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Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
(19 May 1860 – 1 December 1952) was an Italian statesman, known for representing Italy
Italy
in the 1919 Paris Peace Conference with his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino. He was also known as "Premier of Victory" for defeating the Central Powers
Central Powers
along with the Entente in World War I.[1] He was also member and president of the Constitutional Assembly that changed the Italian form of government into a Republic. Aside from his prominent political role Orlando is also known for his writings, over a hundred works, on legal and judicial issues; Orlando was a professor of law.[2]

Contents

1 Early career 2 Prime Minister 3 The Paris Peace Conference 4 Fascism and final years 5 Controversies 6 References 7 External links

Early career[edit] He was born in Palermo, Sicily. His father, a landed gentleman, delayed venturing out to register his son's birth for fear of Giuseppe Garibaldi's 1,000 patriots who had just stormed into Sicily
Sicily
on the first leg of their march to build an Italian nation.[3] He taught law at the University of Palermo
Palermo
and was recognized as an eminent jurist.[4] In 1897 he was elected in the Italian Chamber of Deputies
Italian Chamber of Deputies
(Italian: Camera dei Deputati) for the district of Partinico
Partinico
for which he was constantly reelected until 1925.[5] He aligned himself with Giovanni Giolitti, who was Prime Minister of Italy
Prime Minister of Italy
five times between 1892 and 1921. Prime Minister[edit] A liberal, Orlando served in various roles as a minister. In 1903 he served as Minister of Education under Prime Minister Giolitti. In 1907 he was appointed Minister of Justice, a role he retained until 1909. He was re-appointed to the same ministry in November 1914 in the government of Antonio Salandra
Antonio Salandra
until his appointment as Minister of the Interior in June 1916 under Paolo Boselli. After the Italian military disaster in World War I
World War I
at Caporetto on 25 October 1917, which led to the fall of the Boselli government, Orlando became Prime Minister, and he continued in that role through the rest of the war. He had been a strong supporter of Italy's entry in the war. He successfully led a patriotic national front government, the Unione Sacra, and reorganized the army.[4] Orlando was encouraged in his support of the Allies because of secret incentives offered to Italy
Italy
in the London Pact
London Pact
of 1915. Italy
Italy
was promised significant territorial gains in Dalmatia.[4] In November 1918, the Italians won the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, a feat that coincided with the collapse of Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
and the end of the First World War on the Italian Front, as well as the end of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The fact that Italy
Italy
recovered and ended up on the winning side in 1918 earned for Orlando the title "Premier of Victory."[3] The Paris Peace Conference[edit]

Orlando (2nd from left) at the World War I
World War I
peace negotiations in Versailles with David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
and Woodrow Wilson (from left)

He was one of the Big Four, the main Allied leaders and participants at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, along with U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
and Britain's Prime Minister David Lloyd George.[6] Although, as prime minister, he was the head of the Italian delegation, Orlando's inability to speak English and his weak political position at home allowed the conservative foreign minister, the half-Welsh Sidney Sonnino, to play a dominant role.[7] Their differences proved to be disastrous during the negotiations. Orlando was prepared to renounce territorial claims for Dalmatia
Dalmatia
to annex Rijeka
Rijeka
(or Fiume
Fiume
as the Italians called the town) - the principal seaport on the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
- while Sonnino was not prepared to give up Dalmatia. Italy
Italy
ended up claiming both and received neither, running up against Wilson's policy of national self-determination. Orlando supported the Racial Equality Proposal introduced by Japan at the conference.[8] Orlando dramatically left the conference early in April 1919.[9] He returned briefly the following month, but was forced to resign just days before the signing of the resultant Treaty of Versailles. The fact he was not a signatory to the treaty became a point of pride for him later in his life.[10] French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau dubbed him "The Weeper," and Orlando himself recalled proudly: "When ... I knew they would not give us what we were entitled to ... I writhed on the floor. I knocked my head against the wall. I cried. I wanted to die."[3] His political position was seriously undermined by his failure to secure Italian interests at the Paris Peace Conference. Orlando resigned on 23 June 1919, following his inability to acquire Fiume
Fiume
for Italy
Italy
in the peace settlement. The so-called "Mutilated victory" was one of the causes of the rising of Benito Mussolini. In December 1919 he was elected president of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, but never again served as prime minister. He eventually settled down as a pea farmer far away from prying eyes. On the rare occasion he was seen he was known for throwing his many rolexes and batteries at anyway that disturbed him. Fascism and final years[edit]

An official portrait Vittorio Emanuele Orlando.

When Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
seized power in 1922, Orlando initially tactically supported him, but broke with Il Duce over the murder of Giacomo Matteotti
Giacomo Matteotti
in 1924. After that he abandoned politics, in 1925 he resigned from the Chamber of Deputies,[11] until in 1935 Mussolini's march into Ethiopia
Ethiopia
stirred Orlando's nationalism. He reappeared briefly in the political spotlight when he wrote Mussolini a supportive letter.[3] In 1944, he made something of a political comeback. With the fall of Mussolini, Orlando became leader of the National Democratic Union. He was elected speaker of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, where he served until 1946. In 1946, he was elected to the Constituent Assembly of Italy
Italy
and served as its president. In 1948 he was nominated senator for life, and was a candidate for the presidency of the republic (elected by Parliament) but was defeated by Luigi Einaudi. He died in 1952 in Rome. Controversies[edit] He was a controversial figure. Some authors criticize the blunt way he represented Italy
Italy
at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, in contrast to his more diplomatic foreign minister Sidney Sonnino. Other authors say that Orlando was connected to the Mafia and mafiosi from beginning to end of his long parliamentary career,[12] but no court ever investigated the issue. The Mafia pentito – a state witness – Tommaso Buscetta claimed that Orlando actually was a member of the Mafia, a man of honour, himself.[13] In Partinico
Partinico
he was supported by the Mafia boss Frank Coppola who had been deported back to Italy
Italy
from the US.[14] In 1925, Orlando stated in the Italian senate that he was proud of being mafioso, intending this to mean a "man of honor" but making no admission of links to organized crime:

“if by the word 'mafia' we understand a sense of honour pitched in the highest key; a refusal to tolerate anyone’s prominence or overbearing behaviour; … a generosity of spirit which, while it meets strength head on, is indulgent to the weak; loyalty to friends … If such feelings and such behaviour are what people mean by 'the mafia', … then we are actually speaking of the special characteristics of the Sicilian soul: and I declare that I am a mafioso, and proud to be one.” [15][16]

He maintained a strong rivalry with prominent statesman and party colleague Francesco Saverio Nitti,.[17] French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau and American President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
criticized his behavior at the Paris Peace conference.[18] References[edit]

Notes

^ (in Italian) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Incarichi di governo, Parlamento italiano (Accessed May 8, 2016) ^ (in Italian) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Organi parlamentari, Parlamento italiano (Accessed May 8, 2016) ^ a b c d Last of the Big Four, obituary of Orlando in Time, December 8, 1952 ^ a b c Tucker, Encyclopedia Of World War I, pp. 865-66 ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 71 ^ MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. xxviii ^ MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. 274 ^ Lauren, Power And Prejudice, p.92 ^ Signor Orlando Returns to Rome: The Financial Times (London, England),Friday, April 25, 1919; pg. 3; Edition 9525. ^ MacMillan, Paris 1919, p. 302 ^ Orlando Out, Time Magazine, August 17, 1925 ^ Arlacchi, Mafia Business, p. 43 ^ Dickie, Cosa Nostra, p. 184 ^ Servadio, Mafioso, p. 252 ^ Arlacchi, Mafia Business, p. 181 ^ Dickie, Cosa Nostra, p. 183 ^ Andreotti & Delleani, Visti da vicino, p.46 ^ Fruttero & Gramellini, La Patria, bene o male

Sources

Andreotti, Giulio & Vincio Delleani (1982). Visti da vicino (Vol. II), Milan: Rizzoli, ISBN 88-17850934 Arlacchi, Pino (1988). Mafia Business. The Mafia Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-285197-7 Dickie, John (2004). Cosa Nostra. A history of the Sicilian Mafia, London: Coronet, ISBN 0-340-82435-2 Fruttero, Carlo & Massimo Gramellini (2010). La Patria, bene o male, Milan: Mondadori, ISBN 978-8852017421 Lauren, Paul G. (1988). Power And Prejudice: The Politics And Diplomacy Of Racial Discrimination, Boulder (CO): Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-0678-7 Macmillan, Margaret (2002). Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-375-76052-0 Servadio, Gaia (1976). Mafioso. A history of the Mafia from its origins to the present day, London: Secker & Warburg, ISBN 0-440-55104-8 Tucker, Spencer C. & Priscilla Mary Roberts (eds.), (2005). Encyclopedia Of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History, Santa Barbara (CA): ABC-CLIO

External links[edit]

Works by or about Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
at Internet Archive

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