The Info List - Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov[a] (22 April 1870[1] – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,[b] was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as head of government of Soviet Russia
from 1917 to 1922 and of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia
and then the wider Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became a one-party communist state governed by the Russian Communist Party. Ideologically a communist, he developed a variant of Marxism
known as Leninism; his ideas were posthumously codified as Marxism–Leninism. Born to a moderately prosperous middle-class family in Simbirsk, Lenin embraced revolutionary socialist politics following his brother's 1887 execution. Expelled from Kazan
Imperial University for participating in protests against the Russian Empire's Tsarist government, he devoted the following years to a law degree. He moved to Saint Petersburg in 1893 and became a senior Marxist activist. In 1897, he was arrested for sedition and exiled to Shushenskoye
for three years, where he married Nadezhda Krupskaya. After his exile, he moved to Western Europe, where he became a prominent theorist in the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
(RSDLP). In 1903, he took a key role in a RSDLP ideological split, leading the Bolshevik faction against Julius Martov's Mensheviks. Encouraging insurrection during Russia's failed Revolution
of 1905, he later campaigned for the First World War
to be transformed into a Europe-wide proletarian revolution, which as a Marxist he believed would cause the overthrow of capitalism and its replacement with socialism. After the 1917 February Revolution ousted the Tsar
and established a Provisional Government, he returned to Russia
to play a leading role in the October Revolution, in which the Bolsheviks
overthrew the new regime. Lenin's Bolshevik government initially shared power with the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, elected soviets, and a multi-party Constituent Assembly, although by 1918 it had centralised power in the new Communist Party. Lenin's administration redistributed land among the peasantry and nationalised banks and large-scale industry. It withdrew from the First World War
First World War
by signing a treaty with the Central Powers and promoted world revolution through the Communist International. Opponents were suppressed in the Red Terror, a violent campaign administered by the state security services; tens of thousands were killed or interned in concentration camps. His administration defeated right and left-wing anti-Bolshevik armies in the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
from 1917 to 1922 and oversaw the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
of 1919–1921. Responding to wartime devastation, famine, and popular uprisings, in 1921 Lenin
encouraged economic growth through the market-oriented New Economic Policy. Several non-Russian nations secured independence after 1917, but three re-united with Russia
through the formation of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1922. In increasingly poor health, Lenin
died at his dacha in Gorki, with Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
succeeding him as the pre-eminent figure in the Soviet government. Widely considered one of the most significant and influential figures of the 20th century, Lenin
was the posthumous subject of a pervasive personality cult within the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
until its dissolution in 1991. He became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism–Leninism and thus a prominent influence over the international communist movement. A controversial and highly divisive historical figure, Lenin is viewed by supporters as a champion of socialism and the working class, while critics on both the left and right emphasize his role as founder and leader of an authoritarian regime responsible for political repression and mass killings.


1 Early life

1.1 Childhood: 1870–1887 1.2 University and political radicalisation: 1887–1893

2 Revolutionary activity

2.1 Early activism and imprisonment: 1893–1900 2.2 Munich, London, and Geneva: 1900–1905 2.3 Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905
and its aftermath: 1905–1914 2.4 First World War: 1914–1917 2.5 February Revolution
February Revolution
and the July Days: 1917 2.6 October Revolution: 1917

3 Lenin's government

3.1 Organising the Soviet government: 1917–1918 3.2 Social, legal, and economic reform: 1917–1918 3.3 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: 1917–1918 3.4 Anti-Kulak campaigns, Cheka, and Red Terror: 1918–1922 3.5 Civil War
and the Polish–Soviet War: 1918–1920 3.6 Comintern and world revolution: 1919–1920 3.7 Famine and the New Economic Policy: 1920–1922 3.8 Declining health and arguments with Stalin: 1920–1923 3.9 Death and funeral: 1923–1924

4 Political ideology

4.1 Marxism
and Leninism 4.2 Democracy
and the national question

5 Personal life and characteristics 6 Legacy

6.1 Within the Soviet Union 6.2 In the international communist movement

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Footnotes 9.2 Bibliography

10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life Main article: Early life of Vladimir Lenin Childhood: 1870–1887 Lenin's childhood home in Simbirsk Lenin's father, Ilya Nikolayevich Ulyanov, was from a family of serfs; his ethnic origins remain unclear, with suggestions being made that he was Russian, Chuvash, Mordvin, or Kalmyk.[3] Despite this lower-class background he had risen to middle-class status, studying physics and mathematics at Kazan
Imperial University before teaching at the Penza Institute for the Nobility.[4] Ilya married Maria Alexandrovna Blank in mid-1863.[5] Well educated and from a relatively prosperous background, she was the daughter of a wealthy German–Swedish Lutheran
mother, and a Russian Jewish
father who had converted to Christianity
and worked as a physician.[6] It is likely that Lenin
was unaware of his mother's half- Jewish
ancestry, which was only discovered by his sister Anna after his death.[7] Soon after their wedding, Ilya obtained a job in Nizhny Novgorod, rising to become Director of Primary Schools in the Simbirsk district six years later. Five years after that, he was promoted to Director of Public Schools for the province, overseeing the foundation of over 450 schools as a part of the government's plans for modernisation. His dedication to education earned him the Order of St. Vladimir, which bestowed on him the status of hereditary nobleman.[8]

An image of Lenin
at the age of three Lenin
was born in Simbirsk on 22 April 1870[1] and baptised six days later;[9] as a child he was known as "Volodya", a diminutive of Vladimir.[10] He was the third of eight children, having two older siblings, Anna (born 1864) and Alexander (born 1866). They were followed by three more children, Olga (born 1871), Dmitry (born 1874), and Maria (born 1878). Two later siblings died in infancy.[11] Ilya was a devout member of the Russian Orthodox Church and baptised his children into it, although Maria—a Lutheran
by upbringing—was largely indifferent to Christianity, a view that influenced her children.[12] Both parents were monarchists and liberal conservatives, being committed to the emancipation reform of 1861 introduced by the reformist Tsar
Alexander II; they avoided political radicals and there is no evidence that the police ever put them under surveillance for subversive thought.[13] Every summer they holidayed at a rural manor in Kokushkino.[14] Among his siblings, Lenin
was closest to his sister Olga, whom he often bossed around; he had an extremely competitive nature and could be destructive, but usually admitted his misbehaviour.[15] A keen sportsman, he spent much of his free time outdoors or playing chess, and excelled at school, the disciplinarian and conservative Simbirsk Classical Gimnazia.[16] In January 1886, when Lenin
was 15, his father died of a brain haemorrhage.[17] Subsequently, his behaviour became erratic and confrontational and he renounced his belief in God.[18] At the time, Lenin's elder brother Alexander—whom he affectionately knew as Sasha—was studying at Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
University. Involved in political agitation against the absolute monarchy of the reactionary Tsar
Alexander III, Alexander Ulyanov studied the writings of banned leftists and organised anti-government protests. He joined a revolutionary cell bent on assassinating the Tsar
and was selected to construct a bomb. Before the attack could take place the conspirators were arrested and tried, and in May, Alexander was executed by hanging.[19] Despite the emotional trauma of his father's and brother's deaths, Lenin
continued studying, graduated from school at the top of his class with a gold medal for exceptional performance, and decided to study law at Kazan

University and political radicalisation: 1887–1893 Upon entering Kazan
University in August 1887, Lenin
moved into a nearby flat.[21] There, he joined a zemlyachestvo, a form of university society that represented the men of a particular region.[22] This group elected him as its representative to the university's zemlyachestvo council, and in December, he took part in a demonstration against government restrictions that banned student societies. The police arrested Lenin
and accused him of being a ringleader in the demonstration; he was expelled from the university, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs exiled him to his family's Kokushkino estate.[23] There, he read voraciously, becoming enamoured with Nikolay Chernyshevsky's 1863 pro-revolutionary novel What Is To Be Done?.[24] Lenin's mother was concerned by her son's radicalisation, and was instrumental in convincing the Interior Ministry to allow him to return to the city of Kazan, but not the university.[25] On his return, he joined Nikolai Fedoseev's revolutionary circle, through which he discovered Karl Marx's 1867 book Capital. This sparked his interest in Marxism, a socio-political theory that argued that society developed in stages, that this development resulted from class struggle, and that capitalist society would ultimately give way to socialist society and then communist society.[26] Wary of his political views, Lenin's mother bought a country estate in Alakaevka village, Samara Oblast, in the hope that her son would turn his attention to agriculture. He had little interest in farm management, and his mother soon sold the land, keeping the house as a summer home.[27]

came under the influence of Karl Marx. In September 1889, the Ulyanov family moved to the city of Samara, where Lenin
joined Alexei Sklyarenko's socialist discussion circle.[28] There, Lenin
fully embraced Marxism
and produced a Russian language
Russian language
translation of Marx and Friedrich Engels's 1848 political pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto.[29] He began to read the works of the Russian Marxist Georgi Plekhanov, agreeing with Plekhanov's argument that Russia
was moving from feudalism to capitalism and so socialism would be implemented by the proletariat, or urban working class, rather than the peasantry.[30] This Marxist perspective contrasted with the view of the agrarian-socialist Narodnik movement, which held that the peasantry could establish socialism in Russia
by forming peasant communes, thereby bypassing capitalism. This Narodnik view developed in the 1860s with the People's Freedom Party and was then dominant within the Russian revolutionary movement.[31] Lenin
rejected the premise of the agrarian-socialist argument, but was influenced by agrarian-socialists like Pyotr Tkachev
Pyotr Tkachev
and Sergei Nechaev, and befriended several Narodniks.[32] In May 1890, Maria—who retained societal influence as the widow of a nobleman—persuaded the authorities to allow Lenin
to take his exams externally at the University of St Petersburg, where he obtained the equivalent of a first-class degree with honours. The graduation celebrations were marred when his sister Olga died of typhoid.[33] Lenin
remained in Samara for several years, working first as a legal assistant for a regional court and then for a local lawyer.[34] He devoted much time to radical politics, remaining active in Sklyarenko's group and formulating ideas about how Marxism
applied to Russia. Inspired by Plekhanov's work, Lenin collected data on Russian society, using it to support a Marxist interpretation of societal development and counter the claims of the Narodniks.[35] He wrote a paper on peasant economics; it was rejected by the liberal journal Russian Thought.[36]

Revolutionary activity Main article: Revolutionary activity of Vladimir Lenin Early activism and imprisonment: 1893–1900 In late 1893, Lenin
moved to Saint Petersburg.[37] There, he worked as a barrister's assistant and rose to a senior position in a Marxist revolutionary cell that called itself the "Social-Democrats" after the Marxist Social Democratic Party of Germany.[38] Publicly championing Marxism
within the socialist movement, he encouraged the founding of revolutionary cells in Russia's industrial centres.[39] By late 1894, he was leading a Marxist workers' circle, and meticulously covered his tracks, knowing that police spies tried to infiltrate the movement.[40] He began a romantic relationship with Nadezhda "Nadya" Krupskaya, a Marxist schoolteacher.[41] He also authored a political tract criticising the Narodnik agrarian-socialists, What the "Friends of the People" Are and How They Fight the Social-Democrats, based largely on his experiences in Samara; around 200 copies were illegally printed in 1894.[42] Lenin
hoped to cement connections between his Social-Democrats and Emancipation
of Labour, a group of Russian Marxist émigrés based in Switzerland; he visited the country to meet group members Plekhanov and Pavel Axelrod.[43] He proceeded to Paris to meet Marx's son-in-law Paul Lafargue
Paul Lafargue
and to research the Paris Commune
Paris Commune
of 1871, which he considered an early prototype for a proletarian government.[44] Financed by his mother, he stayed in a Swiss health spa before travelling to Berlin, where he studied for six weeks at the Staatsbibliothek and met the Marxist activist Wilhelm Liebknecht.[45] Returning to Russia
with a stash of illegal revolutionary publications, he travelled to various cities distributing literature to striking workers.[46] While involved in producing a news sheet, Rabochee delo ("Workers' Cause"), he was among 40 activists arrested in St. Petersburg and charged with sedition.[47]

(seated centre) with other members of the League of Struggle for the Emancipation
of the Working Class in 1897 Refused legal representation or bail, Lenin
denied all charges against him but remained imprisoned for a year before sentencing.[48] He spent this time theorising and writing. In this work he noted that the rise of industrial capitalism in Russia
had caused large numbers of peasants to move to the cities, where they formed a proletariat. From his Marxist perspective, Lenin
argued that this Russian proletariat would develop class consciousness, which would in turn lead them to violently overthrow Tsarism, the aristocracy, and the bourgeoisie and to establish a proletariat state that would move toward socialism.[49] In February 1897, he was sentenced without trial to three years' exile in eastern Siberia. He was granted a few days in Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
to put his affairs in order and used this time to meet with the Social-Democrats, who had renamed themselves the League of Struggle for the Emancipation
of the Working Class.[50] His journey to eastern Siberia took 11 weeks, for much of which he was accompanied by his mother and sisters. Deemed only a minor threat to the government, he was exiled to a peasant's hut in Shushenskoye, Minusinsky District, where he was kept under police surveillance; he was nevertheless able to correspond with other revolutionaries, many of whom visited him, and permitted to go on trips to swim in the Yenisei River
Yenisei River
and to hunt duck and snipe.[51] In May 1898, Nadya joined him in exile, having been arrested in August 1896 for organising a strike. She was initially posted to Ufa, but persuaded the authorities to move her to Shushenskoye, claiming that she and Lenin
were engaged; they married in a church on 10 July 1898.[52] Settling into a family life with Nadya's mother Elizaveta Vasilyevna, in Shushenskoye
the couple translated English socialist literature into Russian.[53] Keen to keep up with developments in German Marxism – where there had been an ideological split, with revisionists like Eduard Bernstein
Eduard Bernstein
advocating a peaceful, electoral path to socialism – Lenin
remained devoted to violent revolution, attacking revisionist arguments in A Protest by Russian Social-Democrats.[54] He also finished The Development of Capitalism
in Russia
(1899), his longest book to date, which criticised the agrarian-socialists and promoted a Marxist analysis of Russian economic development. Published under the pseudonym of "Vladimir Ilin", upon publication it received predominantly poor reviews.[55]

Munich, London, and Geneva: 1900–1905 Lenin
in 1916, while in Switzerland After his exile, Lenin
settled in Pskov
in early 1900.[56] There, he began raising funds for a newspaper, Iskra
("Spark"), a new organ of the Russian Marxist party, now calling itself the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP).[57] In July 1900, Lenin
left Russia
for Western Europe; in Switzerland he met other Russian Marxists, and at a Corsier
conference they agreed to launch the paper from Munich, where Lenin
relocated in September.[58] Containing contributions from prominent European Marxists, Iskra
was smuggled into Russia,[59] becoming the country's most successful underground publication for 50 years.[60] He first adopted the pseudonym "Lenin" in December 1901, possibly based on the River Lena;[61] he often used the fuller pseudonym of "N. Lenin", and while the N did not stand for anything, a popular misconception later arose that it represented "Nikolai".[62] Under this pseudonym, he published the political pamphlet What Is To Be Done? in 1902; his most influential publication to date, it dealt with Lenin's thoughts on the need for a vanguard party to lead the proletariat to revolution.[63] Nadya joined Lenin
in Munich, becoming his personal secretary.[64] They continued their political agitation, as Lenin
wrote for Iskra
and drafted the RSDLP programme, attacking ideological dissenters and external critics, particularly the Socialist Revolutionary Party
Socialist Revolutionary Party
(SR),[65] a Narodnik agrarian-socialist group founded in 1901.[66] Despite remaining a Marxist, he accepted the Narodnik view on the revolutionary power of the Russian peasantry, accordingly penning the 1903 pamphlet To the Village Poor.[67] To evade Bavarian police, Lenin
moved to London with Iskra
in April 1902,[68] there becoming friends with fellow Russian Marxist Leon Trotsky.[69] In London, Lenin
fell ill with erysipelas and was unable to take such a leading role on the Iskra
editorial board; in his absence, the board moved its base of operations to Geneva.[70] The second RSDLP Congress was held in London in July 1903.[71] At the conference, a schism emerged between Lenin's supporters and those of Julius Martov. Martov argued that party members should be able to express themselves independently of the party leadership; Lenin
disagreed, emphasising the need for a strong leadership with complete control over the party.[72] Lenin's supporters were in the majority, and Lenin
termed them the "majoritarians" (bol'sheviki in Russian; thus Bolsheviks); in response, Martov termed his followers the "minoritarians" (men'sheviki in Russian; thus Mensheviks).[73] Arguments between Bolsheviks
and Mensheviks continued after the conference; the Bolsheviks
accused their rivals of being opportunists and reformists who lacked discipline, while the Mensheviks
accused Lenin
of being a despot and autocrat.[74] Enraged at the Mensheviks, Lenin
resigned from the Iskra
editorial board and in May 1904 published the anti-Menshevik tract One Step Forward, Two Steps Back.[75] The stress made Lenin
ill, and to recuperate he went on a hiking holiday in rural Switzerland.[76] The Bolshevik faction grew in strength; by the spring, the whole RSDLP Central Committee was Bolshevik,[77] and in December they founded the newspaper Vpered (Forward).[78]

Revolution of 1905
Revolution of 1905
and its aftermath: 1905–1914 In January 1905, the Bloody Sunday massacre of protesters in St. Petersburg sparked a spate of civil unrest in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
known as the Revolution
of 1905.[79] Lenin
urged Bolsheviks
to take a greater role in the events, encouraging violent insurrection.[80] In doing so, he adopted SR slogans regarding "armed insurrection", "mass terror", and "the expropriation of gentry land", resulting in Menshevik accusations that he had deviated from orthodox Marxism.[81] In turn, he insisted that the Bolsheviks split completely with the Mensheviks; many Bolsheviks
refused, and both groups attended the Third RSDLP Congress, held in London in April 1905.[82] Lenin
presented many of his ideas in the pamphlet Two Tactics of Social Democracy
in the Democratic Revolution, published in August 1905. Here, he predicted that Russia's liberal bourgeoisie would be sated by a transition to constitutional monarchy and thus betray the revolution; instead he argued that the proletariat would have to build an alliance with the peasantry to overthrow the Tsarist regime and establish the "provisional revolutionary democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and the peasantry".[83]

.mw-parser-output .quotebox background-color:#F9F9F9;border:1px solid #aaa;box-sizing:border-box;padding:10px;font-size:88%;max-width:100% .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft margin:0.5em 1.4em 0.8em 0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright margin:0.5em 0 0.8em 1.4em .mw-parser-output .quotebox.centered margin:0.5em auto 0.8em auto .mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatleft p,.mw-parser-output .quotebox.floatright p font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .quotebox-title background-color:#F9F9F9;text-align:center;font-size:larger;font-weight:bold .mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:before font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" “ ";vertical-align:-45%;line-height:0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox-quote.quoted:after font-family:"Times New Roman",serif;font-weight:bold;font-size:large;color:gray;content:" ” ";line-height:0 .mw-parser-output .quotebox .left-aligned text-align:left .mw-parser-output .quotebox .right-aligned text-align:right .mw-parser-output .quotebox .center-aligned text-align:center .mw-parser-output .quotebox cite display:block;font-style:normal @media screen and (max-width:360px) .mw-parser-output .quotebox min-width:100%;margin:0 0 0.8em!important;float:none!important The uprising has begun. Force against Force. Street fighting is raging, barricades are being thrown up, rifles are cracking, guns are booming. Rivers of blood are flowing, the civil war for freedom is blazing up. Moscow and the South, the Caucasus
and Poland are ready to join the proletariat of St. Petersburg. The slogan of the workers has become: Death or Freedom! — Lenin
on the Revolution
of 1905[84]

In response to the revolution of 1905—which had failed to overthrow the government— Tsar
Nicholas II
Nicholas II
accepted a series of liberal reforms in his October Manifesto. In this climate, Lenin
felt it safe to return to St. Petersburg.[85] Joining the editorial board of Novaya Zhizn ("New Life"), a radical legal newspaper run by Maria Andreyeva, he used it to discuss issues facing the RSDLP.[86] He encouraged the party to seek out a much wider membership, and advocated the continual escalation of violent confrontation, believing both to be necessary for a successful revolution.[87] Recognising that membership fees and donations from a few wealthy sympathisers were insufficient to finance the Bolsheviks' activities, Lenin
endorsed the idea of robbing post offices, railway stations, trains, and banks. Under the lead of Leonid Krasin, a group of Bolsheviks
began carrying out such criminal actions, the best known taking place in June 1907, when a group of Bolsheviks
acting under the leadership of Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
committed an armed robbery of the State Bank in Tiflis, Georgia.[88] Although he briefly supported the idea of reconciliation between Bolsheviks
and Mensheviks,[89] Lenin's advocacy of violence and robbery was condemned by the Mensheviks
at the Fourth Party Congress, held in Stockholm
in April 1906.[90] Lenin
was involved in setting up a Bolshevik Centre in Kuokkala, Grand Duchy of Finland, which was at the time a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Empire, before the Bolsheviks
regained dominance of the RSDLP at its Fifth Congress, held in London in May 1907.[91] As the Tsarist government cracked down on opposition – both by disbanding Russia's legislative assembly, the Second Duma, and by ordering its secret police, the Okhrana, to arrest revolutionaries – Lenin
fled Finland for Switzerland.[92] There he tried to exchange those banknotes stolen in Tiflis
that had identifiable serial numbers on them.[93] Alexander Bogdanov and other prominent Bolsheviks
decided to relocate the Bolshevik Centre to Paris; although Lenin
disagreed, he moved to the city in December 1908.[94] Lenin
disliked Paris, lambasting it as "a foul hole", and while there he sued a motorist who knocked him off his bike.[95] Lenin
became very critical of Bogdanov's view that Russia's proletariat had to develop a socialist culture in order to become a successful revolutionary vehicle. Instead, Lenin
favoured a vanguard of socialist intelligentsia who would lead the working-classes in revolution. Furthermore, Bogdanov – influenced by Ernest Mach – believed that all concepts of the world were relative, whereas Lenin
stuck to the orthodox Marxist view that there was an objective reality independent of human observation.[96] Bogdanov and Lenin
holidayed together at Maxim Gorky's villa in Capri
in April 1908;[97] on returning to Paris, Lenin
encouraged a split within the Bolshevik faction between his and Bogdanov's followers, accusing the latter of deviating from Marxism.[98]

undertook research at the British Museum
British Museum
in London. In May 1908, Lenin
lived briefly in London, where he used the British Museum Reading Room to write Materialism and Empirio-criticism, an attack on what he described as the "bourgeois-reactionary falsehood" of Bogdanov's relativism.[99] Lenin's factionalism began to alienate increasing numbers of Bolsheviks, including his former close supporters Alexei Rykov
Alexei Rykov
and Lev Kamenev.[100] The Okhrana exploited his factionalist attitude by sending a spy, Roman Malinovsky, to act as a vocal Lenin
supporter within the party. Various Bolsheviks
expressed their suspicions about Malinovsky to Lenin, although it is unclear if the latter was aware of the spy's duplicity; it is possible that he used Malinovsky to feed false information to the Okhrana.[101] In August 1910, Lenin
attended the Eighth Congress of the Second International – an international meeting of socialists – in Copenhagen
as the RSDLP's representative, following this with a holiday in Stockholm
with his mother.[102] With his wife and sisters he then moved to France, settling first in Bombon and then Paris.[103] Here, he became a close friend to the French Bolshevik Inessa Armand; some biographers suggest that they had an extra-marital affair from 1910 to 1912.[104] Meanwhile, at a Paris meeting in June 1911, the RSDLP Central Committee decided to move their focus of operations back to Russia, ordering the closure of the Bolshevik Centre and its newspaper, Proletari.[105] Seeking to rebuild his influence in the party, Lenin
arranged for a party conference to be held in Prague
in January 1912, and although 16 of the 18 attendants were Bolsheviks, he was heavily criticised for his factionalist tendencies and failed to boost his status within the party.[106] Moving to Kraków
in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, a culturally Polish part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, he used Jagellonian University's library to conduct research.[107] He stayed in close contact with the RSDLP, which was operating in the Russian Empire, convincing the Duma's Bolshevik members to split from their parliamentary alliance with the Mensheviks.[108] In January 1913, Stalin – whom Lenin
referred to as the "wonderful Georgian" – visited him, and they discussed the future of non-Russian ethnic groups in the Empire.[109] Due to the ailing health of both Lenin
and his wife, they moved to the rural town of Biały Dunajec,[110] before heading to Bern
for Nadya to have surgery on her goitre.[111]

First World War: 1914–1917

The [First World] war is being waged for the division of colonies and the robbery of foreign territory; thieves have fallen out–and to refer to the defeats at a given moment of one of the thieves in order to identify the interests of all thieves with the interests of the nation or the fatherland is an unconscionable bourgeois lie. — Lenin
on his interpretation of the First World War[112]

was in Galicia when the First World War
First World War
broke out.[113] The war pitted the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
against the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and due to his Russian citizenship, Lenin
was arrested and briefly imprisoned until his anti-Tsarist credentials were explained.[114] Lenin
and his wife returned to Bern,[115] before relocating to Zürich
in February 1916.[116] Lenin
was angry that the German Social-Democratic Party was supporting the German war effort – a direct contravention of the Second International's Stuttgart resolution that socialist parties would oppose the conflict – and thus saw the Second International as defunct.[117] He attended the Zimmerwald Conference in September 1915 and the Kienthal Conference in April 1916,[118] urging socialists across the continent to convert the "imperialist war" into a continent-wide "civil war" with the proletariat pitted against the bourgeoisie and aristocracy.[119] In July 1916, Lenin's mother died, but he was unable to attend her funeral.[120] Her death deeply affected him, and he became depressed, fearing that he too would die before seeing the proletarian revolution.[121] In September 1917, Lenin
published Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, which argued that imperialism was a product of monopoly capitalism, as capitalists sought to increase their profits by extending into new territories where wages were lower and raw materials cheaper. He believed that competition and conflict would increase and that war between the imperialist powers would continue until they were overthrown by proletariat revolution and socialism established.[122] He spent much of this time reading the works of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Ludwig Feuerbach, and Aristotle, all of whom had been key influences on Marx.[123] This changed Lenin's interpretation of Marxism; whereas he once believed that policies could be developed based on predetermined scientific principles, he concluded that the only test of whether a policy was correct was its practice.[124] He still perceived himself as an orthodox Marxist, but he began to diverge from some of Marx's predictions about societal development; whereas Marx had believed that a "bourgeoisie-democratic revolution" of the middle-classes had to take place before a "socialist revolution" of the proletariat, Lenin believed that in Russia, the proletariat could overthrow the Tsarist regime without an intermediate revolution.[125]

February Revolution
February Revolution
and the July Days: 1917 In February 1917, the February Revolution
February Revolution
broke out in St. Petersburg – renamed Petrograd
at the beginning of the First World War
First World War
– as industrial workers went on strike over food shortages and deteriorating factory conditions. The unrest spread to other parts of Russia, and fearing that he would be violently overthrown, Tsar Nicholas II
Nicholas II
abdicated. The State Duma took over control of the country, establishing a Provisional Government and converting the Empire into a new Russian Republic.[126] When Lenin
learned of this from his base in Switzerland, he celebrated with other dissidents.[127] He decided to return to Russia
to take charge of the Bolsheviks, but found that most passages into the country were blocked due to the ongoing conflict. He organised a plan with other dissidents to negotiate a passage for them through Germany, with whom Russia
was then at war. Recognising that these dissidents could cause problems for their Russian enemies, the German government agreed to permit 32 Russian citizens to travel in a "sealed" train carriage through their territory, among them Lenin
and his wife.[128] The group travelled by train from Zürich
to Sassnitz, proceeding by ferry to Trelleborg, Sweden, and from there to the Haparanda–Tornio border crossing and then to Helsinki
before taking the final train to Petrograd.[129]

The engine that pulled the train on which Lenin
arrived at Petrograd's Finland Station
Finland Station
in April 1917 was not preserved. So Engine #293, by which Lenin
escaped to Finland and then returned to Russia later in the year, serves as the permanent exhibit, installed at a platform on the station.[130] Arriving at Petrograd's Finland Station, Lenin
gave a speech to Bolshevik supporters condemning the Provisional Government and again calling for a continent-wide European proletarian revolution.[131] Over the following days, he spoke at Bolshevik meetings, lambasting those who wanted reconciliation with the Mensheviks
and revealing his April Theses, an outline of his plans for the Bolsheviks, which he had written on the journey from Switzerland.[132] He publicly condemned both the Mensheviks and the Social Revolutionaries – who dominated the influential Petrograd
Soviet – for supporting the Provisional Government, denouncing them as traitors to socialism. Considering the government to be just as imperialist as the Tsarist regime, he advocated immediate peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary, rule by soviets, the nationalisation of industry and banks, and the state expropriation of land, all with the intention of establishing a proletariat government and pushing toward a socialist society. By contrast, the Mensheviks believed that Russia
was insufficiently developed to transition to socialism and accused Lenin
of trying to plunge the new Republic into civil war.[133] Over the coming months, he campaigned for his policies, attending the meetings of the Bolshevik Central Committee, prolifically writing for the Bolshevik newspaper Pravda, and giving public speeches in Petrograd
aimed at converting workers, soldiers, sailors, and peasants to his cause.[134] Sensing growing frustration among Bolshevik supporters, Lenin suggested an armed political demonstration in Petrograd
to test the government's response.[135] Amid deteriorating health, he left the city to recuperate in the Finnish village of Neivola.[136] The Bolsheviks' armed demonstration, the July Days, took place while Lenin
was away, but upon learning that demonstrators had violently clashed with government forces, he returned to Petrograd
and called for calm.[137] Responding to the violence, the government ordered the arrest of Lenin
and other prominent Bolsheviks, raiding their offices, and publicly alleging that he was a German agent provocateur.[138] Evading arrest, Lenin
hid in a series of Petrograd
safe houses.[139] Fearing that he would be killed, Lenin
and fellow senior Bolshevik Grigory Zinoviev
Grigory Zinoviev
escaped Petrograd in disguise, relocating to Razliv.[140] There, Lenin
began work on the book that became The State and Revolution, an exposition on how he believed the socialist state would develop after the proletariat revolution, and how from then on the state would gradually wither away, leaving a pure communist society.[141] He began arguing for a Bolshevik-led armed insurrection to topple the government, but at a clandestine meeting of the party's central committee this idea was rejected.[142] Lenin
then headed by train and by foot to Finland, arriving at Helsinki
on 10 August, where he hid away in safe houses belonging to Bolshevik sympathisers.[143]

October Revolution: 1917 Painting of Lenin
in front of the Smolny Institute
Smolny Institute
by Isaak Brodsky In August 1917, while Lenin
was in Finland, General Lavr Kornilov, the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, sent troops to Petrograd
in what appeared to be a military coup attempt against the Provisional Government. Premier Alexander Kerensky
Alexander Kerensky
turned to the Petrograd
Soviet – including its Bolshevik members – for help, allowing the revolutionaries to organise workers as Red Guards to defend the city. The coup petered out before it reached Petrograd, but the events had allowed the Bolsheviks
to return to the open political arena.[144] Fearing a counter-revolution from right-wing forces hostile to socialism, the Mensheviks
and Socialist Revolutionaries who dominated the Petrograd
Soviet had been instrumental in pressurising the government to normalise relations with the Bolsheviks.[145] Both the Mensheviks
and Socialist Revolutionaries had lost much popular support because of their affiliation with the Provisional Government and its unpopular continuation of the war. The Bolsheviks
capitalised on this, and soon the pro-Bolshevik Marxist Trotsky was elected leader of the Petrograd Soviet.[146] In September, the Bolsheviks
gained a majority in the workers' sections of both the Moscow and Petrograd Soviets.[147] Recognising that the situation was safer for him, Lenin
returned to Petrograd.[148] There he attended a meeting of the Bolshevik Central Committee on 10 October, where he again argued that the party should lead an armed insurrection to topple the Provisional Government. This time the argument won with ten votes against two.[149] Critics of the plan, Zinoviev and Kamenev, argued that Russian workers would not support a violent coup against the regime and that there was no clear evidence for Lenin's assertion that all of Europe was on the verge of proletarian revolution.[150] The party began plans to organise the offensive, holding a final meeting at the Smolny Institute
Smolny Institute
on 24 October.[151] This was the base of the Military Revolutionary Committee
Military Revolutionary Committee
(MRC), an armed militia largely loyal to the Bolsheviks
that had been established by the Petrograd
Soviet during Kornilov's alleged coup.[152] In October, the MRC was ordered to take control of Petrograd's key transport, communication, printing and utilities hubs, and did so without bloodshed.[153] Bolsheviks
besieged the government in the Winter Palace, and overcame it and arrested its ministers after the cruiser Aurora, controlled by Bolshevik seamen, fired on the building.[154] During the insurrection, Lenin
gave a speech to the Petrograd
Soviet announcing that the Provisional Government had been overthrown.[155] The Bolsheviks
declared the formation of a new government, the Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars
or "Sovnarkom". Lenin
initially turned down the leading position of Chairman, suggesting Trotsky for the job, but other Bolsheviks
insisted and ultimately Lenin
relented.[156] Lenin
and other Bolsheviks then attended the Second Congress of Soviets
Second Congress of Soviets
on 26 and 27 October, and announced the creation of the new government. Menshevik attendees condemned the illegitimate seizure of power and the risk of civil war.[157] In these early days of the new regime, Lenin
avoided talking in Marxist and socialist terms so as not to alienate Russia's population, and instead spoke about having a country controlled by the workers.[158] Lenin
and many other Bolsheviks
expected proletariat revolution to sweep across Europe in days or months.[159]

Lenin's government Main article: Government of Vladimir Lenin Organising the Soviet government: 1917–1918 The Provisional Government had planned for a Constituent Assembly to be elected in November 1917; against Lenin's objections, Sovnarkom agreed for the vote to take place as scheduled.[160] In the constitutional election, the Bolsheviks
gained approximately a quarter of the vote, being defeated by the agrarian-focused Socialist Revolutionary Party.[161] Lenin
argued that the election was not a fair reflection of the people's will, that the electorate had not had time to learn the Bolsheviks' political programme, and that the candidacy lists had been drawn up before the Left Socialist Revolutionaries split from the Socialist Revolutionaries.[162] Nevertheless, the newly elected Russian Constituent Assembly
Russian Constituent Assembly
convened in Petrograd
in January 1918.[163] Sovnarkom
argued that it was counter-revolutionary because it sought to remove power from the soviets, but the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks
denied this.[164] The Bolsheviks
presented the Assembly with a motion that would strip it of most of its legal powers; when the Assembly rejected the motion, Sovnarkom
declared this as evidence of its counter-revolutionary nature and forcibly disbanded it.[165] Lenin
rejected repeated calls – including from some Bolsheviks
– to establish a coalition government with other socialist parties.[166] Sovnarkom
partially relented; although refusing a coalition with the Mensheviks
or Socialist Revolutionaries, in December 1917 they allowed the Left Socialist Revolutionaries five posts in the cabinet. This coalition only lasted four months, until March 1918, when the Left Socialist Revolutionaries pulled out of the government over a disagreement about the Bolsheviks' approach to ending the First World War.[167] At their 7th Congress in March 1918, the Bolsheviks
changed their official name from the "Russian Social Democratic Labour Party" to the "Russian Communist Party", as Lenin
wanted to both distance his group from the increasingly reformist German Social Democratic Party and to emphasise its ultimate goal: a communist society.[168]

The Moscow Kremlin, which Lenin
moved into in 1918 Although ultimate power officially rested with the country's government in the form of Sovnarkom
and the Executive Committee (VTSIK) elected by the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
(ARCS), the Communist Party was de facto in control in Russia, as acknowledged by its members at the time.[169] By 1918, Sovnarkom
began acting unilaterally, claiming a need for expediency, with the ARCS and VTSIK becoming increasingly marginalised,[170] so the soviets no longer had a role in governing Russia.[171] During 1918 and 1919, the government expelled Mensheviks
and Socialist Revolutionaries from the soviets.[172] Russia
had become a one-party state.[173] Within the party was established a Political Bureau ("Politburo") and Organisation Bureau ("Orgburo") to accompany the existing Central Committee; the decisions of these party bodies had to be adopted by Sovnarkom
and the Council of Labour and Defence.[174] Lenin was the most significant figure in this governance structure; as well as being the Chairman of Sovnarkom
and sitting on the Council of Labour and Defence, he was on the Central Committee and Politburo of the Communist Party.[175] The only individual to have anywhere near this influence was Lenin's right-hand man, Yakov Sverdlov, who died in March 1919 during a flu pandemic.[176] In November 1917, Lenin
and his wife took a two-room flat within the Smolny Institute; the following month they left for a brief holiday in Halia, Finland.[177] In January 1918, he survived an assassination attempt in Petrograd; Fritz Platten, who was with Lenin
at the time, shielded him and was injured by a bullet.[178] Concerned that the German Army posed a threat to Petrograd, in March 1918 Sovnarkom
relocated to Moscow, initially as a temporary measure.[179] There, Lenin, Trotsky, and other Bolshevik leaders moved into the Kremlin, where Lenin
lived with his wife and sister Maria in a first floor apartment adjacent to the room in which the Sovnarkom
meetings were held.[180] Lenin
disliked Moscow,[181] but rarely left the city centre during the rest of his life.[182] He survived a second assassination attempt, in Moscow in August 1918; he was shot following a public speech and injured badly.[183] A Socialist Revolutionary, Fanny Kaplan, was arrested and executed.[184] The attack was widely covered in the Russian press, generating much sympathy for Lenin
and boosting his popularity.[185] As a respite, in September 1918 he was driven to the Gorki estate, just outside Moscow, recently acquired for him by the government.[186]

Social, legal, and economic reform: 1917–1918

To All Workers, Soldiers and Peasants. The Soviet authority will at once propose a democratic peace to all nations and an immediate armistice on all fronts. It will safeguard the transfer without compensation of all land – landlord, imperial, and monastery – to the peasants' committees; it will defend the soldiers' rights, introducing a complete democratisation of the army; it will establish workers' control over industry; it will ensure the convocation of the Constituent Assembly on the date set; it will supply the cities with bread and the villages with articles of first necessity; and it will secure to all nationalities inhabiting Russia
the right of self-determination ... Long live the revolution! —Lenin's political programme, October 1917[187]

Upon taking power, Lenin's regime issued a series of decrees. The first was a Decree on Land, which declared that the landed estates of the aristocracy and the Orthodox Church should be nationalised and redistributed to peasants by local governments. This contrasted with Lenin's desire for agricultural collectivisation but provided governmental recognition of the widespread peasant land seizures that had already occurred.[188] In November 1917, the government issued the Decree on the Press that closed many opposition media outlets deemed counter-revolutionary. They claimed the measure would be temporary; the decree was widely criticised, including by many Bolsheviks, for compromising freedom of the press.[189] In November 1917, Lenin
issued the Declaration of the Rights
of the Peoples of Russia, which stated that non-Russian ethnic groups living inside the Republic had the right to cede from Russian authority and establish their own independent nation-states.[190] Many nations declared independence: Finland and Lithuania in December 1917, Latvia and Ukraine in January 1918, Estonia in February 1918, Transcaucasia in April 1918, and Poland in November 1918.[191] Soon, the Bolsheviks
actively promoted communist parties in these independent nation-states,[192] while in July 1918, at the Fifth All-Russian Congress of the Soviets, a constitution was approved that reformed the Russian Republic
Russian Republic
into the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.[193] Seeking to modernise the country, the government officially converted Russia
from the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
to the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
used in Europe.[194] In November 1917, Sovnarkom
issued a decree abolishing Russia's legal system, calling on the use of "revolutionary conscience" to replace the abolished laws.[195] The courts were replaced by a two-tier system: Revolutionary Tribunals to deal with counter-revolutionary crimes,[196] and People's Courts to deal with civil and other criminal offences. They were instructed to ignore pre-existing laws, and base their rulings on the Sovnarkom
decrees and a "socialist sense of justice".[197] November also saw an overhaul of the armed forces; Sovnarkom
implemented egalitarian measures, abolished previous ranks, titles, and medals, and called on soldiers to establish committees to elect their commanders.[198]

Bolshevik political cartoon poster from 1920, showing Lenin
sweeping away monarchs, clergy, and capitalists; the caption reads, "Comrade Lenin
Cleanses the Earth of Filth" In October 1917, Lenin
issued a decree limiting work for everyone in Russia
to eight hours per day.[199] He also issued the Decree on Popular Education that stipulated that the government would guarantee free, secular education for all children in Russia,[199] and a decree establishing a system of state orphanages.[200] To combat mass illiteracy, a literacy campaign was initiated; an estimated 5 million people enrolled in crash courses of basic literacy from 1920 to 1926.[201] Embracing the equality of the sexes, laws were introduced that helped to emancipate women, by giving them economic autonomy from their husbands and removing restrictions on divorce.[202] A Bolshevik women's organisation, Zhenotdel, was established to further these aims.[203] Militantly atheist, Lenin
and the Communist Party wanted to demolish organised religion,[204] and in January 1918 the government decreed the separation of church and state and prohibited religious instruction in schools.[205] In November 1917, Lenin
issued the Decree on Workers' Control, which called on the workers of each enterprise to establish an elected committee to monitor their enterprise's management.[206] That month they also issued an order requisitioning the country's gold,[207] and nationalised the banks, which Lenin
saw as a major step toward socialism.[208] In December, Sovnarkom established a Supreme Council of the National Economy
Supreme Council of the National Economy
(VSNKh), which had authority over industry, banking, agriculture, and trade.[209] The factory committees were subordinate to the trade unions, which were subordinate to VSNKh; thus, the state's centralised economic plan was prioritised over the workers' local economic interests.[210] In early 1918, Sovnarkom
cancelled all foreign debts and refused to pay interest owed on them.[211] In April 1918, it nationalised foreign trade, establishing a state monopoly on imports and exports.[212] In June 1918, it decreed nationalisation of public utilities, railways, engineering, textiles, metallurgy, and mining, although often these were state-owned in name only.[213] Full-scale nationalisation did not take place until November 1920, when small-scale industrial enterprises were brought under state control.[214] A faction of the Bolsheviks
known as the "Left Communists" criticised Sovnarkom's economic policy as too moderate; they wanted nationalisation of all industry, agriculture, trade, finance, transport, and communication.[215] Lenin
believed that this was impractical at that stage, and that the government should only nationalise Russia's large-scale capitalist enterprises, such as the banks, railways, larger landed estates, and larger factories and mines, allowing smaller businesses to operate privately until they grew large enough to be successfully nationalised.[215] Lenin also disagreed with the Left Communists about economic organisation; in June 1918, he argued that centralised economic control of industry was needed, whereas Left Communists wanted each factory to be controlled by its workers, a syndicalist approach that Lenin considered detrimental to the cause of socialism.[216] Adopting a left libertarian perspective, both the Left Communists and other factions in the Communist Party critiqued the decline of democratic institutions in Russia.[217] Internationally, many socialists decried Lenin's regime and denied that he was establishing socialism; in particular, they highlighted the lack of widespread political participation, popular consultation, and industrial democracy.[218] In late 1918, the Czech-Austrian Marxist Karl Kautsky authored an anti-Leninist pamphlet condemning the anti-democratic nature of Soviet Russia, to which Lenin
published a vociferous reply.[219] German Marxist Rosa Luxemburg
Rosa Luxemburg
echoed Kautsky's views,[220] while the Russian anarchist Peter Kropotkin described the Bolshevik seizure of power as "the burial of the Russian Revolution".[221]

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: 1917–1918

[By prolonging the war] we unusually strengthen German imperialism, and the peace will have to be concluded anyway, but then the peace will be worse because it will be concluded by someone other than ourselves. No doubt the peace which we are now being forced to conclude is an indecent peace, but if war commences our government will be swept away and the peace will be concluded by another government. — Lenin
on peace with the Central Powers[222]

Upon taking power, Lenin
believed that a key policy of his government must be to withdraw from the First World War
First World War
by establishing an armistice with the Central Powers
Central Powers
of Germany and Austria-Hungary.[223] He believed that ongoing war would create resentment among war-weary Russian troops – to whom he had promised peace – and that these troops and the advancing German Army threatened both his own government and the cause of international socialism.[224] By contrast, other Bolsheviks
– in particular Nikolai Bukharin
Nikolai Bukharin
and the Left Communists – believed that peace with the Central Powers
Central Powers
would be a betrayal of international socialism and that Russia
should instead wage "a war of revolutionary defence" that would provoke an uprising of the German proletariat against their own government.[225] Lenin
proposed a three-month armistice in his Decree on Peace
Decree on Peace
of November 1917, which was approved by the Second Congress of Soviets and presented to the German and Austro-Hungarian governments.[226] The Germans responded positively, viewing this as an opportunity to focus on the Western Front and stave off looming defeat.[227] In November, armistice talks began at Brest-Litovsk, the headquarters of the German high command on the Eastern Front, with the Russian delegation being led by Trotsky and Adolph Joffe.[228] Meanwhile, a ceasefire until January was agreed.[229] During negotiations, the Germans insisted on keeping their wartime conquests – which included Poland, Lithuania, and Courland
– whereas the Russians
countered that this was a violation of these nations' rights to self-determination.[230] Some Bolsheviks
had expressed hopes of dragging out negotiations until proletarian revolution broke out throughout Europe.[231] On 7 January 1918, Trotsky returned from Brest-Litovsk
to St. Petersburg with an ultimatum from the Central Powers: either Russia
accept Germany's territorial demands or the war would resume.[232]

The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
on 15 December 1917 In January and again in February, Lenin
urged the Bolsheviks
to accept Germany's proposals. He argued that the territorial losses were acceptable if it ensured the survival of the Bolshevik-led government. The majority of Bolsheviks
rejected his position, hoping to prolong the armistice and call Germany's bluff.[233] On 18 February, the German Army launched Operation Faustschlag, advancing further into Russian-controlled territory and conquering Dvinsk
within a day.[234] At this point, Lenin
finally convinced a small majority of the Bolshevik Central Committee to accept the Central Powers' demands.[235] On 23 February, the Central Powers issued a new ultimatum: Russia
had to recognise German control not only of Poland and the Baltic states but also of Ukraine, or face a full-scale invasion.[236] On 3 March, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
was signed.[237] It resulted in massive territorial losses for Russia, with 26% of the former Empire's population, 37% of its agricultural harvest area, 28% of its industry, 26% of its railway tracks, and three-quarters of its coal and iron deposits being transferred to German control.[238] Accordingly, the Treaty was deeply unpopular across Russia's political spectrum,[239] and several Bolsheviks
and Left Socialist Revolutionaries resigned from Sovnarkom in protest.[240] After the Treaty, Sovnarkom
focused on trying to foment proletarian revolution in Germany, issuing an array of anti-war and anti-government publications in the country; the German government retaliated by expelling Russia's diplomats.[241] The Treaty nevertheless failed to stop the Central Powers' defeat; in November 1918, the German Emperor Wilhelm II resigned and the country's new administration signed the Armistice with the Allies. As a result, Sovnarkom
proclaimed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk void.[242]

Anti-Kulak campaigns, Cheka, and Red Terror: 1918–1922 See also: Decossackisation

[The bourgeoisie] practised terror against the workers, soldiers and peasants in the interests of a small group of landowners and bankers, whereas the Soviet regime applies decisive measures against landowners, plunderers and their accomplices in the interests of the workers, soldiers and peasants. — Lenin
on the Red Terror[243]

By early 1918, many cities in western Russia
faced famine as a result of chronic food shortages.[244] Lenin
blamed this on the kulaks, or wealthier peasants, who allegedly hoarded the grain that they had produced to increase its financial value. In May 1918, he issued a requisitioning order that established armed detachments to confiscate grain from kulaks for distribution in the cities, and in June called for the formation of Committees of Poor Peasants
Committees of Poor Peasants
to aid in requisitioning.[245] This policy resulted in vast social disorder and violence, as armed detachments often clashed with peasant groups, helping to set the stage for the civil war.[246] A prominent example of Lenin's views was his August 1918 telegram to the Bolsheviks
of Penza, which called upon them to suppress a peasant insurrection by publicly hanging at least 100 "known kulaks, rich men, [and] bloodsuckers".[247] Requisitioning disincentivised peasants from producing more grain than they could personally consume, and thus production slumped.[248] A booming black market supplemented the official state-sanctioned economy,[249] and Lenin
called on speculators, black marketeers and looters to be shot.[250] Both the Socialist Revolutionaries and Left Socialist Revolutionaries condemned the armed appropriations of grain at the Fifth All-Russian Congress of Soviets in July 1918.[251] Realising that the Committees of the Poor Peasants were also persecuting peasants who were not kulaks and thus contributing to anti-government feeling among the peasantry, in December 1918 Lenin
abolished them.[252] Lenin
repeatedly emphasised the need for terror and violence in overthrowing the old order and ensuring the success of the revolution.[253] Speaking to the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets in November 1917, he declared that "the state is an institution built up for the sake of exercising violence. Previously, this violence was exercised by a handful of moneybags over the entire people; now we want ... to organise violence in the interests of the people."[254] He strongly opposed suggestions to abolish capital punishment.[255] Fearing anti-Bolshevik forces would overthrow his administration, in December 1917 Lenin ordered the establishment of the Emergency Commission for Combating Counter- Revolution
and Sabotage, or Cheka, a political police force led by Felix Dzerzhinsky.[256]

with his wife and sister in a car after watching a Red Army parade at Khodynka Field in Moscow, May Day 1918 In September 1918, Sovnarkom
passed a decree that inaugurated the Red Terror, a system of repression orchestrated by the Cheka.[257] Although sometimes described as an attempt to eliminate the entire bourgeoisie,[258] Lenin
did not want to exterminate all members of this class, merely those who sought to reinstate their rule.[259] The majority of the Terror's victims were well-to-do citizens or former members of the Tsarist administration;[260] others were non-bourgeois anti-Bolsheviks and perceived social undesirables such as prostitutes.[261] The Cheka
claimed the right to both sentence and execute anyone whom it deemed to be an enemy of the government, without recourse to the Revolutionary Tribunals.[262] Accordingly, throughout Soviet Russia
the Cheka
carried out killings, often in large numbers.[263] For example, the Petrograd
executed 512 people in a few days.[264] There are no surviving records to provide an accurate figure of how many perished in the Red Terror;[265] later estimates of historians have ranged between 10,000 and 15,000,[266] and 50,000 to 140,000.[267] Lenin
never witnessed this violence or participated in it first-hand,[268] and publicly distanced himself from it.[269] His published articles and speeches rarely called for executions, but he regularly did so in his coded telegrams and confidential notes.[270] Many Bolsheviks
expressed disapproval of the Cheka's mass executions and feared the organisation's apparent unaccountability.[271] The Party tried to restrain its activities in February 1919, stripping it of its powers of tribunal and execution in those areas not under official martial law, but the Cheka
continued as before in swathes of the country.[272] By 1920, the Cheka
had become the most powerful institution in Soviet Russia, exerting influence over all other state apparatus.[273] A decree in April 1919 resulted in the establishment of concentration camps, which were entrusted to the Cheka,[274] later administered by a new government agency, Gulag.[275] By the end of 1920, 84 camps had been established across Soviet Russia, holding about 50,000 prisoners; by October 1923, this had grown to 315 camps and about 70,000 inmates.[276] Those interned in the camps were used as slave labour.[277] From July 1922, intellectuals deemed to be opposing the Bolshevik government were exiled to inhospitable regions or deported from Russia
altogether; Lenin
personally scrutinised the lists of those to be dealt with in this manner.[278] In May 1922, Lenin
issued a decree calling for the execution of anti-Bolshevik priests, causing between 14,000 and 20,000 deaths.[279] The Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
was worst affected; the government's anti-religious policies also impacted on Roman Catholic and Protestant
churches, Jewish
synagogues, and Islamic mosques.[280]

Civil War
and the Polish–Soviet War: 1918–1920

The existence of the Soviet Republic alongside the imperialist states over the long run is unthinkable. In the end, either the one or the other will triumph. And until that end will have arrived, a series of the most terrible conflicts between the Soviet Republic and the bourgeois governments is unavoidable. This means that the ruling class, the proletariat, if it only wishes to rule and is to rule, must demonstrate this also with its military organization. — Lenin
on war[281]

expected Russia's aristocracy and bourgeoisie to oppose his government, but he believed that the numerical superiority of the lower classes, coupled with the Bolsheviks' ability to effectively organise them, guaranteed a swift victory in any conflict.[282] In this, he failed to anticipate the intensity of the violent opposition to Bolshevik rule in Russia.[282] The ensuing Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
pitted the pro-Bolshevik Reds against the anti-Bolshevik Whites, but also encompassed ethnic conflicts on Russia's borders and conflict between both Red and White armies and local peasant groups, the Green armies, throughout the former Empire.[283] Accordingly, various historians have seen the civil war as representing two distinct conflicts: one between the revolutionaries and the counter-revolutionaries, and the other between different revolutionary factions.[284] The White armies were established by former Tsarist military officers,[285] and included Anton Denikin's Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
in South Russia,[286] Alexander Kolchak's forces in Siberia,[287] and Nikolai Yudenich's troops in the newly independent Baltic states.[288] The Whites were bolstered when 35,000 members of the Czech Legion – prisoners of war from the conflict with the Central Powers
Central Powers
– turned against Sovnarkom
and allied with the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly (Komuch), an anti-Bolshevik government established in Samara.[289] The Whites were also backed by Western governments who perceived the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
as a betrayal of the Allied war effort and feared the Bolsheviks' calls for world revolution.[290] In 1918, the United Kingdom, France, United States, Canada, Italy, and Serbia landed 10,000 troops in Murmansk, seizing Kandalaksha, while later that year British, American, and Japanese forces landed in Vladivostok.[291] Western troops soon pulled out of the civil war, instead only supporting the Whites with officers, technicians and armaments, but Japan remained because they saw the conflict as an opportunity for territorial expansion.[292] Lenin
tasked Trotsky with establishing a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, and with his support, Trotsky organised a Revolutionary Military Council in September 1918, remaining its chairman until 1925.[293] Recognising their valuable military experience, Lenin
agreed that officers from the old Tsarist army could serve in the Red Army, although Trotsky established military councils to monitor their activities.[294] The Reds held control of Russia's two largest cities, Moscow and Petrograd, as well as most of Great Russia, while the Whites were located largely on the former Empire's peripheries.[295] The latter were therefore hindered by being both fragmented and geographically scattered,[296] and because their ethnic Russian supremacism alienated the region's national minorities.[297] Anti-Bolshevik armies carried out the White Terror, a campaign of violence against perceived Bolshevik supporters which was typically more spontaneous than the state-sanctioned Red Terror.[298] Both White and Red Armies were responsible for attacks against Jewish
communities, prompting Lenin
to issue a condemnation of anti-Semitism, blaming prejudice against Jews on capitalist propaganda.[299]

A White Russian anti-Bolshevik propaganda poster, in which Lenin
is depicted in a red robe, aiding other Bolsheviks
in sacrificing Russia to a statue of Marx (c. 1918-1919) In July 1918, Sverdlov informed Sovnarkom
that the Ural Regional Soviet had overseen the execution of the former Tsar
and his immediate family in Yekaterinburg
to prevent them from being rescued by advancing White troops.[300] Although lacking proof, biographers and historians like Richard Pipes
Richard Pipes
and Dmitri Volkogonov have expressed the view that the killing was probably sanctioned by Lenin;[301] conversely, historian James Ryan cautioned that there was "no reason" to believe this.[302] Whether Lenin sanctioned it or not, he still regarded it as necessary, highlighting the precedent set by the execution of Louis XVI in the French Revolution.[303] After the Brest-Litovsk
Treaty, the Left Socialist Revolutionaries had abandoned the coalition and increasingly viewed the Bolsheviks
as traitors to the revolution.[304] In July 1918, the Left Socialist Revolutionary Yakov Grigorevich Blumkin assassinated the German ambassador to Russia, Wilhelm von Mirbach, hoping that the ensuing diplomatic incident would lead to a relaunched revolutionary war against Germany.[305] The Left Socialist Revolutionaries then launched a coup in Moscow, shelling the Kremlin
and seizing the city's central post office before being stopped by Trotsky's forces.[306] The party's leaders and many members were arrested and imprisoned, but were treated more leniently than other opponents of the Bolsheviks.[307] By 1919, the White armies were in retreat and by the start of 1920 were defeated on all three fronts.[308] Although Sovnarkom were victorious, the territorial extent of the Russian state had been reduced, for many non-Russian ethnic groups had used the disarray to push for national independence.[309] In some cases—such as the north-eastern European nations of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland—the Soviets recognised their independence and concluded peace treaties.[310] In other cases, the Red Army
Red Army
suppressed secessionist movements; by 1921 they had defeated the Ukrainian national movements and occupied the Caucasus, although fighting in Central Asia
Central Asia
lasted until the late 1920s.[311] After the German Ober Ost
Ober Ost
garrisons were withdrawn from the Eastern Front following the Armistice, both Soviet Russian armies and Polish ones moved in to fill the vacuum.[312] The newly independent Polish state and the Soviet government each sought territorial expansion in the region.[313] Polish and Russian troops first clashed in February 1919,[314] with the conflict developing into the Polish–Soviet War.[315] Unlike the Soviets' previous conflicts, this had greater implications for the export of revolution and the future of Europe.[316] Polish forces pushed into Ukraine and by May 1920 had taken Kiev
from the Soviets.[317] After forcing the Polish Army
Polish Army
back, Lenin
urged the Red Army
Red Army
to invade Poland itself, believing that the Polish proletariat would rise up to support the Russian troops and thus spark European revolution. Trotsky and other Bolsheviks
were sceptical, but agreed to the invasion. The Polish proletariat did not rise, and the Red Army
Red Army
was defeated at the Battle of Warsaw.[318] The Polish armies pushed the Red Army
Red Army
back into Russia, forcing Sovnarkom
to sue for peace; the war culminated in the Peace
of Riga, in which Russia ceded territory to Poland.[319]

Comintern and world revolution: 1919–1920 Main article: Revolutions of 1917–23 Photograph of Lenin
on 1 May 1919, taken by Grigori Petrovich Goldstein After the Armistice on the Western Front, Lenin
believed that the breakout of European revolution was imminent.[320] Seeking to promote this, Sovnarkom
supported the establishment of Béla Kun's communist government in Hungary in March 1919, followed by the communist government in Bavaria and various revolutionary socialist uprisings in other parts of Germany, including that of the Spartacus League.[321] During Russia's Civil War, the Red Army
Red Army
was sent into the newly independent national republics on Russia's borders to aid Marxists there in establishing soviet systems of government.[322] In Europe, this resulted in the creation of new communist-led states in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, all of which were officially independent of Russia,[322] while further east it led to the creation of communist governments in Georgia, and then in Outer Mongolia.[323] Various senior Bolsheviks
wanted these absorbed into the Russian state; Lenin
insisted that national sensibilities should be respected, but reassured his comrades that these nations' new Communist Party administrations were under the de facto authority of Sovnarkom.[324] In late 1918, the British Labour Party called for the establishment of an international conference of socialist parties, the Labour and Socialist International.[325] Lenin
saw this as a revival of the Second International, which he had despised, and formulated his own rival international socialist conference to offset its impact.[326] Organised with the aid of Zinoviev, Trotsky, Christian Rakovsky, and Angelica Balabanoff,[326] the First Congress of this Communist International
Communist International
("Comintern") opened in Moscow in March 1919.[327] It lacked global coverage; of the 34 assembled delegates, 30 resided within the countries of the former Russian Empire, and most of the international delegates were not recognised by any socialist parties in their own nations.[328] Accordingly, the Bolsheviks
dominated proceedings,[329] with Lenin
subsequently authoring a series of regulations that meant that only socialist parties endorsing the Bolsheviks' views were permitted to join Comintern.[330] During the first conference, Lenin spoke to the delegates, lambasting the parliamentary path to socialism espoused by revisionist Marxists like Kautsky and repeating his calls for a violent overthrow of Europe's bourgeoisie governments.[331] While Zinoviev became Comintern's President, Lenin
retained significant influence over it.[332] The Second Congress of the Communist International
Communist International
opened in Petrograd's Smolny Institute
Smolny Institute
in July 1920, representing the last time that Lenin
visited a city other than Moscow.[333] There, he encouraged foreign delegates to emulate the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, and abandoned his longstanding viewpoint that capitalism was a necessary stage in societal development, instead encouraging those nations under colonial occupation to transform their pre-capitalist societies directly into socialist ones.[334] For this conference, he authored "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder, a short book articulating his criticism of elements within the British and German communist parties who refused to enter their nations' parliamentary systems and trade unions; instead he urged them to do so to advance the revolutionary cause.[335] The conference had to be suspended for several days due to the ongoing war with Poland,[336] and was relocated to Moscow, where it continued to hold sessions until August.[337] Lenin's predicted world revolution did not materialise, as the Hungarian communist government was overthrown and the German Marxist uprisings suppressed.[338]

Famine and the New Economic Policy: 1920–1922 Within the Communist Party, there was dissent from two factions, the Group of Democratic Centralism and the Workers' Opposition, both of which accused the Russian state of being too centralised and bureaucratic.[339] The Workers' Opposition, which had connections to the official state trade unions, also expressed the concern that the government had lost the trust of the Russian working class.[340] They were angered by Trotsky's suggestion that the trade unions be eliminated. He deemed the unions to be superfluous in a "workers' state", but Lenin
disagreed, believing it best to retain them; most Bolsheviks
embraced Lenin's view in the 'trade union discussion'.[341] To deal with the dissent, at the Tenth Party Congress in February 1921, Lenin
introduced a ban on factional activity within the party, under pain of expulsion.[342]

Victims of the famine in Buzuluk, Volga region, next to Saratov Caused in part by a drought, the Russian famine of 1921
Russian famine of 1921
was the most severe that the country had experienced since that of 1891,[343] resulting in around five million deaths.[344] The famine was exacerbated by government requisitioning, as well as the export of large quantities of Russian grain.[345] To aid the famine victims, the US government established an American Relief Administration
American Relief Administration
to distribute food;[346] Lenin
was suspicious of this aid and had it closely monitored.[347] During the famine, Patriarch Tikhon
Patriarch Tikhon
called on Orthodox churches to sell unnecessary items to help feed the starving, an action endorsed by the government.[348] In February 1922 Sovnarkom
went further by calling on all valuables belonging to religious institutions to be forcibly appropriated and sold.[349] Tikhon opposed the sale of items used within the Eucharist
and many clergy resisted the appropriations, resulting in violence.[350] In 1920 and 1921, local opposition to requisitioning resulted in anti-Bolshevik peasant uprisings breaking out across Russia, which were suppressed.[351] Among the most significant was the Tambov Rebellion, which was put down by the Red Army.[352] In February 1921, workers went on strike in Petrograd, resulting in the government proclaiming martial law in the city and sending in the Red Army to quell demonstrations.[353] In March, the Kronstadt rebellion began when sailors in Kronstadt
revolted against the Bolshevik government, demanding that all socialists be allowed to publish freely, that independent trade unions be given freedom of assembly and that peasants be allowed free markets and not be subject to requisitioning. Lenin
declared that the mutineers had been misled by the Socialist Revolutionaries and foreign imperialists, calling for violent reprisals.[354] Under Trotsky's leadership, the Red Army put down the rebellion on 17 March, resulting in thousands of deaths and the internment of survivors in labour camps.[355]

You must attempt first to build small bridges which shall lead to a land of small peasant holdings through State Capitalism
to Socialism. Otherwise you will never lead tens of millions of people to Communism. This is what the objective forces of the development of the Revolution have taught. — Lenin
on the NEP, 1921[356]

In February 1921, Lenin
introduced a New Economic Policy
New Economic Policy
(NEP) to the Politburo; he convinced most senior Bolsheviks
of its necessity and it passed into law in April.[357] Lenin
explained the policy in a booklet, On the Food Tax, in which he stated that the NEP represented a return to the original Bolshevik economic plans; he claimed that these had been derailed by the civil war, in which Sovnarkom
had been forced to resort to the economic policies of "war communism".[358] The NEP allowed some private enterprise within Russia, permitting the reintroduction of the wage system and allowing peasants to sell produce on the open market while being taxed on their earnings.[359] The policy also allowed for a return to privately owned small industry; basic industry, transport and foreign trade remained under state control.[360] Lenin
termed this "state capitalism",[361] and many Bolsheviks
thought it to be a betrayal of socialist principles.[362] Lenin biographers have often characterised the introduction of the NEP as one of his most significant achievements and some believe that had it not been implemented then Sovnarkom
would have been quickly overthrown by popular uprisings.[363] In January 1920, the government brought in universal labour conscription, ensuring that all citizens aged between 16 and 50 had to work.[364] Lenin
also called for a mass electrification project, the GOELRO plan, which began in February 1920; Lenin's declaration that "communism is Soviet power plus the electrification of the whole country" was widely cited in later years.[365] Seeking to advance the Russian economy through foreign trade, Sovnarkom
sent delegates to the Genoa Conference; Lenin
had hoped to attend but was prevented by ill health.[366] The conference resulted in a Russian agreement with Germany, which followed on from an earlier trade agreement with the United Kingdom.[367] Lenin hoped that by allowing foreign corporations to invest in Russia, Sovnarkom
would exacerbate rivalries between the capitalist nations and hasten their downfall; he tried to rent the oil fields of Kamchatka
to an American corporation to heighten tensions between the US and Japan, who desired Kamchatka
for their empire.[368]

Declining health and arguments with Stalin: 1920–1923 Lenin
in 1923, in a wheelchair To Lenin's embarrassment and horror, in April 1920 the Bolsheviks
held a party to celebrate his fiftieth birthday, which was also marked by widespread celebrations across Russia
and the publication of poems and biographies dedicated to him.[369] Between 1920 and 1926, twenty volumes of Lenin's Collected Works were published; some material was omitted.[370] During 1920, several prominent Western figures visited Lenin
in Russia; these included the author H. G. Wells and the philosopher Bertrand Russell,[371] as well as the anarchists Emma Goldman
Emma Goldman
and Alexander Berkman.[372] Lenin was also visited at the Kremlin
by Armand, who was in increasingly poor health.[373] He sent her to a sanatorium in Kislovodsk
in the Northern Caucasus
to recover, but she died there in September 1920 during a cholera epidemic.[374] Her body was transported to Moscow, where a visibly grief-stricken Lenin
oversaw her burial beneath the Kremlin
Wall.[375] Lenin
was seriously ill by the latter half of 1921,[376] suffering from hyperacusis, insomnia, and regular headaches.[377] At the Politburo's insistence, in July he left Moscow for a month's leave at his Gorki mansion, where he was cared for by his wife and sister.[378] Lenin
began to contemplate the possibility of suicide, asking both Krupskaya and Stalin to acquire potassium cyanide for him.[379] Twenty-six physicians were hired to help Lenin
during his final years; many of them were foreign and had been hired at great expense.[380] Some suggested that his sickness could have been caused by metal oxidation from the bullets that were lodged in his body from the 1918 assassination attempt; in April 1922 he underwent a surgical operation to remove them.[381] The symptoms continued after this, with Lenin's doctors unsure of the cause; some suggested that he was suffering from neurasthenia or cerebral arteriosclerosis; others believed that he had syphilis,[382] an idea endorsed in a 2004 report by a team of neuroscientists, who suggested that this was later deliberately concealed by the government.[383] In May 1922, he suffered his first stroke, temporarily losing his ability to speak and being paralysed on his right side.[384] He convalesced at Gorki, and had largely recovered by July.[385] In October he returned to Moscow; in December he suffered a second stroke and returned to Gorki.[386]

spent his final years largely at his Gorki mansion. Despite his illness, Lenin
remained keenly interested in political developments. When the Socialist Revolutionary Party's leadership was found guilty of conspiring against the government in a trial held between June and August 1922, Lenin
called for their execution; they were instead imprisoned indefinitely, only being executed during the Great Purges
Great Purges
of Stalin's leadership.[387] With Lenin's support, the government also succeeded in virtually eradicating Menshevism in Russia
by expelling all Mensheviks
from state institutions and enterprises in March 1923 and then imprisoning the party's membership in concentration camps.[388] Lenin
was concerned by the survival of the Tsarist bureaucratic system in Soviet Russia,[389] and became increasingly worried by this in his final years.[390] Condemning bureaucratic attitudes, he suggested a total overhaul to deal with such problems,[391] in one letter complaining that "we are being sucked into a foul bureaucratic swamp".[392] Krupskaya later produced a document that came to be known as "Lenin's Testament"; she stated that her husband had dictated it between December 1922 and January 1923. The document discussed the personal qualities of Lenin's comrades, particularly Trotsky and Stalin.[393] It recommended that Stalin be removed from the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party, deeming him ill-suited for the position.[394] Instead it recommended Trotsky for the job, describing him as "the most capable man in the present Central Committee"; it highlighted Trotsky's superior intellect but at the same time criticised his self-assurance and inclination toward excess administration.[395] Some historians have questioned whether Lenin
ever produced the document, suggesting instead that it may have been written by Krupskaya, who had personal differences with Stalin;[396] Stalin never publicly voiced concerns about its authenticity.[397] During this period, Lenin
dictated a criticism of the bureaucratic nature of the Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate, calling for the recruitment of new, working-class staff as an antidote to this problem,[398] while in another article he called for the state to combat illiteracy, promote punctuality and conscientiousness within the populace, and encourage peasants to join co‑operatives.[399]

Stalin is too crude, and this defect which is entirely acceptable in our milieu and in relationships among us as communists, becomes unacceptable in the position of General Secretary. I therefore propose to comrades that they should devise a means of removing him from this job and should appoint to this job someone else who is distinguished from comrade Stalin in all other respects only by the single superior aspect that he should be more tolerant, more polite and more attentive towards comrades, less capricious, etc. —Lenin, 4 January 1923[186]

In Lenin's absence, Stalin had begun consolidating his power both by appointing his supporters to prominent positions,[400] and by cultivating an image of himself as Lenin's closest intimate and deserving successor.[401] In December 1922, Stalin took responsibility for Lenin's regimen, being tasked by the Politburo with controlling who had access to him.[402] Lenin
was increasingly critical of Stalin; while Lenin
was insisting that the state should retain its monopoly on international trade during mid-1922, Stalin was leading other Bolsheviks
in unsuccessfully opposing this.[403] There were personal arguments between the two as well; Stalin had upset Krupskaya by shouting at her during a phone conversation, which in turn greatly angered Lenin, who sent Stalin a letter expressing his annoyance.[404] The most significant political division between the two emerged during the Georgian Affair. Stalin had suggested that both Georgia and neighbouring countries like Azerbaijan and Armenia should be merged into the Russian state, despite the protestations of their national governments.[405] Lenin
saw this as an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Stalin and his supporters, instead calling for these nation-states to join Russia
as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he suggested be called the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia.[406] After some resistance to the proposal, Stalin eventually accepted it, but – with Lenin's agreement – he changed the name of the newly proposed state to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR).[407] Lenin
sent Trotsky to speak on his behalf at a Central Committee plenum in December, where the plans for the USSR were sanctioned; these plans were then ratified on 30 December by the Congress of Soviets, resulting in the formation of the Soviet Union.[408] Despite his poor health, Lenin
was elected chairman of the new government of the Soviet Union.[409]

Death and funeral: 1923–1924 Main article: Death and state funeral of Vladimir Lenin In March 1923, Lenin
suffered a third stroke and lost his ability to speak;[410] that month, he experienced partial paralysis on his right side and began exhibiting sensory aphasia.[411] By May, he appeared to be making a slow recovery, regaining some of his mobility, speech, and writing skills.[412] In October, he made a final visit to the Kremlin.[413] In his final weeks, Lenin was visited by Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Bukharin, with the latter visiting him at his Gorki mansion on the day of his death.[414] On 21 January 1924, Lenin
fell into a coma and died later that day.[415] His official cause of death was recorded as an incurable disease of the blood vessels.[416] The government publicly announced Lenin's death the following day.[417] On 23 January, mourners from the Communist Party, trade unions, and soviets visited his Gorki home to inspect the body, which was carried aloft in a red coffin by leading Bolsheviks.[418] Transported by train to Moscow, the coffin was taken to the House of Trade Unions, where the body lay in state.[419] Over the next three days, around a million mourners came to see the body, many queuing for hours in the freezing conditions.[420] On 26 January, the eleventh All-Union Congress of Soviets met to pay respects to the leader, with speeches being made by Kalinin, Zinoviev, and Stalin, but notably not Trotsky, who had been convalescing in the Caucasus.[420] Lenin's funeral took place the following day, when his body was carried to Red Square, accompanied by martial music, where assembled crowds listened to a series of speeches before the corpse was placed into the vault of a specially erected mausoleum.[421] Despite the freezing temperatures, tens of thousands attended.[422] Against Krupskaya's protestations, Lenin's body was embalmed to preserve it for long-term public display in the Red Square mausoleum.[423] During this process, Lenin's brain was removed; in 1925 an institute was established to dissect it, revealing that Lenin
had suffered from severe sclerosis.[424] In July 1929, the Politburo agreed to replace the temporary mausoleum with a permanent granite alternative, which was finished in 1933.[425] The sarcophagus in which Lenin's corpse was contained was replaced in 1940 and again in 1970.[426] From 1941 to 1945 the body was moved from Moscow and stored in Tyumen
for safety amid the Second World
Second World
War.[427] As of 2019 the body remains on public display in Lenin's Mausoleum
Lenin's Mausoleum
on Red Square.[428]

Political ideology Marxism
and Leninism Main articles: Leninism
and Marxism–Leninism

We do not pretend that Marx or Marxists know the road to socialism in all its concreteness. That is nonsense. We know the direction of the road, we know what class forces will lead it, but concretely, practically, this will be shown by the experience of the millions when they undertake the act. —Lenin, 11 September 1917[429]

was a devout Marxist,[430] and believed that his interpretation of Marxism
– first termed "Leninism" by Martov in 1904[431] – was the sole authentic and orthodox one.[432] According to his Marxist perspective, humanity would eventually reach pure communism, becoming a stateless, classless, egalitarian society of workers who were free from exploitation and alienation, controlled their own destiny, and abided by the rule "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs".[433] According to Volkogonov, Lenin
"deeply and sincerely" believed that the path he was setting Russia
on would ultimately lead to the establishment of this communist society.[434] Lenin's Marxist beliefs led him to the view that society could not transform directly from its present state to communism, but must first enter a period of socialism, and so his main concern was how to convert Russia
into a socialist society. To do so, he believed that a "dictatorship of the proletariat" was necessary to suppress the bourgeoisie and develop a socialist economy.[435] He defined socialism as "an order of civilized co-operators in which the means of production are socially owned",[436] and believed that this economic system had to be expanded until it could create a society of abundance.[433] To achieve this, he saw bringing the Russian economy under state control to be his central concern, with – in his words – "all citizens" becoming "hired employees of the state".[437] Lenin's interpretation of socialism was centralised, planned, and statist, with both production and distribution strictly controlled.[433] He believed that all workers throughout the country would voluntarily join together to enable the state's economic and political centralisation.[438] In this way, his calls for "workers' control" of the means of production referred not to the direct control of enterprises by their workers, but the operation of all enterprises under the control of a "workers' state".[439] This resulted in what some perceive as two conflicting themes within Lenin's thought: popular workers' control, and a centralised, hierarchical, coercive state apparatus.[440]

speaking in 1919 Before 1914, Lenin's views were largely in accordance with mainstream European Marxist orthodoxy.[430] Although he derided Marxists who adopted ideas from contemporary non-Marxist philosophers and sociologists,[441] his own ideas were influenced not only by Russian Marxist theory but also by wider ideas from the Russian revolutionary movement,[442] including those of the Narodnik agrarian-socialists.[443] He adapted his ideas according to changing circumstances,[444] including the pragmatic realities of governing Russia
amid war, famine, and economic collapse.[445] Thus, as Leninism
developed, Lenin
revised the established Marxist orthodoxy and introduced innovations in Marxist thought.[430] In his theoretical writings, particularly Imperialism, Lenin
discussed what he regarded as developments in capitalism since Marx's death; in his view, it had reached a new stage: state monopoly capitalism.[446] He believed that although Russia's economy was dominated by the peasantry, the presence of monopoly capitalism in Russia
meant that the country was sufficiently materially developed to move to socialism.[447] Leninism
adopted a more absolutist and doctrinaire perspective than other variants of Marxism,[430] and distinguished itself by the emotional intensity of its liberationist vision.[448] It also stood out by emphasising the role of a vanguard who could lead the proletariat to revolution,[448] and elevated the role of violence as a revolutionary instrument.[449]

and the national question

[Lenin] accepted truth as handed down by Marx and selected data and arguments to bolster that truth. He did not question old Marxist scripture, he merely commented, and the comments have become a new scripture. —Biographer Louis Fischer, 1964[450]

believed that the representative democracy of capitalist countries gave the illusion of democracy while maintaining the "dictatorship of the bourgeoisie"; describing the representative democratic system of the United States, he referred to the "spectacular and meaningless duels between two bourgeois parties", both of whom were led by "astute multimillionaires" that exploited the American proletariat.[451] He opposed liberalism, exhibiting a general antipathy toward liberty as a value,[452] and believing that liberalism's freedoms were fraudulent because it did not free labourers from capitalist exploitation.[453] He declared that "Soviet government is many millions of times more democratic than the most democratic-bourgeois republic", the latter of which was simply "a democracy for the rich".[454] He regarded his "dictatorship of the proletariat" as democratic because, he claimed, it involved the election of representatives to the soviets, workers electing their own officials, and the regular rotation and involvement of all workers in the administration of the state.[455] Lenin's belief as to what a proletariat state should look like nevertheless deviated from that adopted by the Marxist mainstream; European Marxists like Kautsky envisioned a democratically-elected parliamentary government in which the proletariat had a majority, whereas Lenin
called for a strong, centralised state apparatus that excluded any input from the bourgeois.[448] Lenin
was an internationalist and a keen supporter of world revolution, deeming national borders to be an outdated concept and nationalism a distraction from class struggle.[456] He believed that in a socialist society, the world's nations would inevitably merge and result in a single world government.[457] He believed that this socialist state would need to be a centralised, unitary one, and regarded federalism as a bourgeois concept.[458] In his writings, Lenin
espoused anti-imperialist ideas and stated that all nations deserved "the right of self-determination".[459] He thus supported wars of national liberation, accepting that such conflicts might be necessary for a minority group to break away from a socialist state, because socialist states are not "holy or insured against mistakes or weaknesses".[460] Prior to taking power in 1917, he was concerned that ethnic and national minorities would make the Soviet state ungovernable with their calls for independence; according to the historian Simon Sebag Montefiore, Lenin
thus encouraged Stalin to develop "a theory that offered the ideal of autonomy and the right of secession without necessarily having to grant either".[461] On taking power, Lenin
called for the dismantling of the bonds that had forced minority ethnic groups to remain in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and espoused their right to secede, but also expected them to reunite immediately in the spirit of proletariat internationalism.[462] He was willing to use military force to ensure this unity, resulting in armed incursions into the independent states that formed in Ukraine, Georgia, Poland, Finland, and the Baltic states.[463] Only when its conflicts with Finland, the Baltic states, and Poland proved unsuccessful did Lenin's government officially recognise their independence.[464]

Personal life and characteristics Lenin
saw himself as a man of destiny, and firmly believed in the righteousness of his cause and his own ability as a revolutionary leader.[465] Biographer Louis Fischer described him as "a lover of radical change and maximum upheaval", a man for whom "there was never a middle-ground. He was an either-or, black-or-red exaggerator".[466] Highlighting Lenin's "extraordinary capacity for disciplined work" and "devotion to the revolutionary cause", Pipes noted that he exhibited much charisma.[467] Similarly, Volkogonov believed that "by the very force of his personality, [Lenin] had an influence over people".[468] Conversely, Lenin's friend Gorky commented that in his physical appearance as a "baldheaded, stocky, sturdy person", the communist revolutionary was "too ordinary" and did not give "the impression of being a leader".[469]

[Lenin's collected writings] reveal in detail a man with iron will, self-enslaving self-discipline, scorn for opponents and obstacles, the cold determination of a zealot, the drive of a fanatic, and the ability to convince or browbeat weaker persons by his singleness of purpose, imposing intensity, impersonal approach, personal sacrifice, political astuteness, and complete conviction of the possession of the absolute truth. His life became the history of the Bolshevik movement. —Biographer Louis Fischer, 1964[470]

Historian and biographer Robert Service asserted that Lenin
had been an intensely emotional young man,[471] who exhibited strong hatred for the Tsarist authorities.[472] According to Service, Lenin
developed an "emotional attachment" to his ideological heroes, such as Marx, Engels and Chernyshevsky; he owned portraits of them,[473] and privately described himself as being "in love" with Marx and Engels.[474] According to Lenin
biographer James D. White, Lenin
treated their writings as "holy writ", a "religious dogma", which should "not be questioned but believed in".[475] In Volkogonov's view, Lenin
accepted Marxism
as "absolute truth", and accordingly acted like "a religious fanatic".[476] Similarly, Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
felt that Lenin
exhibited "unwavering faith – religious faith in the Marxian gospel".[477] Biographer Christopher Read suggested that Lenin
was "a secular equivalent of theocratic leaders who derive their legitimacy from the [perceived] truth of their doctrines, not popular mandates".[478] Lenin was nevertheless an atheist and a critic of religion, believing that socialism was inherently atheistic; he thus considered Christian socialism a contradiction in terms.[479] Service stated that Lenin
could be "moody and volatile",[480] and Pipes deemed him to be "a thoroughgoing misanthrope",[481] a view rejected by Read, who highlighted many instances in which Lenin displayed kindness, particularly toward children.[482] According to several biographers, Lenin
was intolerant of opposition and often dismissed outright opinions that differed from his own.[483] He could be "venomous in his critique of others", exhibiting a propensity for mockery, ridicule, and ad hominem attacks on those who disagreed with him.[484] He ignored facts that did not suit his argument,[485] abhorred compromise,[486] and very rarely admitted his own errors.[487] He refused to change his opinions, until he rejected them completely, after which he would treat the new view as if it was just as unchangeable.[488] Lenin
showed no sign of sadism or of personally desiring to commit violent acts, but he endorsed the violent actions of others and exhibited no remorse for those killed for the revolutionary cause.[489] Adopting an amoral stance, in Lenin's view the end always justified the means;[490] according to Service, Lenin's "criterion of morality was simple: does a certain action advance or hinder the cause of the Revolution?"[491]

The Lenin
who seemed externally so gentle and good-natured, who enjoyed a laugh, who loved animals and was prone to sentimental reminiscences, was transformed when class or political questions arose. He at once became savagely sharp, uncompromising, remorseless and vengeful. Even in such a state he was capable of black humour. —Biographer Dmitri Volkogonov, 1994[492]

Aside from Russian, Lenin
spoke and read French, German, and English.[493] Concerned with physical fitness, he exercised regularly,[494] enjoyed cycling, swimming, and hunting,[495] and also developed a passion for mountain walking in the Swiss peaks.[496] He was also fond of pets,[497] in particular cats.[498] Tending to eschew luxury, he lived a spartan lifestyle,[499] and Pipes noted that Lenin
was "exceedingly modest in his personal wants", leading "an austere, almost ascetic, style of life".[500] Lenin
despised untidiness, always keeping his work desk tidy and his pencils sharpened, and insisted on total silence while he was working.[501] According to Fischer, Lenin's "vanity was minimal",[502] and for this reason he disliked the cult of personality that the Soviet administration began to build around him; he nevertheless accepted that it might have some benefits in unifying the communist movement.[503] Despite his revolutionary politics, Lenin
disliked revolutionary experimentation in literature and the arts, for instance expressing his dislike of expressionism, futurism, and cubism, and conversely favouring realism and Russian classic literature.[504] Lenin also had a conservative attitude towards sex and marriage.[505] Throughout his adult life, he was in a relationship with Krupskaya, a fellow Marxist whom he married. Lenin and Krupskaya both regretted that they never had children,[506] and they enjoyed entertaining their friends' offspring.[507] Read noted that Lenin
had "very close, warm, lifelong relationships" with his close family members;[508] he had no lifelong friends, and Armand has been cited as being his only close, intimate confidante.[509] Ethnically, Lenin
identified as Russian.[510] Service described Lenin
as "a bit of a snob in national, social and cultural terms".[511] The Bolshevik leader believed that other European countries, especially Germany, were culturally superior to Russia,[512] describing the latter as "one of the most benighted, medieval and shamefully backward of Asian countries".[451] He was annoyed at what he perceived as a lack of conscientiousness and discipline among the Russian people, and from his youth had wanted Russia
to become more culturally European and Western.[513]

Legacy See also: List of places named after Vladimir Lenin, List of statues of Vladimir Lenin, and Leniniana Volkogonov claimed that "there can scarcely have been another man in history who managed so profoundly to change so large a society on such a scale".[514] Lenin's administration laid the framework for the system of government that ruled Russia
for seven decades and provided the model for later Communist-led states that came to cover a third of the inhabited world in the mid-20th century.[515] Thus, Lenin's influence was global.[516] A controversial figure, Lenin
remains both reviled and revered,[449] a figure who has been both idolised and demonised.[517] Even during his lifetime, Lenin
"was loved and hated, admired and scorned" by the Russian people.[518] This has extended into academic studies of Lenin
and Leninism, which have often been polarised along political lines.[519]

Statue of Lenin
erected by the East German Marxist-Leninist government at Leninplatz in East Berlin, East Germany
East Germany
(removed in 1992) The historian Albert Resis suggested that if the October Revolution
October Revolution
is considered the most significant event of the 20th century, then Lenin "must for good or ill be considered the century's most significant political leader".[520] White described Lenin
as "one of the undeniably outstanding figures of modern history",[521] while Service noted that the Russian leader was widely understood to be one of the 20th century's "principal actors".[522] Read considered him "one of the most widespread, universally recognizable icons of the twentieth century",[523] while Ryan called him "one of the most significant and influential figures of modern history".[524] Time magazine named Lenin
one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century,[525] and one of their top 25 political icons of all time.[526] In the Western world, biographers began writing about Lenin
soon after his death; some – like Christopher Hill – were sympathetic to him, and others – like Richard Pipes
Richard Pipes
and Robert Gellately – expressly hostile. Some later biographers, such as Read and Lars Lih, sought to avoid making either hostile or positive comments about him, thereby evading politicised stereotypes.[527] Among sympathisers, he was portrayed as having made a genuine adjustment of Marxist theory that enabled it to suit Russia's particular socio-economic conditions.[528] The Soviet view characterised him as a man who recognised the historically inevitable and accordingly helped to make the inevitable happen.[529] Conversely, the majority of Western historians have perceived him as a person who manipulated events in order to attain and then retain political power, moreover considering his ideas as attempts to ideologically justify his pragmatic policies.[529] More recently, revisionists in both Russia
and the West have highlighted the impact that pre-existing ideas and popular pressures exerted on Lenin
and his policies.[530] Various historians and biographers have characterised Lenin's administration as totalitarian,[531] and as a police state,[532] and many have described it as a one-party dictatorship.[533] Several such scholars have described Lenin as a dictator;[534] Ryan stated that he was "not a dictator in the sense that all his recommendations were accepted and implemented", for many of his colleagues disagreed with him on various issues.[535] Fischer noted that while " Lenin
was a dictator, [he was] not the kind of dictator Stalin later became",[536] while Volkogonov believed that whereas Lenin
established a "dictatorship of the Party", it would only be under Stalin that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became the "dictatorship of one man".[537] Conversely, various Marxist observers – including Western historians Hill and John Rees – argued against the view that Lenin's government was a dictatorship, viewing it instead as an imperfect way of preserving elements of democracy without some of the processes found in liberal democratic states.[538] Ryan contends that the leftist historian Paul Le Blanc "makes a quite valid point that the personal qualities that led Lenin
to brutal policies were not necessarily any stronger than in some of the major Western leaders of the twentieth century".[539] Ryan also posits that for Lenin, 'revolutionary' violence was merely a means to an end: the establishment of a socialist, ultimately communist world – a world without violence.[540] Historian J. Arch Getty remarked, " Lenin
deserves a lot of credit for the notion that the meek can inherit the earth, that there can be a political movement based on social justice and equality."[541] Some left-wing intellectuals, among them Slavoj Žižek, Alain Badiou, Lars T. Lih, and Fredric Jameson, advocate reviving Lenin's uncompromising revolutionary spirit to address contemporary global problems.[542]

Within the Soviet Union Lenin's Mausoleum, in front of the Kremlin, in 2007 In the Soviet Union, a cult of personality devoted to Lenin
began to develop during his lifetime, but was only fully established after his death.[543] According to historian Nina Tumarkin, it represented the world's "most elaborate cult of a revolutionary leader" since that of George Washington
George Washington
in the United States,[544] and has been repeatedly described as "quasi-religious" in nature.[545] Busts or statues of Lenin were erected in almost every village,[546] and his face adorned postage stamps, crockery, posters, and the front pages of Soviet newspapers Pravda
and Isvestia.[547] The places where he had lived or stayed were converted into museums devoted to him.[546] Libraries, streets, farms, museums, towns, and whole regions were named after him,[546] with the city of Petrograd being renamed "Leningrad" in 1924,[548] and his birthplace of Simbirsk becoming "Ulyanovsk".[549] The Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin
was established as one of the country's highest decorations.[547] All of this was contrary to Lenin's own desires, and was publicly criticised by his widow.[422] Various biographers have stated that Lenin's writings were treated in a manner akin to holy scripture within the Soviet Union,[550] while Pipes added that "his every opinion was cited to justify one policy or another and treated as gospel".[551] Stalin systematised Leninism
through a series of lectures at the Sverdlov University, which were then published as Questions of Leninism.[552] Stalin also had much of the deceased leader's writings collated and stored in a secret archive in the Marx–Engels– Lenin
Institute.[553] Material, such as Lenin's collection of books in Kraków, were also collected from abroad for storage in the Institute, often at great expense.[554] During the Soviet era, these writings were strictly controlled and very few had access.[555] All of Lenin's writings that proved useful to Stalin were published, but the others remained hidden,[556] and knowledge of both Lenin's non-Russian ancestry and his noble status was suppressed.[547] In particular, his Jewish
ancestry was suppressed until the 1980s,[557] perhaps out of Soviet anti-Semitism,[558] and so as not to undermine Stalin's Russification efforts,[559] and perhaps so as not to provide fuel for anti-Soviet sentiment among international anti-Semites.[558] After the discovery of Lenin's Jewish
ancestry, this aspect was repeatedly emphasised by the Russian far right, who claimed that his inherited Jewish
genetics explained his desire to uproot traditional Russian society.[560] Under Stalin's regime, Lenin
was actively portrayed as a close friend of Stalin's who had supported Stalin's bid to be the next Soviet leader.[561] During the Soviet era, five separate editions of Lenin's published works were published in Russian, the first beginning in 1920 and the last from 1958 to 1965; the fifth edition was described as "complete", but in reality had much omitted for political expediency.[562]

Commemorative one rouble coin minted in 1970 in honour of Lenin's centenary After Stalin's death, Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
became leader of the Soviet Union and began a process of de-Stalinisation, citing Lenin's writings, including those on Stalin, to legitimise this process.[563] When Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
took power in 1985 and introduced the policies of glastnost and perestroika, he too cited these actions as a return to Lenin's principles.[564] In late 1991, amid the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russian President Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
ordered the Lenin
archive be removed from Communist Party control and placed under the control of a state organ, the Russian Centre for the Preservation and Study of Documents of Recent History, at which it was revealed that over 6,000 of Lenin's writings had gone unpublished. These were declassified and made available for scholarly study.[565] Yeltsin did not dismantle the Lenin mausoleum, recognising that Lenin
was too popular and well respected among the Russian populace for this to be viable.[566] In Russia
in 2012, a proposal from the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, with the support of some members of the governing United Russia
party, proposed the removal of all Lenin
monuments, a proposal strongly opposed by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation.[567] In Ukraine, during and after the 2013–14 Euromaidan
protests, thousands of Lenin
statues were damaged or destroyed by protesters who viewed them as a symbol of Russian imperialism,[568][569] and in April 2015 the Ukrainian government ordered that all others be dismantled to comply with decommunisation laws.[570]

In the international communist movement According to Lenin
biographer David Shub, writing in 1965, it was Lenin's ideas and example that "constitutes the basis of the Communist movement today".[571] Communist regimes professing allegiance to Lenin's ideas appeared in various parts of the world during the 20th century.[524] Writing in 1972, the historian Marcel Liebman stated that "there is hardly any insurrectionary movement today, from Latin America to Angola, that does not lay claim to the heritage of Leninism".[572] After Lenin's death, Stalin's administration established an ideology known as Marxism-Leninism, a movement that came to be interpreted differently by various contending factions in the Communist movement.[573] After being forced into exile by Stalin's administration, Trotsky argued that Stalinism
was a debasement of Leninism, which was dominated by bureaucratism and Stalin's own personal dictatorship.[574] Marxism- Leninism
was adapted to many of the 20th century's most prominent revolutionary movements, forming into variants such as Stalinism, Maoism, Juche, Ho Chi Minh Thought, and Castroism.[523] Conversely, many later Western communists such as Manuel Azcárate and Jean Ellenstein who were involved in the Eurocommunist movement expressed the view that Lenin and his ideas were irrelevant to their own objectives, thereby embracing a Marxist but not Marxist-Leninist perspective.[575]

See also

Biography portal Communism
portal Politics portal Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal Lenin
Prize Lenin
Prize Marxist–Leninist atheism National delimitation in the Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin
bibliography Foreign relations of the Soviet Union Notes

^ Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов, IPA: [vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr ɪˈlʲjitɕ ʊˈlʲjanəf], tr. Vladímir Il’íč Ul’jánov

^ English: /ˈlɛnɪn/;[2] Russian: Ле́нин, IPA: [ˈlʲenʲɪn]

References Footnotes

^ a b According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia
converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration.

^ "Lenin". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 1–2; Rice 1990, pp. 12–13; Volkogonov 1994, p. 7; Service 2000, pp. 21–23; White 2001, pp. 13–15; Read 2005, p. 6.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 1–2; Rice 1990, pp. 12–13; Service 2000, pp. 21–23; White 2001, pp. 13–15; Read 2005, p. 6.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 5; Rice 1990, p. 13; Service 2000, p. 23.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 2–3; Rice 1990, p. 12; Service 2000, pp. 16–19, 23; White 2001, pp. 15–18; Read 2005, p. 5; Lih 2011, p. 20.

^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, pp. 66–67.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 6; Rice 1990, pp. 13–14, 18; Service 2000, pp. 25, 27; White 2001, pp. 18–19; Read 2005, pp. 4, 8; Lih 2011, p. 21.

^ Sebestyen 2017, p. 33.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 6; Rice 1990, p. 12; Service 2000, p. 13.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 6; Rice 1990, pp. 12, 14; Service 2000, p. 25; White 2001, pp. 19–20; Read 2005, p. 4; Lih 2011, pp. 21, 22.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 3, 8; Rice 1990, pp. 14–15; Service 2000, p. 29.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 8; Service 2000, p. 27; White 2001, p. 19.

^ Rice 1990, p. 18; Service 2000, p. 26; White 2001, p. 20; Read 2005, p. 7; Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 64.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 7; Rice 1990, p. 16; Service 2000, pp. 32–36.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 7; Rice 1990, p. 17; Service 2000, pp. 36–46; White 2001, p. 20; Read 2005, p. 9.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 6, 9; Rice 1990, p. 19; Service 2000, pp. 48–49; Read 2005, p. 10.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 9; Service 2000, pp. 50–51, 64; Read 2005, p. 16; Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 69.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 10–17; Rice 1990, pp. 20, 22–24; Service 2000, pp. 52–58; White 2001, pp. 21–28; Read 2005, p. 10; Lih 2011, pp. 23–25.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 25; Service 2000, p. 61; White 2001, p. 29; Read 2005, p. 16; Theen 2004, p. 33.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 26; Service 2000, pp. 61–63.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 26–27; Service 2000, pp. 64–68, 70; White 2001, p. 29.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 27; Service 2000, pp. 68–69; White 2001, p. 29; Read 2005, p. 15; Lih 2011, p. 32.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 28; White 2001, p. 30; Read 2005, p. 12; Lih 2011, pp. 32–33.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 18; Rice 1990, p. 310; Service 2000, p. 71.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 19; Rice 1990, pp. 32–33; Service 2000, p. 72; White 2001, pp. 30–31; Read 2005, p. 18; Lih 2011, p. 33.

^ Rice 1990, p. 33; Service 2000, pp. 74–76; White 2001, p. 31; Read 2005, p. 17.

^ Rice 1990, p. 34; Service 2000, p. 78; White 2001, p. 31.

^ Rice 1990, p. 34; Service 2000, p. 77; Read 2005, p. 18.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 34, 36–37; Service 2000, pp. 55–55, 80, 88–89; White 2001, p. 31; Read 2005, pp. 37–38; Lih 2011, pp. 34–35.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 23–25, 26; Service 2000, p. 55; Read 2005, pp. 11, 24.

^ Service 2000, pp. 79, 98.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 34–36; Service 2000, pp. 82–86; White 2001, p. 31; Read 2005, pp. 18, 19; Lih 2011, p. 40.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 21; Rice 1990, p. 36; Service 2000, p. 86; White 2001, p. 31; Read 2005, p. 18; Lih 2011, p. 40.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 21; Rice 1990, pp. 36, 37.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 21; Rice 1990, p. 38; Service 2000, pp. 93–94.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 354; Rice 1990, pp. 38–39; Service 2000, pp. 90–92; White 2001, p. 33; Lih 2011, pp. 40, 52.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 354; Rice 1990, pp. 39–40; Lih 2011, p. 53.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 40, 43; Service 2000, p. 96.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 355; Rice 1990, pp. 41–42; Service 2000, p. 105; Read 2005, pp. 22–23.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 22; Rice 1990, p. 41; Read 2005, pp. 20–21.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 27; Rice 1990, pp. 42–43; White 2001, pp. 34, 36; Read 2005, p. 25; Lih 2011, pp. 45–46.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 30; Pipes 1990, p. 354; Rice 1990, pp. 44–46; Service 2000, p. 103; White 2001, p. 37; Read 2005, p. 26; Lih 2011, p. 55.

^ Rice 1990, p. 46; Service 2000, p. 103; White 2001, p. 37; Read 2005, p. 26.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 30; Rice 1990, p. 46; Service 2000, p. 103; White 2001, p. 37; Read 2005, p. 26.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 47–48; Read 2005, p. 26.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 31; Pipes 1990, p. 355; Rice 1990, p. 48; White 2001, p. 38; Read 2005, p. 26.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 31; Rice 1990, pp. 48–51; Service 2000, pp. 107–108; Read 2005, p. 31; Lih 2011, p. 61.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 31; Rice 1990, pp. 48–51; Service 2000, pp. 107–108.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 31; Rice 1990, pp. 52–55; Service 2000, pp. 109–110; White 2001, pp. 38, 45, 47; Read 2005, p. 31.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 31–32; Rice 1990, pp. 53, 55–56; Service 2000, pp. 110–113; White 2001, p. 40; Read 2005, pp. 30, 31.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 33; Pipes 1990, p. 356; Service 2000, pp. 114, 140; White 2001, p. 40; Read 2005, p. 30; Lih 2011, p. 63.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 33–34; Rice 1990, pp. 53, 55–56; Service 2000, p. 117; Read 2005, p. 33.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 61–63; Service 2000, p. 124; Rappaport 2010, p. 31.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 57–58; Service 2000, pp. 121–124, 137; White 2001, pp. 40–45; Read 2005, pp. 34, 39; Lih 2011, pp. 62–63.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 34–35; Rice 1990, p. 64; Service 2000, pp. 124–125; White 2001, p. 54; Read 2005, p. 43; Rappaport 2010, pp. 27–28.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 35; Pipes 1990, p. 357; Rice 1990, pp. 66–65; White 2001, pp. 55–56; Read 2005, p. 43; Rappaport 2010, p. 28.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 35; Pipes 1990, p. 357; Rice 1990, pp. 64–69; Service 2000, pp. 130–135; Rappaport 2010, pp. 32–33.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 69–70; Read 2005, p. 51; Rappaport 2010, pp. 41–42, 53–55.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 69–70.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 4–5; Service 2000, p. 137; Read 2005, p. 44; Rappaport 2010, p. 66.

^ Rappaport 2010, p. 66; Lih 2011, pp. 8–9.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 39; Pipes 1990, p. 359; Rice 1990, pp. 73–75; Service 2000, pp. 137–142; White 2001, pp. 56–62; Read 2005, pp. 52–54; Rappaport 2010, p. 62; Lih 2011, pp. 69, 78–80.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 37; Rice 1990, p. 70; Service 2000, p. 136; Read 2005, p. 44; Rappaport 2010, pp. 36–37.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 37; Rice 1990, pp. 78–79; Service 2000, pp. 143–144; Rappaport 2010, pp. 81, 84.

^ Read 2005, p. 60.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 38; Lih 2011, p. 80.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 38–39; Rice 1990, pp. 75–76; Service 2000, p. 147; Rappaport 2010, p. 69.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 40, 50–51; Rice 1990, p. 76; Service 2000, pp. 148–150; Read 2005, p. 48; Rappaport 2010, pp. 82–84.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 77–78; Service 2000, p. 150; Rappaport 2010, pp. 85–87.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 360; Rice 1990, pp. 79–80; Service 2000, pp. 151–152; White 2001, p. 62; Read 2005, p. 60; Rappaport 2010, p. 92; Lih 2011, p. 81.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 81–82; Service 2000, pp. 154–155; White 2001, p. 63; Read 2005, pp. 60–61.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 39; Rice 1990, p. 82; Service 2000, pp. 155–156; Read 2005, p. 61; White 2001, p. 64; Rappaport 2010, p. 95.

^ Rice 1990, p. 83; Rappaport 2010, p. 107.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 83–84; Service 2000, p. 157; White 2001, p. 65; Rappaport 2010, pp. 97–98.

^ Service 2000, pp. 158–159, 163–164; Rappaport 2010, pp. 97, 99, 108–109.

^ Rice 1990, p. 85; Service 2000, p. 163.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 41; Rice 1990, p. 85; Service 2000, p. 165; White 2001, p. 70; Read 2005, p. 64; Rappaport 2010, p. 114.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 44; Rice 1990, pp. 86–88; Service 2000, p. 167; Read 2005, p. 75; Rappaport 2010, pp. 117–120; Lih 2011, p. 87.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 44–45; Pipes 1990, pp. 362–363; Rice 1990, pp. 88–89.

^ Service 2000, pp. 170–171.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 363–364; Rice 1990, pp. 89–90; Service 2000, pp. 168–170; Read 2005, p. 78; Rappaport 2010, p. 124.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 60; Pipes 1990, p. 367; Rice 1990, pp. 90–91; Service 2000, p. 179; Read 2005, p. 79; Rappaport 2010, p. 131.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 88–89.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 51; Rice 1990, p. 94; Service 2000, pp. 175–176; Read 2005, p. 81; Read 2005, pp. 77, 81; Rappaport 2010, pp. 132, 134–135.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 94–95; White 2001, pp. 73–74; Read 2005, pp. 81–82; Rappaport 2010, p. 138.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 96–97; Service 2000, pp. 176–178.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 70–71; Pipes 1990, pp. 369–370; Rice 1990, p. 104.

^ Rice 1990, p. 95; Service 2000, pp. 178–179.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 53; Pipes 1990, p. 364; Rice 1990, pp. 99–100; Service 2000, pp. 179–180; White 2001, p. 76.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 103–105; Service 2000, pp. 180–182; White 2001, pp. 77–79.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 105–106; Service 2000, pp. 184–186; Rappaport 2010, p. 144.

^ Brackman 2000, pp. 59, 62.

^ Service 2000, pp. 186–187.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 67–68; Rice 1990, p. 111; Service 2000, pp. 188–189.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 64; Rice 1990, p. 109; Service 2000, pp. 189–190; Read 2005, pp. 89–90.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 63–64; Rice 1990, p. 110; Service 2000, pp. 190–191; White 2001, pp. 83, 84.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 110–111; Service 2000, pp. 191–192; Read 2005, p. 91.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 64–67; Rice 1990, p. 110; Service 2000, pp. 192–193; White 2001, pp. 84, 87–88; Read 2005, p. 90.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 69; Rice 1990, p. 111; Service 2000, p. 195.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 81–82; Pipes 1990, pp. 372–375; Rice 1990, pp. 120–121; Service 2000, p. 206; White 2001, p. 102; Read 2005, pp. 96–97.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 70; Rice 1990, pp. 114–116.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 68–69; Rice 1990, p. 112; Service 2000, pp. 195–196.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 75–80; Rice 1990, p. 112; Pipes 1990, p. 384; Service 2000, pp. 197–199; Read 2005, p. 103.

^ Rice 1990, p. 115; Service 2000, p. 196; White 2001, pp. 93–94.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 71–72; Rice 1990, pp. 116–117; Service 2000, pp. 204–206; White 2001, pp. 96–97; Read 2005, p. 95.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 72; Rice 1990, pp. 118–119; Service 2000, pp. 209–211; White 2001, p. 100; Read 2005, p. 104.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 93–94; Pipes 1990, p. 376; Rice 1990, p. 121; Service 2000, pp. 214–215; White 2001, pp. 98–99.

^ Rice 1990, p. 122; White 2001, p. 100.

^ Service 2000, p. 216; White 2001, p. 103; Read 2005, p. 105.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 73–74; Rice 1990, pp. 122–123; Service 2000, pp. 217–218; Read 2005, p. 105.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 85.

^ Rice 1990, p. 127; Service 2000, pp. 222–223.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 94; Pipes 1990, pp. 377–378; Rice 1990, pp. 127–128; Service 2000, pp. 223–225; White 2001, p. 104; Read 2005, p. 105.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 94; Pipes 1990, p. 378; Rice 1990, p. 128; Service 2000, p. 225; White 2001, p. 104; Read 2005, p. 127.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 107; Service 2000, p. 236.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 85; Pipes 1990, pp. 378–379; Rice 1990, p. 127; Service 2000, p. 225; White 2001, pp. 103–104.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 94; Rice 1990, pp. 130–131; Pipes 1990, pp. 382–383; Service 2000, p. 245; White 2001, pp. 113–114, 122–113; Read 2005, pp. 132–134.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 85; Rice 1990, p. 129; Service 2000, pp. 227–228; Read 2005, p. 111.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 380; Service 2000, pp. 230–231; Read 2005, p. 130.

^ Rice 1990, p. 135; Service 2000, p. 235.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 95–100, 107; Rice 1990, pp. 132–134; Service 2000, pp. 245–246; White 2001, pp. 118–121; Read 2005, pp. 116–126.

^ Service 2000, pp. 241–242.

^ Service 2000, p. 243.

^ Service 2000, pp. 238–239.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 136–138; Service 2000, p. 253.

^ Service 2000, pp. 254–255.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 109–110; Rice 1990, p. 139; Pipes 1990, pp. 386, 389–391; Service 2000, pp. 255–256; White 2001, pp. 127–128.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 110–113; Rice 1990, pp. 140–144; Pipes 1990, pp. 391–392; Service 2000, pp. 257–260.

^ Merridale 2017, p. ix.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 113, 124; Rice 1990, p. 144; Pipes 1990, p. 392; Service 2000, p. 261; White 2001, pp. 131–132.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 393–394; Service 2000, p. 266; White 2001, pp. 132–135; Read 2005, pp. 143, 146–147.

^ Service 2000, pp. 266–268, 279; White 2001, pp. 134–136; Read 2005, pp. 147, 148.

^ Service 2000, pp. 267, 271–272; Read 2005, pp. 152, 154.

^ Service 2000, p. 282; Read 2005, p. 157.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 421; Rice 1990, p. 147; Service 2000, pp. 276, 283; White 2001, p. 140; Read 2005, p. 157.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 422–425; Rice 1990, pp. 147–148; Service 2000, pp. 283–284; Read 2005, pp. 158–61; White 2001, pp. 140–141; Read 2005, pp. 157–159.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 431–434; Rice 1990, p. 148; Service 2000, pp. 284–285; White 2001, p. 141; Read 2005, p. 161.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 125; Rice 1990, pp. 148–149; Service 2000, p. 285.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 436, 467; Service 2000, p. 287; White 2001, p. 141; Read 2005, p. 165.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 468–469; Rice 1990, p. 149; Service 2000, p. 289; White 2001, pp. 142–143; Read 2005, pp. 166–172.

^ Service 2000, p. 288.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 468; Rice 1990, p. 150; Service 2000, pp. 289–292; Read 2005, p. 165.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 439–465; Rice 1990, pp. 150–151; Service 2000, p. 299; White 2001, pp. 143–144; Read 2005, p. 173.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 465.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 465–467; White 2001, p. 144; Lee 2003, p. 17; Read 2005, p. 174.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 471; Rice 1990, pp. 151–152; Read 2005, p. 180.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 473, 482; Rice 1990, p. 152; Service 2000, pp. 302–303; Read 2005, p. 179.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 482–484; Rice 1990, pp. 153–154; Service 2000, pp. 303–304; White 2001, pp. 146–147.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 471–472; Service 2000, p. 304; White 2001, p. 147.

^ Service 2000, pp. 306–307.

^ Rigby 1979, pp. 14–15; Leggett 1981, pp. 1–3; Pipes 1990, p. 466; Rice 1990, p. 155.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 485–486, 491; Rice 1990, pp. 157, 159; Service 2000, p. 308.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 492–493, 496; Service 2000, p. 311; Read 2005, p. 182.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 491; Service 2000, p. 309.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 499; Service 2000, pp. 314–315.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 496–497; Rice 1990, pp. 159–161; Service 2000, pp. 314–315; Read 2005, p. 183.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 504; Service 2000, p. 315.

^ Service 2000, p. 316.

^ Shub 1966, p. 314; Service 2000, p. 317.

^ Shub 1966, p. 315; Pipes 1990, pp. 540–541; Rice 1990, p. 164; Volkogonov 1994, p. 173; Service 2000, p. 331; Read 2005, p. 192.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 176; Service 2000, pp. 331–332; White 2001, p. 156; Read 2005, p. 192.

^ Rice 1990, p. 164.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 546–547.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 552–553; Rice 1990, p. 165; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 176–177; Service 2000, pp. 332, 336–337; Read 2005, p. 192.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 158; Shub 1966, pp. 301–302; Rigby 1979, p. 26; Leggett 1981, p. 5; Pipes 1990, pp. 508, 519; Service 2000, pp. 318–319; Read 2005, pp. 189–190.

^ Rigby 1979, pp. 166–167; Leggett 1981, pp. 20–21; Pipes 1990, pp. 533–534, 537; Volkogonov 1994, p. 171; Service 2000, pp. 322–323; White 2001, p. 159; Read 2005, p. 191.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 219, 256, 379; Shub 1966, p. 374; Service 2000, p. 355; White 2001, p. 159; Read 2005, p. 219.

^ Rigby 1979, pp. 160–164; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 374–375; Service 2000, p. 377.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 74; Rigby 1979, pp. 168–169.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 432.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 316; Lee 2003, pp. 98–99.

^ Rigby 1979, pp. 160–161; Leggett 1981, p. 21; Lee 2003, p. 99.

^ Service 2000, p. 388; Lee 2003, p. 98.

^ Service 2000, p. 388.

^ Rigby 1979, pp. 168, 170; Service 2000, p. 388.

^ Service 2000, p. 325–326, 333; Read 2005, p. 211–212.

^ Shub 1966, p. 361; Pipes 1990, p. 548; Volkogonov 1994, p. 229; Service 2000, pp. 335–336; Read 2005, p. 198.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 156; Shub 1966, p. 350; Pipes 1990, p. 594; Volkogonov 1994, p. 185; Service 2000, p. 344; Read 2005, p. 212.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 320–321; Shub 1966, p. 377; Pipes 1990, pp. 94–595; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 187–188; Service 2000, pp. 346–347; Read 2005, p. 212.

^ Service 2000, p. 345.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 466; Service 2000, p. 348.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 280; Shub 1966, pp. 361–362; Pipes 1990, pp. 806–807; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 219–221; Service 2000, pp. 367–368; White 2001, p. 155.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 282–283; Shub 1966, pp. 362–363; Pipes 1990, pp. 807, 809; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 222–228; White 2001, p. 155.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 222, 231.

^ a b Service 2000, p. 369.

^ Rice 1990, p. 161.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 252–253; Pipes 1990, p. 499; Volkogonov 1994, p. 341; Service 2000, pp. 316–317; White 2001, p. 149; Read 2005, pp. 194–195.

^ Shub 1966, p. 310; Leggett 1981, pp. 5–6, 8, 306; Pipes 1990, pp. 521–522; Service 2000, pp. 317–318; White 2001, p. 153; Read 2005, pp. 235–236.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 249; Pipes 1990, p. 514; Service 2000, p. 321.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 249; Pipes 1990, p. 514; Read 2005, p. 219.

^ White 2001, pp. 159–160.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 249.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 84; Read 2005, p. 211.

^ Leggett 1981, pp. 172–173; Pipes 1990, pp. 796–797; Read 2005, p. 242.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 172; Pipes 1990, pp. 798–799; Ryan 2012, p. 121.

^ Hazard 1965, p. 270; Leggett 1981, p. 172; Pipes 1990, pp. 796–797.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 170.

^ a b Service 2000, p. 321.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 260–261.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 174.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 554–555; Sandle 1999, p. 83.

^ Sandle 1999, pp. 122–123.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 552; Leggett 1981, p. 308; Sandle 1999, p. 126; Read 2005, pp. 238–239; Ryan 2012, pp. 176, 182.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 373; Leggett 1981, p. 308; Ryan 2012, p. 177.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 709; Service 2000, p. 321.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 171.

^ Rigby 1979, pp. 45–46; Pipes 1990, pp. 682, 683; Service 2000, p. 321; White 2001, p. 153.

^ Rigby 1979, p. 50; Pipes 1990, p. 689; Sandle 1999, p. 64; Service 2000, p. 321; Read 2005, p. 231.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 437–438; Pipes 1990, p. 709; Sandle 1999, pp. 64, 68.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 263–264; Pipes 1990, p. 672.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 264.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 681, 692–693; Sandle 1999, pp. 96–97.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 692–693; Sandle 1999, p. 97.

^ a b Fischer 1964, p. 236; Service 2000, pp. 351–352.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 259, 444–445.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 120.

^ Service 2000, pp. 354–355.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 307–308; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 178–179; White 2001, p. 156; Read 2005, pp. 252–253; Ryan 2012, pp. 123–124.

^ Shub 1966, pp. 329–330; Service 2000, p. 385; White 2001, p. 156; Read 2005, pp. 253–254; Ryan 2012, p. 125.

^ Shub 1966, p. 383.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 193–194.

^ Shub 1966, p. 331; Pipes 1990, p. 567.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 151; Pipes 1990, p. 567; Service 2000, p. 338.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 190–191; Shub 1966, p. 337; Pipes 1990, p. 567; Rice 1990, p. 166.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 151–152; Pipes 1990, pp. 571–572.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 154; Pipes 1990, p. 572; Rice 1990, p. 166.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 161; Shub 1966, p. 331; Pipes 1990, p. 576.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 162–163; Pipes 1990, p. 576.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 171–172, 200–202; Pipes 1990, p. 578.

^ Rice 1990, p. 166; Service 2000, p. 338.

^ Service 2000, p. 338.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 195; Shub 1966, pp. 334, 337; Service 2000, pp. 338–339, 340; Read 2005, p. 199.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 206, 209; Shub 1966, p. 337; Pipes 1990, pp. 586–587; Service 2000, pp. 340–341.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 587; Rice 1990, pp. 166–167; Service 2000, p. 341; Read 2005, p. 199.

^ Shub 1966, p. 338; Pipes 1990, pp. 592–593; Service 2000, p. 341.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 211–212; Shub 1966, p. 339; Pipes 1990, p. 595; Rice 1990, p. 167; Service 2000, p. 342; White 2001, pp. 158–159.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 595; Service 2000, p. 342.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 213–214; Pipes 1990, pp. 596–597.

^ Service 2000, p. 344.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 313–314; Shub 1966, pp. 387–388; Pipes 1990, pp. 667–668; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 193–194; Service 2000, p. 384.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 303–304; Pipes 1990, p. 668; Volkogonov 1994, p. 194; Service 2000, p. 384.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 182.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 236; Pipes 1990, pp. 558, 723; Rice 1990, p. 170; Volkogonov 1994, p. 190.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 236–237; Shub 1966, p. 353; Pipes 1990, pp. 560, 722, 732–736; Rice 1990, p. 170; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 181, 342–343; Service 2000, pp. 349, 358–359; White 2001, p. 164; Read 2005, p. 218.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 254; Pipes 1990, pp. 728, 734–736; Volkogonov 1994, p. 197; Ryan 2012, p. 105.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 277–278; Pipes 1990, p. 737; Service 2000, p. 365; White 2001, pp. 155–156; Ryan 2012, p. 106.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 450; Pipes 1990, p. 726.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 700–702; Lee 2003, p. 100.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 195; Pipes 1990, p. 794; Volkogonov 1994, p. 181; Read 2005, p. 249.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 237.

^ Service 2000, p. 385; White 2001, p. 164; Read 2005, p. 218.

^ Shub 1966, p. 344; Pipes 1990, pp. 790–791; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 181, 196; Read 2005, pp. 247–248.

^ Shub 1966, p. 312.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 435–436.

^ Shub 1966, pp. 345–347; Rigby 1979, pp. 20–21; Pipes 1990, p. 800; Volkogonov 1994, p. 233; Service 2000, pp. 321–322; White 2001, p. 153; Read 2005, pp. 186, 208–209.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 174; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 233–234; Sandle 1999, p. 112; Ryan 2012, p. 111.

^ Shub 1966, p. 366; Sandle 1999, p. 112.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 116.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 821; Ryan 2012, pp. 114–115.

^ Shub 1966, p. 366; Sandle 1999, p. 113; Read 2005, p. 210; Ryan 2012, pp. 114–115.

^ Leggett 1981, pp. 173–174; Pipes 1990, p. 801.

^ Leggett 1981, pp. 199–200; Pipes 1990, pp. 819–820; Ryan 2012, p. 107.

^ Shub 1966, p. 364; Ryan 2012, p. 114.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 837.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 114.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 834.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 202; Read 2005, p. 247.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 796.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 202.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 825; Ryan 2012, pp. 117, 120.

^ Leggett 1981, pp. 174–175, 183; Pipes 1990, pp. 828–829; Ryan 2012, p. 121.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 829–830, 832.

^ Leggett 1981, pp. 176–177; Pipes 1990, pp. 832, 834.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 835; Volkogonov 1994, p. 235.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 178; Pipes 1990, p. 836.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 176; Pipes 1990, pp. 832–833.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 358–360; Ryan 2012, pp. 172–173, 175–176.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 376–377; Read 2005, p. 239; Ryan 2012, p. 179.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 381.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 610.

^ a b Service 2000, p. 357.

^ Service 2000, pp. 391–392.

^ Lee 2003, pp. 84, 88.

^ Read 2005, p. 205.

^ Shub 1966, p. 355; Leggett 1981, p. 204; Rice 1990, pp. 173, 175; Volkogonov 1994, p. 198; Service 2000, pp. 357, 382; Read 2005, p. 187.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 334, 343, 357; Leggett 1981, p. 204; Service 2000, pp. 382, 392; Read 2005, pp. 205–206.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 204; Read 2005, p. 206.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 288–289; Pipes 1990, pp. 624–630; Service 2000, p. 360; White 2001, pp. 161–162; Read 2005, p. 205.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 262–263.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 291; Shub 1966, p. 354.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 331, 333.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 610, 612; Volkogonov 1994, p. 198.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 337; Pipes 1990, pp. 609, 612, 629; Volkogonov 1994, p. 198; Service 2000, p. 383; Read 2005, p. 217.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 248, 262.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 651; Volkogonov 1994, p. 200; White 2001, p. 162; Lee 2003, p. 81.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 251; White 2001, p. 163; Read 2005, p. 220.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 201; Pipes 1990, p. 792; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 202–203; Read 2005, p. 250.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 201; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 203–204.

^ Shub 1966, pp. 357–358; Pipes 1990, pp. 781–782; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 206–207; Service 2000, pp. 364–365.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 763, 770–771; Volkogonov 1994, p. 211.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 109.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 208.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 635.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 244; Shub 1966, p. 355; Pipes 1990, pp. 636–640; Service 2000, pp. 360–361; White 2001, p. 159; Read 2005, p. 199.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 242; Pipes 1990, pp. 642–644; Read 2005, p. 250.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 244; Pipes 1990, p. 644; Volkogonov 1994, p. 172.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 184; Service 2000, p. 402; Read 2005, p. 206.

^ Hall 2015, p. 83.

^ Goldstein 2013, p. 50.

^ Hall 2015, p. 84.

^ Davies 2003, pp. 26–27.

^ Davies 2003, pp. 27–30.

^ Davies 2003, pp. 22, 27.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 389; Rice 1990, p. 182; Volkogonov 1994, p. 281; Service 2000, p. 407; White 2001, p. 161; Davies 2003, pp. 29–30.

^ Davies 2003, p. 22.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 389; Rice 1990, p. 182; Volkogonov 1994, p. 281; Service 2000, p. 407; White 2001, p. 161.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 391–395; Shub 1966, p. 396; Rice 1990, pp. 182–183; Service 2000, pp. 408–409, 412; White 2001, p. 161.

^ Rice 1990, p. 183; Volkogonov 1994, p. 388; Service 2000, p. 412.

^ Shub 1966, p. 387; Rice 1990, p. 173.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 333; Shub 1966, p. 388; Rice 1990, p. 173; Volkogonov 1994, p. 395.

^ a b Service 2000, pp. 385–386.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 531, 536.

^ Service 2000, p. 386.

^ Shub 1966, pp. 389–390.

^ a b Shub 1966, p. 390.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 525; Shub 1966, p. 390; Rice 1990, p. 174; Volkogonov 1994, p. 390; Service 2000, p. 386; White 2001, p. 160; Read 2005, p. 225.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 525; Shub 1966, pp. 390–391; Rice 1990, p. 174; Service 2000, p. 386; White 2001, p. 160.

^ Service 2000, p. 387; White 2001, p. 160.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 525; Shub 1966, p. 398; Read 2005, pp. 225–226.

^ Service 2000, p. 387.

^ Shub 1966, p. 395; Volkogonov 1994, p. 391.

^ Shub 1966, p. 397; Service 2000, p. 409.

^ Service 2000, pp. 409–410.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 415–420; White 2001, pp. 161, 180–181.

^ Service 2000, p. 410.

^ Shub 1966, p. 397.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 341; Shub 1966, p. 396; Rice 1990, p. 174.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 437–438; Shub 1966, p. 406; Rice 1990, p. 183; Service 2000, p. 419; White 2001, pp. 167–168.

^ Shub 1966, p. 406; Service 2000, p. 419; White 2001, p. 167.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 436, 442; Rice 1990, pp. 183–184; Sandle 1999, pp. 104–105; Service 2000, pp. 422–423; White 2001, p. 168; Read 2005, p. 269.

^ White 2001, p. 170.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 507–508; Rice 1990, pp. 185–186.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 164.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 343, 347.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 508; Shub 1966, p. 414; Volkogonov 1994, p. 345; White 2001, p. 172.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 346.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 374–375.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 375–376; Read 2005, p. 251; Ryan 2012, pp. 176, 177.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 376; Ryan 2012, p. 178.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 467; Shub 1966, p. 406; Volkogonov 1994, p. 343; Service 2000, p. 425; White 2001, p. 168; Read 2005, p. 220; Ryan 2012, p. 154.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 459; Leggett 1981, pp. 330–333; Service 2000, pp. 423–424; White 2001, p. 168; Ryan 2012, pp. 154–155.

^ Shub 1966, pp. 406–407; Leggett 1981, pp. 324–325; Rice 1990, p. 184; Read 2005, p. 220; Ryan 2012, p. 170.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 469–470; Shub 1966, p. 405; Leggett 1981, pp. 325–326; Rice 1990, p. 184; Service 2000, p. 427; White 2001, p. 169; Ryan 2012, p. 170.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 470–471; Shub 1966, pp. 408–409; Leggett 1981, pp. 327–328; Rice 1990, pp. 184–185; Service 2000, pp. 427–428; Ryan 2012, pp. 171–172.

^ Shub 1966, pp. 412–413.

^ Shub 1966, p. 411; Rice 1990, p. 185; Service 2000, pp. 421, 424–427, 429.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 479–480; Sandle 1999, p. 155; Service 2000, p. 430; White 2001, pp. 170, 171.

^ Shub 1966, p. 411; Sandle 1999, pp. 153, 158; Service 2000, p. 430; White 2001, p. 169; Read 2005, pp. 264–265.

^ Shub 1966, p. 412; Service 2000, p. 430; Read 2005, p. 266; Ryan 2012, p. 159.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 479; Shub 1966, p. 412; Sandle 1999, p. 155; Ryan 2012, p. 159.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 151; Service 2000, p. 422; White 2001, p. 171.

^ Service 2000, pp. 421, 434.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 703–707; Sandle 1999, p. 103; Ryan 2012, p. 143.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 423, 582; Sandle 1999, p. 107; White 2001, p. 165; Read 2005, p. 230.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 567–569.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 574, 576–577; Service 2000, pp. 432, 441.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 424–427.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 414; Rice 1990, pp. 177–178; Service 2000, p. 405; Read 2005, pp. 260–261.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 283.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 404–409; Rice 1990, pp. 178–179; Service 2000, p. 440.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 409–411.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 433–434; Shub 1966, pp. 380–381; Rice 1990, p. 181; Service 2000, pp. 414–415; Read 2005, p. 258.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 434; Shub 1966, pp. 381–382; Rice 1990, p. 181; Service 2000, p. 415; Read 2005, p. 258.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 181–182; Service 2000, p. 416–417; Read 2005, p. 258.

^ Shub 1966, p. 426; Lewin 1969, p. 33; Rice 1990, p. 187; Volkogonov 1994, p. 409; Service 2000, p. 435.

^ Shub 1966, p. 426; Rice 1990, p. 187; Service 2000, p. 435.

^ Service 2000, p. 436; Read 2005, p. 281; Rice 1990, p. 187.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 420, 425–426; Service 2000, p. 439; Read 2005, pp. 280, 282.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 443; Service 2000, p. 437.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 598–599; Shub 1966, p. 426; Service 2000, p. 443; White 2001, p. 172; Read 2005, p. 258.

^ Service 2000, pp. 444–445.

^ Lerner, Finkelstein & Witztum 2004, p. 372.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 600; Shub 1966, pp. 426–427; Lewin 1969, p. 33; Service 2000, p. 443; White 2001, p. 173; Read 2005, p. 258.

^ Shub 1966, pp. 427–428; Service 2000, p. 446.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 634; Shub 1966, pp. 431–432; Lewin 1969, pp. 33–34; White 2001, p. 173.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 600–602; Shub 1966, pp. 428–430; Leggett 1981, p. 318; Sandle 1999, p. 164; Service 2000, pp. 442–443; Read 2005, p. 269; Ryan 2012, pp. 174–175.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 310; Leggett 1981, pp. 320–322; Aves 1996, pp. 175–178; Sandle 1999, p. 164; Lee 2003, pp. 103–104; Ryan 2012, p. 172.

^ Lewin 1969, pp. 8–9; White 2001, p. 176; Read 2005, pp. 270–272.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 578; Rice 1990, p. 189.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 192–193.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 578.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 638–639; Shub 1966, p. 433; Lewin 1969, pp. 73–75; Volkogonov 1994, p. 417; Service 2000, p. 464; White 2001, pp. 173–174.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 647; Shub 1966, pp. 434–435; Rice 1990, p. 192; Volkogonov 1994, p. 273; Service 2000, p. 469; White 2001, pp. 174–175; Read 2005, pp. 278–279.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 640; Shub 1966, pp. 434–435; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 249, 418; Service 2000, p. 465; White 2001, p. 174.

^ Kotkin 2014, p. 501.

^ Kotkin 2014, p. 528.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 666–667, 669; Lewin 1969, pp. 120–121; Service 2000, p. 468; Read 2005, p. 273.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 650–654; Service 2000, p. 470.

^ Shub 1966, pp. 426, 434; Lewin 1969, pp. 34–35.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 263–264.

^ Lewin 1969, p. 70; Rice 1990, p. 191; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 273, 416.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 635; Lewin 1969, pp. 35–40; Service 2000, pp. 451–452; White 2001, p. 173.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 637–638, 669; Shub 1966, pp. 435–436; Lewin 1969, pp. 71, 85, 101; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 273–274, 422–423; Service 2000, pp. 463, 472–473; White 2001, pp. 173, 176; Read 2005, p. 279.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 607–608; Lewin 1969, pp. 43–49; Rice 1990, pp. 190–191; Volkogonov 1994, p. 421; Service 2000, pp. 452, 453–455; White 2001, pp. 175–176.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 608; Lewin 1969, p. 50; Leggett 1981, p. 354; Volkogonov 1994, p. 421; Service 2000, p. 455; White 2001, p. 175.

^ Service 2000, pp. 455, 456.

^ Lewin 1969, pp. 40, 99–100; Volkogonov 1994, p. 421; Service 2000, pp. 460–461, 468.

^ Rigby 1979, p. 221.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 671; Shub 1966, p. 436; Lewin 1969, p. 103; Leggett 1981, p. 355; Rice 1990, p. 193; White 2001, p. 176; Read 2005, p. 281.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 671; Shub 1966, p. 436; Volkogonov 1994, p. 425; Service 2000, p. 474; Lerner, Finkelstein & Witztum 2004, p. 372.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 672; Rigby 1979, p. 192; Rice 1990, pp. 193–194; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 429–430.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 672; Shub 1966, p. 437; Volkogonov 1994, p. 431; Service 2000, p. 476; Read 2005, p. 281.

^ Rice 1990, p. 194; Volkogonov 1994, p. 299; Service 2000, pp. 477–478.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 673–674; Shub 1966, p. 438; Rice 1990, p. 194; Volkogonov 1994, p. 435; Service 2000, pp. 478–479; White 2001, p. 176; Read 2005, p. 269.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 435; Lerner, Finkelstein & Witztum 2004, p. 372.

^ Rice 1990, p. 7.

^ Rice 1990, pp. 7–8.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 674; Shub 1966, p. 439; Rice 1990, pp. 7–8; Service 2000, p. 479.

^ a b Rice 1990, p. 9.

^ Shub 1966, p. 439; Rice 1990, p. 9; Service 2000, pp. 479–480.

^ a b Volkogonov 1994, p. 440.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 674; Shub 1966, p. 438; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 437–438; Service 2000, p. 481.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 625–626; Volkogonov 1994, p. 446.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 444, 445.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 445.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 444.

^ " Lenin
Mausoleum on Red Square
Red Square
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^ Fischer 1964, p. 150.

^ a b c d Ryan 2012, p. 18.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 409.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 35; Service 2000, p. 237.

^ a b c Sandle 1999, p. 41.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 206.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 35.

^ Shub 1966, p. 432.

^ Sandle 1999, pp. 42–43.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 38.

^ Sandle 1999, pp. 43–44, 63.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 36.

^ Service 2000, p. 203.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 29; White 2001, p. 1.

^ Service 2000, p. 173.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 13.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 57; White 2001, p. 151.

^ Sandle 1999, p. 34.

^ White 2001, pp. 150–151.

^ a b c Ryan 2012, p. 19.

^ a b Ryan 2012, p. 3.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 213.

^ a b Rice 1990, p. 121.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 471.

^ Shub 1966, p. 443.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 310; Shub 1966, p. 442.

^ Sandle 1999, pp. 36–37.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 54; Shub 1966, p. 423; Pipes 1990, p. 352.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 88–89.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 87; Montefiore 2007, p. 266.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 87.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 91, 93.

^ Montefiore 2007, p. 266.

^ Page 1948, p. 17; Page 1950, p. 354.

^ Page 1950, p. 355.

^ Page 1950, p. 342.

^ Service 2000, pp. 159, 202; Read 2005, p. 207.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 47, 148.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 348, 351.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 246.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 57.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 21–22.

^ Service 2000, p. 73.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 44; Service 2000, p. 81.

^ Service 2000, p. 118.

^ Service 2000, p. 232; Lih 2011, p. 13.

^ White 2001, p. 88.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 362.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 409.

^ Read 2005, p. 262.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 40–41; Volkogonov 1994, p. 373; Service 2000, p. 149.

^ Service 2000, p. 116.

^ Pipes 1996, p. 11; Read 2005, p. 287.

^ Read 2005, p. 259.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 67; Pipes 1990, p. 353; Read 2005, pp. 207, 212.

^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 93.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 353.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 69.

^ Service 2000, p. 244; Read 2005, p. 153.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 59.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 45; Pipes 1990, p. 350; Volkogonov 1994, p. 182; Service 2000, p. 177; Read 2005, p. 208; Ryan 2012, p. 6.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 415; Shub 1966, p. 422; Read 2005, p. 247.

^ Service 2000, p. 293.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 200.

^ Service 2000, p. 242.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 56; Rice 1990, p. 106; Service 2000, p. 160.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 56; Service 2000, p. 188.

^ Read 2005, pp. 20, 64, 132–37.

^ Shub 1966, p. 423.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 367.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 368.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 812.

^ Service 2000, pp. 99–100, 160.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 245.

^ Pipes 1990, pp. 349–350; Read 2005, pp. 284, 259–260.

^ Fischer 1964, pp. 489, 491; Shub 1966, pp. 420–421; Sandle 1999, p. 125; Read 2005, p. 237.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 79; Read 2005, p. 237.

^ Service 2000, p. 199.

^ Shub 1966, p. 424; Service 2000, p. 213; Rappaport 2010, p. 38.

^ Read 2005, p. 19.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 515; Volkogonov 1994, p. 246.

^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 67.

^ Service 2000, p. 453.

^ Service 2000, p. 389.

^ Pipes 1996, p. 11; Service 2000, p. 389–400.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 326.

^ Service 2000, p. 391.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 259.

^ Read 2005, p. 284.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 414.

^ Liebman 1975, pp. 19–20.

^ Albert Resis. "Vladimir Ilich Lenin". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2016.

^ White 2001, p. iix.

^ Service 2000, p. 488.

^ a b Read 2005, p. 283.

^ a b Ryan 2012, p. 5.

^ David Remnick (13 April 1998). "TIME 100: Vladimir Lenin". Archived from the original on 25 April 2011.

^ Feifei Sun (4 February 2011). "Top 25 Political Icons: Lenin". Time. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2016.

^ Lee 2003, p. 14; Ryan 2012, p. 3.

^ Lee 2003, p. 14.

^ a b Lee 2003, p. 123.

^ Lee 2003, p. 124.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 516; Shub 1966, p. 415; Leggett 1981, p. 364; Volkogonov 1994, pp. 307, 312.

^ Leggett 1981, p. 364.

^ Lewin 1969, p. 12; Rigby 1979, pp. x, 161; Sandle 1999, p. 164; Service 2000, p. 506; Lee 2003, p. 97; Read 2005, p. 190; Ryan 2012, p. 9.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 417; Shub 1966, p. 416; Pipes 1990, p. 511; Pipes 1996, p. 3; Read 2005, p. 247.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 1.

^ Fischer 1964, p. 524.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 313.

^ Lee 2003, p. 120.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 191.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 184.

^ "Vladimir Lenin
Biography". Biography. 42:10 minutes in. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 20 May 2016.

^ Ryan 2012, p. 3; Budgen, Kouvelakis & Žižek 2007, pp. 1–4.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 327; Tumarkin 1997, p. 2; White 2001, p. 185; Read 2005, p. 260.

^ Tumarkin 1997, p. 2.

^ Pipes 1990, p. 814; Service 2000, p. 485; White 2001, p. 185; Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 114; Read 2005, p. 284.

^ a b c Volkogonov 1994, p. 328.

^ a b c Service 2000, p. 486.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 437; Service 2000, p. 482.

^ Lih 2011, p. 22.

^ Shub 1966, p. 439; Pipes 1996, p. 1; Service 2000, p. 482.

^ Pipes 1996, p. 1.

^ Service 2000, p. 484; White 2001, p. 185; Read 2005, pp. 260, 284.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 274–275.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 262.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 261.

^ Volkogonov 1994, p. 263.

^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 99; Lih 2011, p. 20.

^ a b Read 2005, p. 6.

^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, p. 108.

^ Petrovsky-Shtern 2010, pp. 134, 159–161.

^ Service 2000, p. 485.

^ Pipes 1996, pp. 1–2; White 2001, p. 183.

^ Volkogonov 1994, pp. 452–453; Service 2000, pp. 491–492; Lee 2003, p. 131.

^ Service 2000, pp. 491–492.

^ Pipes 1996, pp. 2–3.

^ Service 2000, p. 492.

^ "All monuments of Lenin
to be removed from Russian cities". RT. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2013.

^ "Ukraine crisis: Lenin
statues toppled in protest". BBC News. 22 February 2014. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ Shevchenko, Vitaly (14 April 2015). "Goodbye, Lenin: Ukraine moves to ban communist symbols". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.

^ Shub 1966, p. 10.

^ Liebman 1975, p. 22.

^ Shub 1966, p. 9; Service 2000, p. 482.

^ Lee 2003, p. 132.

^ Lee 2003, pp. 132–133.

Bibliography .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Aves, Jonathan (1996). Workers Against Lenin: Labour Protest and the Bolshevik Dictatorship. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-86064-067-4. Brackman, Roman (2000). The Secret File
of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Portland, Oregon: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-5050-0. Budgen, Sebastian; Kouvelakis, Stathis; Žižek, Slavoj (2007). Lenin Reloaded: Toward a Politics of Truth. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3941-0. Davies, Norman (2003) [1972]. White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War
1919-20 and 'the Miracle on the Vistula'. London: Pimlico. ISBN 978-0712606943. Fischer, Louis (1964). The Life of Lenin. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Hazard, John N. (1965). "Unity and Diversity in Socialist Law". Law and Contemporary Problems. 30 (2): 270–290. doi:10.2307/1190515. JSTOR 1190515. Retrieved 8 August 2016. Kotkin, Stephen (2014). Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878–1928. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-713-99944-0. Lee, Stephen J. (2003). Lenin
and Revolutionary Russia. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-28718-0. Leggett, George (1981). The Cheka: Lenin's Political Police. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822552-2. Lerner, Vladimir; Finkelstein, Y.; Witztum, E. (2004). "The Enigma of Lenin's (1870–1924) Malady". European Journal of Neurology. 11 (6): 371–376. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2004.00839.x. PMID 15171732. Goldstein, Erik (2013). The First World War
First World War
Settlements, 1919-1925. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-31-7883-678. Hall, Richard C. (2015). Consumed by War: European Conflict in the 20th Century. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-81-3159-959. Liebman, Marcel (1975) [1973]. Leninism
Under Lenin. Translated by Brian Pearce. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-01072-6. Merridale, Catherine (2017). Lenin
on the Train. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-241011-324. Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2007). Young Stalin. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-85068-7. Lewin, Moshe (1969). Lenin's Last Struggle. Translated by Sheridan Smith, A. M. London: Faber and Faber. Lih, Lars T. (2011). Lenin. Critical Lives. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-793-0. Page, Stanley W. (1948). "Lenin, the National Question and the Baltic States, 1917-19". The American Slavic and East European Review. 7 (1): 15–31. doi:10.2307/2492116. JSTOR 2492116.  ———  (1950). " Lenin
and Self-Determination". The Slavonic and East European Review. 28 (71): 342–358. JSTOR 4204138. Petrovsky-Shtern, Yohanan (2010). Lenin's Jewish
Question. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-15210-4. JSTOR j.ctt1npd80. Pipes, Richard (1990). The Russian Revolution: 1899–1919. London: Collins Harvill. ISBN 978-0-679-73660-8.  ———  (1996). The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06919-8. Rappaport, Helen (2010). Conspirator: Lenin
in Exile. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-01395-1. Read, Christopher (2005). Lenin: A Revolutionary Life. Routledge Historical Biographies. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20649-5. Rice, Christopher (1990). Lenin: Portrait of a Professional Revolutionary. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-0-304-31814-8. Rigby, T. H. (1979). Lenin's Government: Sovnarkom
1917–1922. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-22281-5. Ryan, James (2012). Lenin's Terror: The Ideological Origins of Early Soviet State Violence. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-81568-1. Sandle, Mark (1999). A Short History of Soviet Socialism. London: UCL Press. doi:10.4324/9780203500279. ISBN 978-1-85728-355-6. Sebestyen, Victor (2017). Lenin
the Dictator: An Intimate Portrait. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-1474600446. Service, Robert (2000). Lenin: A Biography. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-72625-9. Shub, David (1966). Lenin: A Biography (revised ed.). London: Pelican. Theen, Rolf (2004). Lenin: Genesis and Development of a Revolutionary. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691643588. Tumarkin, Nina (1997). Lenin
Lives! The Lenin
Cult in Soviet Russia (enlarged ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-52431-6. Volkogonov, Dmitri (1994). Lenin: Life and Legacy. Translated by Shukman, Harold. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-255123-6. White, James D. (2001). Lenin: The Practice and Theory of Revolution. European History in Perspective. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-333-72157-5.

Further reading

Ali, Tariq (2017). The Dilemmas of Lenin: Terrorism, War, Empire, Love, Revolution. New York/London: Verso. ISBN 9781786631107. Cliff, Tony (1986). Building the Party: Lenin, 1893–1914. Chicago: Haymarket Books. ISBN 978-1-931859-01-1. Felshtinsky, Yuri (2010). Lenin
and His Comrades: The Bolsheviks
Take Over Russia
1917–1924. New York: Enigma Books. ISBN 978-1-929631-95-7. Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-1-4000-3213-6. Gooding, John (2001). Socialism
in Russia: Lenin
and His Legacy, 1890–1991. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9781403913876. ISBN 978-0-333-97235-9. Hill, Christopher (1971). Lenin
and the Russian Revolution. London: Pelican Books. Lenin, V.I.; Žižek, Slavoj (2017). Lenin
2017: Remembering, Repeating, and Working Through. Verso. ISBN 978-1786631886. Lih, Lars T. (2008) [2006]. Lenin
Rediscovered: What is to be Done? in Context. Chicago: Haymarket Books. ISBN 978-1-931859-58-5. Lukács, Georg (1970) [1924]. Lenin: A Study on the Unity of his Thought. Translated by Jacobs, Nicholas. Retrieved 7 August 2016. Nimtz, August H. (2014). Lenin's Electoral Strategy from 1907 to the October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917: The Ballot, the Streets—or Both. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-137-39377-7. Pannekoek, Anton (1938). Lenin
as Philosopher. Retrieved 16 August 2016. Payne, Robert (1967). The Life And Death of Lenin. Simon & Schuster. Ryan, James (2007). "Lenin's The State and Revolution
The State and Revolution
and Soviet State Violence: A Textual Analysis". Revolutionary Russia. 20 (2): 151–172. doi:10.1080/09546540701633452. Sebestyen, Victor (2017). Lenin
the Dictator: An Intimate Portrait. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-1-47460-044-6. Service, Robert (1985). Lenin: A Political Life – Volume One: The Strengths of Contradiction. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33324-7.  ———  (1991). Lenin: A Political Life – Volume Two: Worlds in Collision. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-33325-4.  ———  (1995). Lenin: A Political Life – Volume Three: The Iron Ring. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35181-4.  ———  (1972). The Young Lenin.

External links

Vladimir Leninat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

Marx2Mao.org – Lenin
Internet Library Lenin: A Biography, official Soviet account of his life and work. They Knew Lenin: Reminiscences of Foreign Contemporaries Lenin's speech (video) on YouTube – Lenin's speech with subtitles Article on Lenin
written by Trotsky for the Encyclopædia Britannica Lenin
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(broad results) Works by Vladimir Lenin
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Marxists.org Lenin
Internet Archive – Extensive compendium of writings, a biography, and many photographs Lenin's Popularity Highest in Years on Revolutionary's 144th Birthday. The Moscow Times, 22 April 2014. The Lies We Tell About Lenin. Lars T. Lih. Jacobin. 23 July 2014. "Lenin", In Our Time, BBC Radio 4 discussion with Robert Service and Vitali Vitaliev (16 March 2000). Lenin’s Eco-Warriors. The New York Times. 7 August 2017. Newspaper clippings about Vladimir Lenin
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics

Political offices

Position established

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissarsof the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic1917–1924

Succeeded byAlexei Rykov

Chairman of the Council of People's Commissarsof the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics1922–1924

Military offices

Position established

Chairman of the Council of Labour and Defence1918–1920

Succeeded byHimselfas Chair of the Sovnarkom

vteVladimir Lenin Bibliography List of speeches

The Development of Capitalism
in Russia
(1899) What Is To Be Done?
What Is To Be Done?
(1902) One Step Forward, Two Steps Back
One Step Forward, Two Steps Back
(1904) Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Democratic Revolution
Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Democratic Revolution
(1905) Materialism and Empirio-criticism
Materialism and Empirio-criticism
(1909) Philosophical Notebooks (1913) The Right of Nations to Self-Determination (1914) Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism
(1916) The State and Revolution
The State and Revolution
(1917) The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky
The Proletarian Revolution and the Renegade Kautsky
(1918) "Left-Wing" Communism: An Infantile Disorder (1920) Testament (1922–1923)

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vtePremiers of the Soviet UnionPremiers Lenin
(1923–1924) Rykov (1924–1930) Molotov (1930–1941) Stalin (1941–1953) Malenkov (1953–1955) Bulganin (1955–1958) Khrushchev (1958–1964) Kosygin (1964–1980) Tikhonov (1980–1985) Ryzhkov (1985–1991) Pavlov (Jan.–Aug. 1991) Silayev (Sep.–Dec. 1991) First Deputies Kuybyshev (1934–35) Voznesensky (1941–46) Molotov (1942–57) Bulganin (1950–55) Beria (Mar.–June 1953) Kaganovich (1953–57) Mikoyan (1955–64) Pervukhin (1955–57) Saburov (1955–57) Kuzmin (1957–58) Kozlov (1958–60) Kosygin (1960–64) Ustinov (1963–65) Mazurov (1965–78) Polyansky (1965–73) Tikhonov (1976–80) Arkhipov (1980–86) Aliyev (1982–87) Gromyko (1983–85) Talyzin (1985–88) Murakhovsky (1985–89) Maslyukov (1988–90) Voronin (1989–90) Niktin (1989–90) Velichko (Jan.–Nov. 1991) Doguzhiyev (Jan.–Nov. 1991)

First Deputy Premiers Deputy Premiers Prime Ministers of Russia

vteHeads of government of Russianote: Acting chairmen shown in italics. Questionable Heads of Government are written in small type.Russian EmpireSupreme Privy Council Menshikov Apraksin Golovkin Osterman Dmitry Mikhailovich Golitsyn Tolstoy Karl Fridrikh Golsteyn-Gottorpsky Alexey Grigoryevich Dolgorukov Vasily Lukich Dolgorukov Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn Cabinet ministers Golovkin Osterman Minikh Osterman Conferency ministers Stepan Fyodorovich Apraksin Mikhail Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin Mikhail Mikhailovich Golitsyn Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumin Buturlin Peter Ivanovich Shuvalov Mikhail Illarionovich Vorontsov Trubetskoy Alexander Shuvalov Romanov Shakhovskoy Neplyuyev Roman Illarionovich Vorontsov Imperial Council Georg Lyudwig Golshteyn-Gottorpsky Golsteyn-Beksky Minikh Trubetskoy M.I. Vorontsov Vilbua Volkonsky Melgunov Council Affairs Strekalov Samoylov Veydemeyer Derzhavin Veydemeyer Committee of Ministers Vorontsov Rumyantsev Vyazmitinov Nikolay Ivanovich Saltykov Lopukhin Kochubey Novosiltsev Vasilchikov Levashov Chernyshov Orlov Bludov Gagarin Ignatyev Valuyev Reytern Bunge Durnovo Witte Council of Ministers Witte Goremykin Stolypin Kokovtsov Goremykin Styurmer Trepov Golitsyn Russian Republic Lvov Kerensky Russian SFSR Lenin Rykov Syrtsov Sulimov Bulganin Vakhrushev Khokhlov Kosygin Rodionov Chernousov Puzanov Yasnov Kozlov Polyansky Voronov Solomentsev Vorotnikov Vlasov Silayev Lobov Yeltsin Soviet Union Lenin Rykov Molotov Stalin Malenkov Bulganin Khrushchev Kosygin Tikhonov Ryzhkov Pavlov Silayev Russian Federation Yeltsin Gaidar Chernomyrdin Kiriyenko Chernomyrdin Primakov Stepashin Putin Kasyanov Khristenko Fradkov Zubkov Putin Zubkov Medvedev

  Council of Ministers of Russia   Heads of Government   Premiers of the USSR

vte Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
/ Russian Civil WarEventsRevolution February Revolution July Days Kornilov affair October Revolution Kerensky–Krasnov uprising Junker mutiny Civil War Russian Civil War Ukrainian War
of Independence Ukrainian–Soviet War Kiev
Bolshevik Uprising Polish–Ukrainian War Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Polish–Soviet War Estonian War
of Independence Latvian War
of Independence Lithuanian Wars of Independence Red Army
Red Army
invasion of Georgia Armenian–Azerbaijani War Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Siberian Intervention Groups Provisional Committee of the State Duma Russian Provisional Government White movement Pro-independence movements Petrograd
Soviet Council of the People's Commissars Military Revolutionary Committee Russian Constituent Assembly elections Black Guards Red Guards Group of forces in battle with the counterrevolution in the South of Russia Tsentralna Rada Ukrainian People's Republic Parties Kadets Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Bolsheviks Mensheviks Socialist Revolutionary Party Left SRs Union of October 17 FiguresMonarchists Nicholas II
Nicholas II
of Russia Provisional Government Georgy Lvov Pavel Milyukov Alexander Guchkov White movement Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel Alexander Kolchak Anton Denikin Pyotr Krasnov Nikolai Yudenich Bolsheviks Vladimir Lenin Lev Kamenev Grigory Zinoviev Leon Trotsky Mikhail Frunze Joseph Stalin Semyon Budyonny Yakov Sverdlov Nikolai Bukharin Felix Dzerzhinsky Alexei Rykov Right SRs Alexander Kerensky Stepan Petrichenko Boris Savinkov Boris Sokoloff International Revolutions of 1917–23 German Revolution
of 1918–1919 Bavarian Soviet Republic Hungarian Soviet Republic Hungarian–Romanian War Workers' Councils in Poland Polish–Ukrainian War Polish–Soviet War Slovak Soviet Republic Finnish Civil War Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic

vteLeaders of the ruling Communist parties of the Eastern Bloc Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union

Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Georgy Malenkov Nikita Khrushchev Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev

Party of Labour of Albania Enver Hoxha Ramiz Alia Bulgarian Communist Party Georgi Dimitrov Valko Chervenkov Todor Zhivkov Petar Mladenov Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Klement Gottwald Antonín Novotný Alexander Dubček Gustáv Husák Miloš Jakeš Karel Urbánek Socialist Unity Party of Germany Wilhelm Pieck Walter Ulbricht Erich Honecker Egon Krenz

Hungarian Working People's PartyHungarian Socialist Workers' Party Mátyás Rákosi Ernő Gerő János Kádár Károly Grósz Rezső Nyers Polish United Workers' Party Bolesław Bierut Edward Ochab Władysław Gomułka Edward Gierek Stanisław Kania Wojciech Jaruzelski Mieczysław Rakowski Romanian Communist Party Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej Gheorghe Apostol Nicolae Ceaușescu
Nicolae Ceaușescu
League of Communists of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito (1980–1990, rotating leadership)

vteSocialismSchools of thought 21st century Agrarian Communist Democratic Ethical Feminist Green Guild Labourism Syndicalism Liberal Market Marxian Reformist Revolutionary Scientific Utopian Libertarian(From below) Anarchism Collectivist Communist Individualist Insurrectionary Magonism Mutualism Neozapatismo Participism Platformism Social Syndicalist Left-libertarianism Libertarian Marxism Left communism Council communism Luxemburgism Mao-Spontex Third camp Authoritarian(From above) Barracks Nechayevism Blanquism Leninism Marxism–Leninism Brezhnevism Castroism Ceaușism Guevarism Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Thought Hoxhaism Husakism Juche Kadarism Khrushchevism Maoism Dengism Maoism–Third Worldism Marxism–Leninism–Maoism Marxism–Leninism–Maoism–Gonzalo Thought Marxism–Leninism–Maoism–Prachanda Path Xi Jinping Thought Stalinism Neo-Stalinism Tkachevism Trotskyism Neo-Trotskyism Pabloism Posadism Orthodox Trotskyism State Lassallism Religious Buddhist Christian Islamic Jewish Regional variants African African-Caribbean Arab Bolivarian Chinese European Israeli Indonesian Melanesian Mexican Soviet In one country Real Nationalist Sri Lankan Third World Yugoslav

Key topics and issues Anarchist economics Anti-revisionism Criticism of capitalism Criticism of socialism Class struggle Democracy Dictatorship of the proletariat Egalitarianism Equality of outcome History of socialism Impossibilism "The Internationale" Internationalism State-owned enterprise Land reform Left-wing politics Mixed economy Mode of production Nanosocialism Nationalization Planned economy Post-capitalism Proletarian revolution Reformism Revisionism Socialisation of production Socialist economics Socialist market economy Socialist state State capitalism Trade union Welfare state Concepts Adhocracy Anarchist economics Basic income Calculation in kind Commune Common ownership Cooperative
ownership Decentralized planning Direct democracy Economic democracy Economic planning Equal opportunity Free association Industrial democracy Labor-time calculation Labour voucher Production for use Public ownership Social dividend Socialist mode of production Technocracy Workers' self-management Workplace democracy People16th c. Thomas More Tommaso Campanella 18th c. Gracchus Babeuf Victor d'Hupay Gabriel Bonnot de Mably Sylvain Maréchal Étienne-Gabriel Morelly 19th c. Mikhail Bakunin John Goodwyn Barmby Enrico Barone August Bebel Edward Bellamy Eduard Bernstein Louis Blanc Louis Auguste Blanqui Philippe Buchez Georg Büchner Philippe Buonarroti Étienne Cabet Edward Carpenter Nikolay Chernyshevsky James Connolly Victor Prosper Considerant Claire Démar Théodore Dézamy W. E. B. Du Bois Prosper Enfantin Friedrich Engels Charles Fourier Emma Goldman Charles Hall Alexander Herzen Jean Jaurès Mary Harris Jones Karl Kautsky Peter Kropotkin Paul Lafargue Albert Laponneraye Ferdinand Lassalle Pyotr Lavrov Alexandre Ledru-Rollin Pierre Leroux Helen Macfarlane Errico Malatesta Karl Marx Louise Michel Nikolay Mikhaylovsky William Morris Robert Owen Antonie Pannekoek Giovanni Pascoli Constantin Pecqueur Georgi Plekhanov Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Luis Emilio Recabarren Henri de Saint-Simon Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin George Sand Friedrich Wilhelm Schulz Eugène Sue Lysander Spooner Fred M. Taylor William Thompson Pyotr Tkachev Benjamin Tucker Suzanne Voilquin Alfred Russel Wallace Wilhelm Weitling Oscar Wilde 20th c. Tariq Ali Salvador Allende Louis Aragon Clement Attlee Henri Barbusse Zygmunt Bauman Simone de Beauvoir Walter Benjamin Tony Benn Léon Blum Grace Lee Boggs Murray Bookchin Bertolt Brecht Aristide Briand Nikolai Bukharin Cornelius Castoriadis Hugo Chávez Noam Chomsky G. D. H. Cole Jeremy Corbyn Bob Crow Guy Debord Eugene V. Debs John Dewey Alexander Dubček Albert Einstein Einar Gerhardsen Mikhail Gorbachev Maxim Gorky Antonio Gramsci Chris Hedges Eric Hobsbawm Dolores Ibárruri Pablo Iglesias Posse Elfriede Jelinek Martin Luther King Jr. Alexandra Kollontai Jack Layton Henri Lefebvre Claude Lefort Vladimir Lenin Ken Livingstone György Lukács Rosa Luxemburg Nestor Makhno Nelson Mandela Mao Dun Vladimir Mayakovsky Maurice Merleau-Ponty China Miéville François Mitterrand Evo Morales Imre Nagy Gamal Abdel Nasser Otto Neurath Paul Nizan Abdullah Öcalan Seán O'Casey George Orwell Sylvia Pankhurst Fred Paterson Pier Paolo Pasolini Karl Polanyi Bertrand Russell Gaetano Salvemini Bernie Sanders Jean-Paul Sartre Arthur Scargill Léopold Sédar Senghor George Bernard Shaw R. H. Tawney E. P. Thompson Ernst Toller Leon Trotsky Yanis Varoufakis H. G. Wells Cornel West Richard D. Wolff Clara Zetkin Howard Zinn Slavoj Žižek Organizations Communist International Fifth International Foro de São Paulo Fourth International International League of Religious Socialists International Marxist Tendency International Workingmen's Association Second International Socialist International World Federation of Democratic Youth World Socialist Movement See also Anarchism Capitalism People's Communism Liberalism New Left Old Left Social democracy

Politics portal Socialism

vteCommunismTheory and practice Commune Commune
(model of government) Communist society Anti-capitalism Class struggle Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Collectivism Common ownership Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Planned economy Proletarian internationalism Labour movement Social revolution Stateless society Wage slavery Workers' self-management World revolution Aspects History of communism Communist revolution Communist party Communist state Communist symbolism Variants Pre-Marxist Anarchist Marxism Libertarian Marxism–Leninism World National War Religious Christian List of communist ideologies List of communist parties Primitive Internationals Communist League First International Second International Third International Fourth International People Thomas More Tommaso Campanella Gracchus Babeuf Robert Owen Wilhelm Weitling Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Élisée Reclus Peter Kropotkin Errico Malatesta Rosa Luxemburg Clara Zetkin Vladimir Lenin Alexander Berkman Emma Goldman Sacco and Vanzetti Leon Trotsky Nestor Makhno Alexandra Kollontai Antonio Gramsci Joseph Stalin Buenaventura Durruti Antonie Pannekoek Ho Chi Minh Mao Zedong Josip Broz Tito Albert Camus Herbert Marcuse Jean-Paul Sartre Enver Hoxha Simone de Beauvoir Che Guevara Pier Paolo Pasolini Kim Il-sung Cornelius Castoriadis Pol Pot Guy Debord Murray Bookchin Nelson Mandela Fidel Castro Subcomandante Marcos Related topics Anarchism Social Anti-communism Anti anti-communism Anti-communist mass killings Anti-fascism Anti-globalization movement Anti-nationalism Capitalism Cold War Communitarianism Crimes against humanity under communist regimes Mass killings Criticisms of communist party rule Internationalism Intentional community Left-wing politics Old Left New Left New class Post-communism Red Scare Revolution Second World Socialism Democratic Libertarian Revolutionary Social democracy Socialist economics Socialist mode of production Syndicalism Third-Worldism Trade union Worker cooperative Anthem "The Internationale" Portal vteSocial and political philosophyAncientphilosophers Aristotle Chanakya Cicero Confucius Han Fei Laozi Mencius Mozi Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides Valluvar Medievalphilosophers Al-Ghazali Augustine Averroes Maimonides Marsilius Muhammad Nizam al-Mulk Thomas Aquinas Modernphilosophers Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Erasmus Fourier Franklin Godwin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant political philosophy Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire 20th–21st-centuryphilosophers Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Nursî Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Qutb Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Shariati Simonović Skinner Sombart Sorel Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek Social theories Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Islam Islamism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Concepts Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more... Related articles Jurisprudence Philosophy and economics Philosophy of education Philosophy of history Philosophy of love Philosophy of sex Philosophy of social science Political ethics Social epistemology


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