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Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
(Russian: Владикавка́з, IPA: [vlədʲɪkɐˈfkas], lit. ruler of the Caucasus; Ossetian: Дзæуджыхъæу, translit. Dzæudžyqæu Ossetic pronunciation: [ˈd͡zəwd͡ʒɪ̈qəw], lit. Dzaug's settlement),[12][13][14] formerly known as Ordzhonikidze (Орджоники́дзе) and Dzaudzhikau (Дзауджика́у), is the capital city of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the republic at the foothills of the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, situated on the Terek River. Population: 311,693 (2010 Census);[7] 315,068 (2002 Census);[15] 300,198 (1989 Census).[16] Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
is one of the most populous cities in the North Caucasus. The city is an industrial and transportation center. Manufactured products include processed zinc and lead, machinery, chemicals, clothing and food products.

Contents

1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Transportation 4 Population 5 Sports 6 Notable structures 7 Education 8 Religion 9 Twin towns and sister cities 10 Gallery 11 Geography

11.1 Climate

12 Notable people 13 References

13.1 Notes 13.2 Sources

14 External links

History[edit] The city was founded in 1784[10] as a fortress during the Russian conquest of the Caucasus
Caucasus
and was for many years the main Russian military base in the region. The Georgian Military Highway, crossing the mountains, was constructed in 1799 to link the city with Georgia to the south, and in 1875 a railway was built to connect it to Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don
and Baku
Baku
in Azerbaijan. Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
has become an important industrial center for the region, with smelting, refining, chemicals and manufacturing industries.

A monument in the city

The city is one of the largest in the Russian-controlled Caucasus, along with Grozny, and was the capital of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, a Soviet Republic established after the annexation of the Mountainous Republic of the North Caucasus. The puppet state existed from 1921 to 1924 and was part of, and in some cases incorporated, the modern-day territories of Chechnya, North Ossetia and Kabardino-Balkaria. From 1931 to 1944 and from 1954 to 1990, its name in both Russian and Ossetic languages was Ordzhonikidze (Орджоники́дзе) (after Sergo Ordzhonikidze, a Georgian Bolshevik), and from 1944 to 1954 it was officially called Dzaudzhikau (Дзауджика́у) in Russian and (Дзæуджыхъæу) in Ossetic. Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
resumed its old Russian name, in 1990, shortly before the dissolution of the Soviet Union; the official Ossetic name was reverted to Дзæуджыхъæу (Dzæudžyqæu). Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
was fought over in both the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and World War II. In February 1919, the anti-Communist Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
under General Anton Denikin
Anton Denikin
seized the city, before being expelled by the Red Army
Red Army
in March 1920. In November 1942, the forces of Nazi Germany tried unsuccessfully to seize the city but were repelled. In 1999, 2008 and 2010, Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
was a target of bombings. On November 26, 2008, Vitaly Karayev, the mayor of Vladikavkaz was killed by an unidentified gunman.[17] On December 31, 2008, his successor, Kazbek Pagiyev, was also killed by unidentified gunmen.[18] Administrative and municipal status[edit] Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
is the capital of the republic.[3] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with six rural localities, incorporated as Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
City Under Republic Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
City Under Republic Jurisdiction is incorporated as Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
Urban Okrug.[4] Transportation[edit] The city is served by the bus network (marshrutkas). There are also tram (since 1904) and trolleybus (since 1977) networks, plus the main Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
railway station. The city is served by Beslan Airport
Beslan Airport
located about 9 kilometres from the city. The Georgian Military Road, which is a part of European route E117, starts in Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
and it connects the city with the South Caucasus. Population[edit] According to the results of the 2010 Census, the city population of Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
was 330,148. Census 1873 23,766 The ethnic makeup of city's population was:

Ossetians: 1,800 (7,57%) 210,104 (63.9%) Russians: 17,601 (74,06%) 80,945 (24.5%) Armenians: 1,698 (74,06) 11,697 (3.5%) Georgians: 7,014 (2.2%) Ingush: 41 (0,17%) 3,225 (1.1%) Azerbaijanians: 2,212 (0.7%) Ukrainians: 1,857 (0.6%) Greeks: 1,819 (0.5%) German: 731 (3.09%) Polish: 439 (1.85%) Yuden: 743 (3.12%) Persian: 631 (2.66%) Chechen: 76 (0.32%) Others: 7 (0.03%) 11,275 (3.4%)

Sports[edit] FC Alania Vladikavkaz
FC Alania Vladikavkaz
is an association football club based in Vladikavkaz, who won the Russian Premier League
Russian Premier League
in 1995. Notable structures[edit] In Vladikavkaz, there is a guyed TV mast, 198 meters (650 ft) tall, built in 1961, which has six crossbars with gangways in two levels running from the mast structure to the guys. Education[edit]

North Ossetian State University

North Ossetian State University
North Ossetian State University
is in the city. Religion[edit] The city's primary religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which is followed by Russians, Georgians and some of the Ossetians. The rest of the Ossetian population adheres to the next largest religion, Uatsdin, an Ossetian folk religion, which nationwide is followed by 29% of the population. The remainder follow Protestantism, Islam, Armenian Orthodoxy and other beliefs. Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
is twinned with:

Asheville, North Carolina, United States Kardzhali, Bulgaria Makhachkala, Russia Nalchik, Russia Ardahan, Turkey

Gallery[edit]

Hotel Imperial Mira avenue amid Stolovaya mountain Armenian Church, 1868 State academic Russian theatre named after E. Vakhtangov, 1869 The corner of Gorky street and Mira Avenue

State theatre of Opera and ballet of North Ossetia-Alania North Ossetian state art Museum named after M. Tuganov St. George's Cathedral The angle of Kuibyshev street and Mira Avenue The Church Of The Nativity Of The Virgin, 1815

Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
experiences a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, wet summers and cold, drier winters (though very mild for Russia).

Climate data for Vladikavkaz

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 19.6 (67.3) 23.0 (73.4) 30.3 (86.5) 34.0 (93.2) 35.0 (95) 38.0 (100.4) 37.5 (99.5) 39.2 (102.6) 38.2 (100.8) 33.5 (92.3) 27.0 (80.6) 27.1 (80.8) 39.2 (102.6)

Average high °C (°F) 3.0 (37.4) 3.2 (37.8) 7.7 (45.9) 14.8 (58.6) 19.4 (66.9) 23.2 (73.8) 25.7 (78.3) 25.4 (77.7) 20.8 (69.4) 15.1 (59.2) 8.4 (47.1) 4.3 (39.7) 14.3 (57.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.9 (28.6) −1.7 (28.9) 3.0 (37.4) 9.5 (49.1) 14.1 (57.4) 18.0 (64.4) 20.6 (69.1) 20.1 (68.2) 15.6 (60.1) 9.8 (49.6) 3.6 (38.5) −0.7 (30.7) 9.2 (48.6)

Average low °C (°F) −5.6 (21.9) −5.7 (21.7) −0.9 (30.4) 5.1 (41.2) 9.6 (49.3) 13.5 (56.3) 16.1 (61) 15.7 (60.3) 11.2 (52.2) 5.7 (42.3) 0.1 (32.2) −4.2 (24.4) 5.1 (41.2)

Record low °C (°F) −27.2 (−17) −27.8 (−18) −22.0 (−7.6) −8.9 (16) −2.8 (27) 2.2 (36) 7.5 (45.5) 6.0 (42.8) 0.0 (32) −10.0 (14) −22.2 (−8) −25.0 (−13) −27.8 (−18)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 31 (1.22) 34 (1.34) 54 (2.13) 85 (3.35) 140 (5.51) 175 (6.89) 109 (4.29) 89 (3.5) 75 (2.95) 60 (2.36) 46 (1.81) 31 (1.22) 929 (36.57)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 11 (4.3) 17 (6.7) 11 (4.3) 15 (5.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 7 (2.8) 10 (3.9) 10 (3.9) 81 (31.8)

Average precipitation days 6 6 8 10 14 14 11 9 8 7 7 6 106

Average relative humidity (%) 79 79 78 74 76 76 74 75 79 80 81 80 77.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 111.6 120.4 127.1 144.0 186.0 201.0 220.1 210.8 153.0 130.2 111.0 102.3 1,817.5

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[19]

Source #2: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
(UN)[20]

Notable people[edit]

Lado Davidov (1924-1987) — Soviet soldier, Hero of the Soviet Union Murat Gassiev (born 1993) — a professional boxer, undefeated unified cruiserweight world champion Valery Gazzaev
Valery Gazzaev
(born 1954) — Russian football manager and former footballer Valery Gergiev
Valery Gergiev
(born 1953) — Russian conductor and opera company director Vitaly Kaloyev
Vitaly Kaloyev
(born 1956) — a convicted murderer and a former architect Issa Pliyev (1903–1979) — Soviet military commander, twice Hero of the Soviet Union Vyacheslav Voronin (born 1974) - Russian high jumper, gold medallist at the 1999 World Championships in Athletics

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e Law #34-RZ ^ http://sputnik-ossetia.ru/North_Ossetia/20160926/3080916.html ^ a b Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania ^ a b c Law #10-RZ ^ http://vladikavkaz-osetia.ru/glava/ ^ http://vladikavkaz-osetia.ru/sobranie/ ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ a b c d e Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 75. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.  ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian) ^ http://vladikavkaz-osetia.ru/city/history.php the official Ossetic name>Дзæуджыхъæу (Dzæudžyqæu) ^ http://region15.ru/docs/vladikavkaz ^ http://docs.cntd.ru/document/304200016 ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ "Europe Southern Russia
Russia
mayor gunned down". BBC News. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2010-04-25.  ^ "Itar-Tass". Itar-Tass. Retrieved 2010-04-25.  ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved September 8, 2007.  ^ "World Weather Information Service – Wladikavkaz". United Nations. Retrieved December 31, 2010. 

Sources[edit]

Верховный Совет Республики Северная Осетия. 12 ноября 1994 г. «Республика Северная Осетия-Алания. Конституция.», в ред. Конституционного Закона №5-РКЗ от 4 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Конституцию Республики Северная Осетия–Алания». Вступил в силу 7 декабря 1994 г. Опубликован: брошюрой "Конституция Республики Северная Осетия–Алания". (Supreme Council of the Republic of North Ossetia. November 12, 1994 Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Constitution., as amended by the Constitutional Law #5-RKZ of December 4, 2013 On Amending the Constitution of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania. Effective as of December 7, 1994.). Закон №34-РЗ от 9 июля 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Северная Осетия-Алания», в ред. Закона №44-РЗ от 12 ноября 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение к Закону Республики Северная Осетия–Алания "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Северная Осетия–Алания" и Закон Республики Северная Осетия–Алания "Об установлении границ муниципального образования Алагирский район, наделении его статусом муниципального района, образовании в его составе муниципальных образований — городского и сельских поселений"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Северная Осетия", №148(24949), 16 августа 2007 г. (Law #34-RZ of July 9, 2007 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania, as amended by the Law #44-RZ of November 12, 2013 On Amending the Appendix to the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
Republic of North Ossetia–Alania
"On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania" and the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of Alagirsky District, Granting It the Status of a Municipal District, Establishing Municipal Formations—Urban and Rural Settlements—Within Its Structure". Effective as of the official publication date.). Закон №10-РЗ от 5 марта 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Владикавказ, наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №34-РЗ от 19 июля 2006 г «О внесении изменений в Закон Республики Северная Осетия-Алания "Об установлении границ муниципального образования город Владикавказ, наделении его статусом городского округа"». Вступил в силу 1 марта 2005 г. Опубликован: "Северная Осетия", №43 (24344), 15 марта 2005 г. (Law #10-RZ of March 5, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
and On Granting It Urban Okrug Status, as amended by the Law #34-RZ of July 19, 2006 On Amending the Law of the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
and On Granting It Urban Okrug Status". Effective as of March 1, 2005.).

External links[edit]

Media related to Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
at Wikimedia Commons Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Vladikavkaz". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.  Vladikavkaz
Vladikavkaz
official site (in Russian)

v t e

Administrative divisions of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania

Capital: Vladikavkaz

Districts

Alagirsky Ardonsky Digorsky Irafsky Kirovsky Mozdoksky Pravoberezhny Prigorodny

Cities and towns

Alagir Ardon Beslan Digora Mozdok

Urban-type settlements

Zavodskoy

v t e

Capitals of the Republics of Russia

Abakan Cheboksary Cherkessk Elista Gorno-Altaysk Grozny Izhevsk Kazan Kyzyl Magas Makhachkala Maykop Nalchik Petrozavodsk Saransk Simferopol Syktyvkar Ufa Ulan-Ude Vladikavkaz Yakutsk Yoshkar-Ola

v t e

Cities of Military Glory of Russia

Arkhangelsk Belgorod Bryansk Dmitrov Feodosia Gatchina Grozny
Grozny
‎ Kalach-na-Donu Khabarovsk Kozelsk Kronstadt Kursk Luga Malgobek Nalchik Naro-Fominsk Oryol Polyarny Pskov Rostov-on-Don Rzhev Staraya Russa Taganrog Tikhvin Tuapse Tver Velikiye Luki Veliky Novgorod Vladikavkaz Vladivostok Volokolamsk Voronezh Vyazma Vyborg Yelets Yelnya

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 132517

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