films and a portrayer of God
God
in Bruce Almighty and Evan Almighty Leonard Nimoy, narrator of films and games, especially for his appearance in the computer game Civilization IV Warwick Merry, National Speakers Association of Australia Voice over specialist and Master MC Don Pardo, television personality and former announcer on Saturday Night Live Hideo Kojima, creator of the Metal Gear Solid
Metal Gear Solid
video game series, credited as the Voice of God
God
in the credits of Metal Gear Solid
Metal Gear Solid
4: Guns of the Patriots

References[edit]

^ a b c The Jewish Encyclopedia ^ a b c The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia ^ And a voice came from heaven: "You are my Son, whom I love; with you I am well pleased."Mark 1:11 ^ The Old and New Testament
New Testament
connected in the history of the Jews ^ Fielding, Raymond. The March of Time, 1935-1951. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978 ^ Mary Wood. " Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
and other imitators". University of Virginia. Retrieved 2010-02-27. 

Sources[edit]

This page draws text from 'The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction', Vol. 10, Issue 273, September 15, 1827, a text now in the public domain. Humphrey Prideaux, The Old and New Testament
New Testament
connected in the history of the Jews, 1851. Thomas de Quincey, Narrative And Miscellaneous Papers, Vol. II.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:  Kaufmann Kohler
Kaufmann Kohler
and Ludwig Blau (1901–1906). "BAT ḲOL". In Singer, Isidore; et al. Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 

This article incorporates text from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia article "Bath Kol", a publication now in the pu

.