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The Info List - Visual Effects


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Visual Effects (abbreviated VFX) is the process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live action shot in film making. Visual effects involve in the integration of live-action footage (special effects) and generated imagery (digital effects) to create environments which look realistic, but would be dangerous, expensive, impractical, time consuming or impossible to capture on film. Visual effects using computer-generated imagery (CGI) have recently become accessible to the independent filmmaker with the introduction of affordable and easy-to-use animation and compositing software.

Contents

1 Timing 2 Categories 3 Types 4 See also 5 Further reading 6 External links

Timing[edit] Visual effects are often integral to a movie's story and appeal. Although most visual effects work is completed during post-production, it usually must be carefully planned and choreographed in pre-production and production. Visual effects primarily executed in Post-Production with the use of multiple tools and technologies such as graphic design, modeling, animation and similar software, while special effects such as explosions and car chases are made on set. A visual effects supervisor is usually involved with the production from an early stage to work closely with production and the film's director design, guide and lead the teams required to achieve the desired effects. Categories[edit] Visual effects primarily divides into two groups of:

Special
Special
Effects: It covers any visual effects that take place in live action, e.g. on set explosions or stunt performances. Digital Effects (commonly shortened to digital FX or FX): It covers the various processes by which imagery is created or manipulated with or from photographic assets. Digital Effects often involve the integration of still photography and computer-generated imagery (CGI) to create environments which look realistic but would be dangerous, costly, or impossible to capture in camera. FX is usually associated with the still photography world in contrast to visual effects which is associated with motion film production. Digital FX also divides into different subgroups of professions such as:

Matte paintings and stills: digital or traditional paintings or photographs which serve as background plates for 3D characters, particle effects, digital sets, backgrounds.

Motion Capture (Mo-Cap for short): It’s the process of recording the movements of objects and or people. In a session of motion capture, the subject whose motion is being captured is recorded and sampled many times per second by different scanners placed all over the environment. There are different types of systems that read the actor’s movement. One of which is the optical method that uses tracking cameras that lock onto specialized markers placed over the actor’s motion capture suit. The other type of method is called the non-optical method where instead of capturing the markers location in space, it recorders and measures the inertia and mechanical motion in the area. This type of motion capture doesn’t just apply to the body, but can be used to track the facial movements and expressions of an actor and transfer them to a 3d model later on in the pipeline. The same type of concept of using markers to track motion is used, but more often than not, the actor’s face will have painted dots on their face rather than ball shaped markers. Not only is the actor’s movements recorded in this process, but the movement of the camera is also recorded, which allows editors to use this data to enhance the environment the motion captured set is imagined in. Once all of this is captured, the motion captured data is mapped to a virtual skeleton using software such as Autodesk’s MotionBuilder
MotionBuilder
or other software of choice. Modelling: Creating 3D models
3D models
of props or characters using specialised software. Animation: Assign movements for any objects and characters in 2D or 3D. Compositing: Combining visual elements from different sources to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene.

Types[edit] VFX can be categorized into:

Simulation FX Animation Modelling Matte painting Compositing

See also[edit]

Animation Match moving Bluescreen/greenscreen Compositing Computer-generated imagery Front projection
Front projection
effect Interactive video compositing Matte painting Physical effects, another category of special effects Optics#Visual effects Rear projection
Rear projection
effect Special
Special
effects VFX Creative Director Visual Effects Society

Further reading[edit]

The VES Handbook of Visual Effects: Industry Standard VFX Practices and Procedures, Jeffrey A. Okun & Susan Zwerman, Publisher: Focal Press 2010 T. Porter and T. Duff, " Compositing
Compositing
Digital Images", Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '84, 18 (1984). The Art and Science of Digital Compositing
Compositing
(ISBN 0-12-133960-2) McClean, Shilo T. (2007). Digital Storytelling: The Narrative Power of Visual Effects in Film. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13465-9.  Mark Cotta Vaz; Craig Barron: The Invisible Art: The Legends of Movie Matte Painting. San Francisco, Cal.: Chronicle Books, 2002; ISBN 0-8118-3136-1 Peter Ellenshaw; Ellenshaw Under Glass - Going to the Matte for Disney Richard Rickitt: Special
Special
Effects: The History and Technique. Billboard Books; 2nd edition, 2007; ISBN 0-8230-8408-6. Patel, Mayur (2009). The Digital Visual Effects Studio: The Artists and Their Work Revealed. ISBN 1-4486-6547-7. 

External links[edit]

Visual Effects News Animation
Animation
boss Take Five Minutes to Watch 100 Years of Visual Effects by Rosa Golijan - Gizmodo.com - August 27, 2009

v t e

Special
Special
effects

Practical

Prosthetic makeup Animatronics Puppetry Creature suit Miniature effect (hanging) Pyrotechnics Aerial rigging (Wire-flying) Squib Matte painting Sugar glass Theatrical blood

In-camera

Tilted plane focus Forced perspective Schüfftan process Dolly zoom Lens flares Lighting effects Filtration Shutter effects Time-lapse

Slow motion Fast motion Speed ramping

Bipacks Slit-scan Reverse motion Front projection Rear projection Multiple exposure Infrared photography Bullet time

Visual

Computer-generated imagery Split screen Stop motion Go motion Chroma key Compositing (digital) Optical printing Introvision Smallgantics Match moving

v t e

Filmmaking

Development

Film
Film
treatment Producer

scriptment

Step outline Screenplay

process spec script film adaptation Hook Option

Film
Film
budgeting Film
Film
finance

pitch

Green-light

Pre-production

Script breakdown

process

Shooting script Storyboard Casting

Scenography Rehearsal

Production board Day Out of Days Production schedule Shooting schedule

one-liner

Production

Film
Film
crew Cinematic techniques Principal photography

Cinematography Videography

Daily call sheet Dailies (rushes)

Daily reports

Film
Film
inventory Production Daily Production Progress Sound Cost Editor log

Post-production

Film
Film
editing Re-recording Sync sound Soundtrack Music Special
Special
effects

sound visual

Negative cost

Distribution

Film
Film
distributor

list

Film
Film
release

wide limited delayed

Roadshow Streaming media

Related

Box office Guerrilla filmmaking Development hell Film Filmography Film
Film
industry Film
Film
rights Turnaround

v t e

Film crew
Film crew
(filmmaking)

Above the line

Actor

Leading actor Movie star Superstar Character actor Cameo actors

Film
Film
director Screenwriter Film
Film
producer

Executive producer Line producer

Below the line

Pre-production

Unit production manager Production coordinator Production accountant Assistant director Script supervisor Script coordinator Casting director Production assistant Location manager

Storyboard

Storyboard
Storyboard
artist

Production design

Production designer

Art director

Costume designer Hairdresser Make-up artist Set decorator Property master / mistress ("props")

Visual Art

Matte painter Illustrator Scenic design

Photography

Cinematographer / Director of photography Camera operator

Focus puller Clapper loader Steadicam

Gaffer

Best boy (electrical) Lighting technician

Key grip

Best boy (grip) Grip Dolly grip

Sound

Director of audiography Production sound mixer Boom operator Utility sound technician Dialogue editor Re-recording mixer Foley artist Composer Music supervisor Music editor Orchestrator

Special
Special
effects

Special effects
Special effects
supervisor Visual effects supervisor

Animation

Animator Visual effects Modeling Rigging Layout artist

Talent

Acting coach Dialect coach Movement director Choreographer Extra Talent agent Actor (voice) Cast member Stand-in Acting instructor Stunt double Stunt performer

Post-production

Film
Film
editor Sound editor Colorist Animator Technical director

Visual effects

Visual effects editor Compositor Computer-generated

.