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The Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon
Lagoon
(Polish: Zalew Wiślany; Russian: Калининградский залив or Kaliningradskiy Zaliv; German: Frisches Haff; Lithuanian: Aistmarės) is a brackish water lagoon on the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
roughly 56 miles (90 km) long, 6 to 15 miles (10 to 19 km) wide, and up to 17 feet (5 m) deep, separated from Gdańsk Bay
Gdańsk Bay
by the Vistula
Vistula
Spit. It is now known as the Vistula Bay or Vistula
Vistula
Gulf. The modern German name, Frisches Haff, is derived from an earlier form, Friesisches Haff.[1] The lagoon is a mouth of a few branches of the Vistula
Vistula
River, notably the Nogat, and the Pregolya
Pregolya
River. It is connected to Gdańsk Bay
Gdańsk Bay
by the Strait of Baltiysk. The Poland–Russia border
Poland–Russia border
runs across the lagoon. Localities on the lagoon include Kaliningrad, Baltiysk, and Primorsk in Russia's Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast and Elbląg, Tolkmicko, Frombork, Krynica Morska
Krynica Morska
in Poland. The Polish port of Elbląg
Elbląg
used to see a substantial amount of trading traffic on the lagoon, but that has declined owing to the current border situation. Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
and Baltiysk
Baltiysk
are currently major seaports on the lagoon.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Proposed canal 3 History

3.1 Kursenieki 3.2 Historical events related to lagoon

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology[edit] The earliest version of the name of Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon
Lagoon
has been recorded in historical sources by Wulfstan, an Anglo-Saxon sailor and merchant at the end of the 9th Century as Estmere.[2] It is an Anglo-Saxon translation of Old Prussian name for the lagoon - *Aīstinmari (modern Lithuanian - Aistmarės) derived from (OP - Old Prussian) Aistei - "Ests", (LAT - Latin)"Aestii" etc. and (OP) *mari - "lagoon (a body of water cut off from a larger body by a reef of sand), fresh water bay".[3] The Ests were Baltic people who since 9th Century became called in some historical sources (first time by Bavarian Geographer) Bruzi, Pruzzen, Pruteni etc. - Old Prussians. So the oldest known meaning of the name of Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon
Lagoon
was "The lagoon or sea of the Ests". Over three hundred years later, in the first half of the 13th Century, the name of Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon
Lagoon
occurs in deeds issued by Teutonic Order in Latin version as Mare Recens (1246 - "mare" - a pool or lake or sea and "recens" - fresh) in contrast to the contemporary name for the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
- Mare Salsum (Salty Sea). Then in 1251 we find record about Mare Recens et Neriam (Frisches Haff and Frische Nehrung, now Vistula
Vistula
Spit) and finally in 1288 Recenti Mari Hab (Haff) which as one can see corresponds with later German "Frisches Haff" = "Fresh Lagoon".[4] Proposed canal[edit] Digging a canal to connect the lagoon with the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
is in consideration as a major EU-supported project. The canal, would re-activate the Elbląg
Elbląg
river port. It would also free its dependence on Russia, which time and again revokes the right of passage for Polish ships through Strait of Baltiysk
Strait of Baltiysk
as a form of pressure on Polish authorities.[citation needed] In October 2016 details of the project were confirmed by PiS
PiS
leader, Jarosław Kaczyński. The 1.3 kilometres (0.81 mi) long, 80 metres wide and 5 metres deep canal shall be completed by 2020 at an estimated cost of PLN 880 million.[5] However, major ecological considerations stand in the way. For example, mammal migration along the lagoon could be disrupted. Also, the inflow of brackish waters from the Baltic sea could result in serious unbalancing of the lagoon's freshwater ecosystem. History[edit]

East Prussian refugees after crossing the lagoon

From 1772 until 1918, the lagoon was part of the Kingdom of Prussia, which had become part of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871. Between 1920 and 1946 it was split between Germany and the Free City of Danzig. At present state since 1945 its eastern part belongs to Russia
Russia
(formerly USSR), Poland
Poland
has 43.8% of its area at lagoon's western side. The bordering administrative regions is polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship and modern Russian Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast, which had name Königsberg Oblast
Königsberg Oblast
during half of 1946. Kursenieki[edit] Further information: Kursenieki

Curonian-populated area in 1649

While today the Kursenieki, also known as Kuršininkai are a nearly extinct Baltic ethnic group living along the Curonian Spit, in 1649 Kuršininkai settlement spanned from Memel (Klaipėda) to Danzig (Gdańsk), including the area around the Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon. The Kuršininkai were eventually assimilated by the Germans, except along the Curonian Spit
Curonian Spit
where some still live. The Kuršininkai were considered Latvians
Latvians
until after World War I
World War I
when Latvia
Latvia
gained independence from the Russian Empire, a consideration based on linguistic arguments. This was the rationale for Latvian claims over the Curonian Spit, Memel, and other territories of East Prussia
East Prussia
which would be later dropped. Historical events related to lagoon[edit] From January until March 1945 throughout the Evacuation of East Prussia refugees from East Prussia
East Prussia
crossed the frozen lagoon on their way to the west after the Red Army
Red Army
had reached the coast of the lagoon near Elbing on January 26. Attacked by Soviet fighter aircraft thousands of them were killed or broke through the ice.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Wetlands portal

Curonian Lagoon

References[edit]

^ Erhard Riemann, Alfred Schoenfeldt, Ulrich Tolksdorf, Reinhard Goltz, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur (Germany), Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, Preussisches Wörterbuch: Deutsche Mundarten Ost- und Westpreussens, 6th edition, Wachholtz, 1974, p.595, ISBN 3-529-04611-6 ^ Janet Batley, Wulfstan's voyage and his description of Estland: the text and the language of the text, in: Wulfstan's Voyage. The Baltic Sea region in the early Viking Age as seen from shipboard, Maritime Culture of the North, 2, Roskilde 2009, p. 15. ^ Mikkels Klussis, Dictionary of revived Prussian: Prussian - English, English - Prussian, Vilnus 2005/06, p. 47. ^ Codex diplomaticus Warmiensis oder Regesten und Urkunden zur Geschichte Ermlands. Bd. 1, Urkunden der Jahre 1231-1340, (ed.) Johann Martin Saage, Carl Peter Woelky, Mainz 1860, No. 13, p. 18 - 22, No. 26, p. 46 - 49, No. 79, p. 133 - 136. ^ " Poland
Poland
to Spend Quarter Billion Dollars on Canal 'to Break Off With Russia'". Sputnik News. 15 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016. 

External links[edit]

www.en.zalew-wislany.pl – Monitoring the Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon
Lagoon
water quality on the basis of satellite remote sensing Battle of Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon.

Coordinates: 54°27′N 19°45′E / 54.450°N 19.750°E / 54.450; 19.750

v t e

Tributaries of the Vistula
Vistula
River

Forming rivers

Biała Wisełka Czarna Wisełka

Main tributaries of the left bank

Krajka Pszczynka Gostynia Przemsza Chech Rudno Sanka Rudawa Prądnik Dłubnia Roporek Szreniawa Nidzica Nida Strumień Czarna Koprzywianka Opatówka Kamienna Krępianka Iłżanka Zwoleńka Plewka Zagożdżonka Radomka Pilica Czarna Jeziorka Bzura Skrwa Lewa Zgłowiączka Tążyna Zielona Brda Wda Wierzyca

Main tributaries of the right bank

Brennica Iłownica Biała Soła Skawa Skawinka Wilga (Krakow) Drwinka Raba Gróbka Uszwica Kisielina Dunajec Breń Brnik Wisłoka Babulówka Trześniówka Łęg San Sanna Wyżnica Chodelka Bystra Kurówka Wieprz Okrzejka Promnik Wilga (Garwolin) Świder Kanał Żerański Narew Mołtawa Słupianka Rosica Brzeźnica Skrwa Prawa Mień Drwęca Bacha Struga Osa Liwa

Distributary

Nogat Leniwka Szkarpawa Vistula
Vistula
Lagoon Śmiała Wisła Martwa Wi

.