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The Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
or Kingdom of the Visigoths
Visigoths
(Latin: Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic successor states to the Western Roman Empire, it was originally created by the settlement of the Visigoths
Visigoths
under King Wallia
Wallia
in the province of Aquitaine
Aquitaine
in southwest France
France
by the Roman government and then extended by conquest over all of the Iberian Peninsula. The Kingdom maintained independence from the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the attempts of which to re-establish Roman authority in Iberia were only partially successful and short-lived. The Visigoths
Visigoths
were considered as the most civilized among the barbarians, and considered themselves as "heirs of the Roman Empire"; the Goths were the first people to invade Rome and to defeat a Roman emperor in battle. The Visigoths
Visigoths
became a Foederati
Foederati
of Rome that wanted to restore the Roman order against the hordes of Vandals, Alans and Suevi. The Roman order fell in 476 A.D.; therefore, the Visigoths had the right to take the territories that Rome had promised in Hispania in exchange for restoring the Roman order.[4] Sometimes referred to as the regnum Tolosanum or Kingdom of Toulouse after its capital Toulouse
Toulouse
in modern historiography, the kingdom lost much of its territory in Gaul
Gaul
to the Franks
Franks
in the early 6th century, save the narrow coastal strip of Septimania, but the Visigoth control of Iberia was secured by the end of that century with the submission of the Suebi. The kingdom of the 6th and 7th centuries is sometimes called the regnum Toletanum after the new capital of Toledo. The ethnic distinction between the indigenous Hispano-Roman population and the Visigoths
Visigoths
had largely disappeared by this time (the Gothic language lost its last and probably already declining function as a church language when the Visigoths
Visigoths
converted to Catholicism in 589).[5] The Visigothic Code
Visigothic Code
(completed in 654) abolished the old tradition of having different laws for Romans and for Visigoths. Most of the Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
was conquered by Umayyad troops from North Africa in 711 AD, with only the northern reaches of Spain remaining in Christian hands. These gave birth to the medieval Kingdom of Asturias when a local landlord called Pelayo, most likely of Gothic origin, was elected Princeps by the Astures. The Visigoths
Visigoths
and their early kings were Arians
Arians
and came into conflict with the Catholic Church, but after they converted to Nicene Christianity, the Church exerted an enormous influence on secular affairs through the Councils of Toledo. The Visigoths
Visigoths
also developed the highly influential law code known in Western Europe as the Visigothic Code
Visigothic Code
(Liber Iudiciorum), which would become the basis for Spanish law throughout the Middle Ages.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Federate Kingdom 1.2 Kingdom of Toulouse 1.3 Arian Kingdom of Hispania 1.4 Catholic Kingdom of Toledo 1.5 Muslim conquest

2 Visigothic settlements 3 Founding of cities 4 Culture and classical heritage 5 List of kings

5.1 Terving kings 5.2 Balti dynasty 5.3 Post-Balti kings

6 Kings' family tree 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Sources

History[edit] Federate Kingdom[edit]

Visigothic settlement and the Iberian peninsula, circa 418

From 407 to 409 AD, the Germanic Vandals, with the allied Alans
Alans
and Suebi, crossed the frozen Rhine and swept across modern France
France
and into the Iberian peninsula. For their part, the Visigoths
Visigoths
under Alaric famously sacked Rome in 410, capturing Galla Placidia, the sister of Western Roman emperor Honorius. Ataulf
Ataulf
( King
King
of the Visigoths
Visigoths
from 410 to 415) spent the next few years operating in the Gallic and Hispanic countrysides, diplomatically playing competing factions of Germanic and Roman commanders against one another to skillful effect, and taking over cities such as Narbonne
Narbonne
and Toulouse
Toulouse
(in 413). After he married Placidia, the Emperor Honorius enlisted him to provide Visigothic assistance in regaining nominal Roman control of Hispania from the Vandals, Alans
Alans
and Suevi. In 418, Honorius rewarded his Visigothic federates under King
King
Wallia (reigned 415–419) by giving them land in the Garonne
Garonne
valley of Gallia Aquitania
Gallia Aquitania
on which to settle. This probably took place under hospitalitas, the rules for billeting army soldiers. It seems likely that at first the Visigoths
Visigoths
were not given a large amount of land estates in the region (as previously believed), but that they acquired the taxes of the region, with the local Gallic aristocrats now paying their taxes to the Visigoths
Visigoths
instead of to the Roman government.[6] The Visigoths
Visigoths
with their capital at Toulouse, remained de facto independent, and soon began expanding into Roman territory at the expense of the feeble Western empire. Under Theodoric I
Theodoric I
(418–451), the Visigoths
Visigoths
attacked Arles
Arles
(in 425 and 430) and Narbonne
Narbonne
(436), but were checked by Flavius Aetius
Flavius Aetius
using Hunnic mercenaries, and Theodoric was defeated in 438. By 451, the situation had reversed and the Huns had invaded Gaul; now Theodoric fought under Aetius against Attila the Hun in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. Attila was driven back, but Theodoric was killed in the battle.[7] The Vandals
Vandals
completed the conquest of North Africa
North Africa
when they took Carthage on October 19, 439 and the Suevi
Suevi
had taken most of Hispania. The Roman emperor Avitus
Avitus
now sent the Visigoths
Visigoths
into Hispania. Theodoric II
Theodoric II
(453–466) invaded and defeated the King
King
of the Suevi, Rechiarius, at the battle on the river Orbigo
Orbigo
in 456 near Asturica Augusta (Astorga) and then sacked Bracara Augusta (Braga) the Suevi capital. The Goths sacked the cities in Spain quite brutally: they massacred a portion of the population and even attacked some holy places, probably due to the clergy's support of the Suevi.[8] Theoderic took control over Hispania Baetica, Carthaginiensis
Carthaginiensis
and southern Lusitania. In 461, the Goths received the city of Narbonne from the emperor Libius Severus in exchange for their support. This led to a revolt by the army and by Gallo-Romans under Aegidius; as a result, Romans under Severus and the Visigoths
Visigoths
fought other Roman troops, and the revolt ended only in 465.[9] Kingdom of Toulouse[edit]

Theodoric I
Theodoric I
by Fabrizio Castello
Fabrizio Castello
(1560–1617).

The Iberian peninsula around 476.

In 466, Euric, who was the youngest son of Theodoric I, came to the Visigothic throne. He is infamous for murdering his elder brother Theodoric II
Theodoric II
who had himself become king by murdering his elder brother Thorismund. Under Euric
Euric
(466–484), the Visigoths
Visigoths
began expanding in Gaul
Gaul
and consolidating their presence in the Iberian peninsula. Euric
Euric
fought a series of wars with the Suebi
Suebi
who retained some influence in Lusitania, and brought most of this region under Visigothic power, taking Emerita Augusta (Mérida) in 469. Euric
Euric
also attacked the Western Roman Empire, capturing Hispania Tarraconensis
Hispania Tarraconensis
in 472, the last bastion of Roman rule in Spain. By 476, he had extended his rule to the Rhone
Rhone
and the Loire
Loire
rivers which comprised most of southern Gaul. He also occupied the key Roman cities of Arles
Arles
and Marseilles. In his campaigns, Euric
Euric
had counted on a portion of the Gallo-Roman and Hispano-Roman aristocracy who served under him as generals and governors. The Visigothic Kingdom
Visigothic Kingdom
was formally recognized when the Western emperor Julius Nepos
Julius Nepos
(473–480) signed an alliance with Euric, granting him the lands south of the Loire
Loire
and west of the Rhone
Rhone
in exchange for military service and the lands in Provence (including Arles
Arles
and Marseilles). The lands in Hispania remained under de facto Visigothic control. After Odoacer
Odoacer
deposed the last Roman emperor in the West, Romulus Augustulus, Euric
Euric
quickly recaptured Provence, a fact which Odoacer
Odoacer
formally accepted in a treaty.[10] By 500, the Visigothic Kingdom, centered at Toulouse, controlled Gallia Aquitania
Gallia Aquitania
and Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
and most of Hispania with the exception of the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia
Suebic Kingdom of Galicia
in the northwest and small areas controlled by independent iberian peoples, such as the Basques and the Cantabrians. Euric's son Alaric II
Alaric II
(484–507) issued a new body of laws, the Breviarium Alarici and held a church council at Agde.

Clovis I
Clovis I
fights the Visigoths

The Visigoths
Visigoths
now came into conflict with the Franks
Franks
under their King Clovis I, who had conquered northern Gaul. Following a brief war with the Franks, Alaric was forced to put down a rebellion in Tarraconensis, probably caused by recent Visigoth immigration to Hispania due to pressure from the Franks. In 507, the Franks
Franks
attacked again, this time allied with the Burgundians. Alaric II
Alaric II
was killed at the battle of Campus Vogladensis (Vouillé) near Poitiers, and Toulouse
Toulouse
was sacked. By 508, the Visigoths
Visigoths
had lost most of their Gallic holdings save Septimania
Septimania
in the south.[11] Arian Kingdom of Hispania[edit]

Visigothic pseudo-imperial gold tremissis in the name of emperor Justinian I, 6th century: the Christian cross
Christian cross
on the breast defines the Visigothic attribution. (British Museum)

Visigothic Hispania and the Byzantine province of Spania, circa 560 AD

After Alaric II's death, his illegitimate son Gesalec
Gesalec
took power until he was deposed by Theodoric the Great, ruler of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, who invaded and defeated him at Barcelona. Gesalic fled and regrouped, but was defeated again at Barcelona, and was captured and killed. Theodoric then installed his grandson Amalaric
Amalaric
(511–531), the son of Alaric II, as king. Amalaric, however, was still a child and power in Spain remained under the Ostrogothic general and regent, Theudis. Only after Theoderic's death (526) did Amalaric
Amalaric
obtain control of his kingdom. His rule did not last long, as in 531, Amalaric
Amalaric
was defeated by the Frankish king Childebert I
Childebert I
and then murdered at Barcelona. Afterwards, Theudis (531–548) became king. He expanded Visigothic control over the southern regions, but he was also murdered after a failed invasion of Africa. Visigothic Spain suffered a civil war under King
King
Agila I
Agila I
(549–554), which prompted the Roman/Byzantine emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
to send an army and carve out the small province of Spania
Spania
for the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
along the coast of southern Spain. Agila was eventually killed, and his enemy Athanagild (552–568) became the new king. He attacked the Byzantines, but he was unable to dislodge them from southern Spain, and was obliged to formally acknowledge the suzerainty of the Empire.

Map showing the conquests of Leovigild, circa 586

The next Visigothic king was Liuvigild
Liuvigild
(569 – April 21, 586). He was an effective military leader and consolidated Visigothic power in Spain. Liuvigild
Liuvigild
campaigned against the Romans in the south in the 570s and he took back Cordova after another revolt. He also fought in the north against the Suebi
Suebi
and various small independent states, including the Basques
Basques
and the Cantabrians. He pacified northern Spain, but was unable to completely conquer these peoples. When Liuvigild established his son Hermenegild
Hermenegild
as joint ruler, a civil war ensued between them. Hermenegild
Hermenegild
became the first Visigothic king to convert to Nicene Christianity
Nicene Christianity
due to his ties with the Romans, but he was defeated in 584 and killed in 585.[12] By the end of his reign, Liuvigild
Liuvigild
had united the entire Iberian peninsula, including the Suebic Kingdom which he conquered in 585 during a Suebi
Suebi
civil war that ensued after the death of King
King
Miro. Liuvigild
Liuvigild
established amicable terms with the Franks
Franks
through royal marriages, and they remained at peace throughout most of his reign. Liuvigild
Liuvigild
also founded new cities, such as Reccopolis
Reccopolis
and Victoriacum (Vitoria), the first barbarian king to do so.[13][14] Catholic Kingdom of Toledo[edit] See also: Protofeudalism

Visigothic Hispania and its regional divisions in 700, prior to the Muslim conquest

Conversion of Reccared
Reccared
to Chalcedonian Christianity, painted by Muñoz Degrain.

On becoming King, Liuvigild's son Reccared
Reccared
I (586–601) converted from Arian to Chalcedonian Christianity. This led to some unrest in the kingdom, notably a revolt by the Arian bishop of Mérida which was put down; he also beat back another Frankish offensive in the north. Reccared
Reccared
I then oversaw the Third Council of Toledo in 589, where he announced his faith in the Nicene creed and denounced Arian. He adopted the name Flavius, the family name of the Constantinian dynasty, and styled himself as the successor to the Roman emperors. Reccared
Reccared
also fought the Byzantines in Hispania Baetica
Hispania Baetica
after they had begun a new offensive.[15] Reccared's son Liuva II
Liuva II
became king in 601, but was deposed by the Visigothic noble Witteric
Witteric
(603–610), ending the short-lived dynasty. There were various Visigothic Kings between 610 and 631, and this period saw constant regicide. This period also saw the definitive conquest of the Byzantine territories in the south. War continued in the north against the Basques
Basques
and Asturians, as indeed it would continue for the rest of the Visigothic Kingdom's existence. These Kings also worked on religious legislature, especially King
King
Sisebut (612–621), who passed several harsh laws against Jews and forced many Jews to convert to Christianity. Sisebut
Sisebut
was also successful against the Byzantines, taking several of their cities, including Málaga. The Byzantines were finally defeated by Suintila
Suintila
(621–631), who had captured all of their Spanish holdings by 625. Suinthila was deposed by the Franks
Franks
and replaced by Sisinand.[16] The instability of this period can be attributed to the power struggle between the kings and the nobility. Religious unification strengthened the political power of the church, which it exercised through church councils at Toledo along with the nobles. The fourth council, held during the brief reign of Sisinand
Sisinand
in 633, excommunicated and exiled the king, replacing him with Chintila
Chintila
(636–639). The church councils were now the most powerful institution in the Visigothic state; they took the role of regulating the process of succession to the kingship by election of the king by Gothic noble 'senators' and the church officials. They also decided to meet on a regular basis to discuss ecclesiastical and political matters affecting the Church. Finally, they decided the kings should die in peace, and declared their persons sacred, seeking to end the violence and regicides of the past. Despite all this, another coup took place and Chintila
Chintila
was deposed in 639, and King
King
Tulga
Tulga
took his place; he was also deposed in the third year of his reign and the council elected the noble Chindasuinth
Chindasuinth
as king.

King
King
Chindasuinth
Chindasuinth
from the Códex Albedense.

The reigns of Chindasuinth
Chindasuinth
and his son Recceswinth
Recceswinth
saw the compilation of the most important Visigothic law book, the Liber Iudiciorum (completed in 654). The code included old laws by past kings, such as Alaric II
Alaric II
in his Breviarium Alarici, and Leovigild, but many were also new laws. The code was based almost wholly on Roman law, with some influence of Germanic law in rare cases. The new laws applied to both Gothic and Spanish populations who had been under different laws in the past, and it replaced all older codes of law. Among the eliminated old laws were the harsh laws against Jews. The Liber showed the old system of military and civil divisions in administration was changing, and dukes (duces provinciae) and counts (comites civitatis) had begun taking more responsibilities outside their original military and civil duties. The servants or slaves of the king became very prominent in the bureaucracy and exercised wide administrative powers. With the Visigoth law codes, women could inherit land and title and manage it independently from their husbands or male relations, dispose of their property in legal wills if they had no heirs, and could represent themselves and bear witness in court by age 14 and arrange for their own marriages by age 20. Chindasuinth
Chindasuinth
(642–653) strengthened the monarchy at the expense of the nobility, he executed some 700 nobles, forced dignitaries to swear oaths, and in the seventh council of Toledo laid down his right to excommunicate clergy who acted against the government. He was also able to maneuver his son Recceswinth
Recceswinth
on the throne, sparking a rebellion by a gothic noble who allied with the Basques, but was put down. Reccesuinth (653–672) held another council of Toledo, which reduced sentences for treason and affirmed the power of the councils to elect kings.[17] Following Reccesuinth, King
King
Wamba (672–680) was elected king. He had to deal with initial revolts in Tarraconensis, and because of this, he felt a need to reform the army. He passed a law declaring all dukes, counts and other military leaders, as well as bishops, had to come to the aid of the kingdom once danger became known or risk harsh punishment. Wamba was eventually deposed in a bloodless coup. King Ervig (680–687) held further church councils and repealed the previous harsh laws of Wamba, though he still made provisions for the army. Ervig had his son-in-law Egica made king. Despite a rebellion by the bishop of Toledo, the 16th council, held in 693, denounced the bishop's revolt. The 17th council in 694 passed harsh laws against the Jews, citing a conspiracy, and many were enslaved, especially those who had converted from Christianity. Egica also raised his son Wittiza as coruler in 698. Not much is known about his reign, but a period of civil war quickly ensued between his sons (Achila and Ardo) and King Roderic, who had seized Toledo.[18] Muslim conquest[edit] Main article: Umayyad conquest of Hispania

Copy of a mural from Qusayr Amra, depicting king Roderic.

In 711, Tariq ibn Ziyad, a Muslim Berber client of Musa bin Nusair, the governor of Islamic Africa, invaded Spain with about 7,000 Berber men, while Roderic
Roderic
was in the north fighting the Basques. The tale that Julian, Count of Ceuta, facilitated the invasion, because one of his daughters had been dishonored by Roderic, is both late and mythical. By late July, a battle took place at the Guadalete River
Guadalete River
in the province of Cádiz. Roderic
Roderic
was betrayed by his troops, who sided with his enemies, and the king was killed in battle. The Muslims then took much of southern Spain with little resistance, and went on to capture Toledo, where they executed several Visigothic nobles. In 712, Musa, the governor of Ifriqiya, arrived with another army of 18,000, with large Arab
Arab
contingents. He took Mérida in 713 and invaded the north, taking Saragossa
Saragossa
and León, which were still under King
King
Ardo, in 714. After being recalled by the Caliph, Musa left his son Abd al-‘Aziz in command. By 716, most of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
was under Islamic rule, with Septimania
Septimania
taken between 721 and 725. The only effective resistance was in Asturias, where a Visigothic nobleman named Pelagius (Pelayo) revolted in 718, allied with the Basques
Basques
and defeated the Muslims at the battle of Covadonga. Resistance also continued in the regions around the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
with the establishment of the Marca Hispanica
Marca Hispanica
from 760 to 785. The Berbers settled in the south and the Meseta Central
Meseta Central
in Castile. Initially, the Muslims generally left the Christians alone to practise their religion, although non-Muslims were subject to Islamic law and treated as second-class citizens.[19][20] Visigothic settlements[edit] Visigothic settlement was concentrated along the Garonne
Garonne
River between Bordeaux
Bordeaux
and Toulouse
Toulouse
in Aquitaine, and later in Spain and Portugal around the Ebro
Ebro
River, around the city of Mérida, between the upper reaches of the Douro
Douro
River, in Tierra de Campos
Tierra de Campos
also known as Campi Gothorum in Central Castile and León, Asturias
Asturias
and Toledo, and along the Tagus
Tagus
River north of Lisbon. Little Visigothic settlement occurred elsewhere in the kingdom.[21] Founding of cities[edit]

Church of Santa Maria de Lara, most likely built just before the Muslim invasion.

The Visigoths
Visigoths
founded the only new cities in Western Europe between the fifth and eighth centuries. It is certain (through contemporary Spanish accounts) that they founded four, and a possible fifth city is ascribed to them by a later Arabic source. All of these cities were founded for military purposes and three of them in celebration of victory. The first, Reccopolis, was founded by Liuvigild
Liuvigild
in 578 after his victory over the Franks, near what is today the tiny village of Zorita de los Canes. He named it after his son Reccared
Reccared
and built it with Byzantine imitations, containing a palace complex and mint, but it lay in ruins by the 9th century (after the Arab
Arab
conquest). At a slightly later date, Liuvigild
Liuvigild
founded a city he named Victoriacum after his victory over the Basques.[22] Though it is often supposed to survive as the city of Vitoria, contemporary 12th-century sources refer to the latter city's foundation by Sancho VI of Navarre. Liuvigild's son and namesake of the first Visigothic city founded his own sometime around 600. It is referred to by Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville
as Lugo id est Luceo in the Asturias, built after a victory over the Asturians or Cantabri.[22] The fourth and possibly final city of the Goths was Ologicus (perhaps Ologitis), founded using Basque labour in 621 by Suintila
Suintila
as a fortification against the recently subjected Basques. It is to be identified with modern Olite.[22] The possible fifth Visigothic foundation is Baiyara (perhaps modern Montoro), mentioned as founded by Reccared
Reccared
in the Geography of Kitab al-Rawd al-Mitar.[23] Culture and classical heritage[edit]

Elaborate votive crown of king Recceswinth.

The Visigothic rule has often been attributed to be a part of the so-called Dark Ages, a time of cultural and scientific decay reversed only by Muslim Andalusia. Through the cause of their existence the Visigoths
Visigoths
supposedly remained "men of the woods never strayed too far from there", as Thomas F. Glick puts it.[24]

Remains of the basilica of Recopolis.

However, in fact the Visigoths
Visigoths
were preservers of the classical culture.[25] The bathing culture of Andalusia, for example, often said to be a Muslim invention, is a direct continuation of Romano-Visigothic traditions. Visigothic Merida housed baths supplied with water by aqueducts, and such aqueducts are also attested in Cordoba, Cadiz
Cadiz
and Recopolis. Excavations confirm that Recopolis and Toledo, the Visigothic capital, were heavily influenced by the contemporary Byzantine architecture.[26] When the Muslims looted Spain during their conquest they were amazed by the fine and innumerable Visigothic treasures.[27] A few of such treasures were preserved as they were buried during the invasion, like for example the votive crowns from the treasure of Guarrazar.[28] And while only the senior monks were allowed to read books of non-Christian or Heretic authors[29] this didn't prevent the rise of highly educated individuals like, most prominently, Isidore of Sevilla, one of the most quoted-scholars of the Middle Ages, Eugenius I of Toledo, an expert in mathematics and astronomy, or Theodulf of Orléans, a theologian and poet who, after he had fled to the Frankish kingdom, participated in the Carolingian Renaissance.[30] A Muslim source referred to Visigothic Sevilla
Sevilla
as the "abode of the sciences".[31] The Institutionum disciplinae from the mid seventh/early eight century confirms that Visigothic nobles were not only taught in reading and writing, but also in medicine, law and philosophy.[32] An example of a highly educated nobleman was king Sisebut, who was a patron of learning and writer of poems, one of them about astronomy.[33] List of kings[edit]

Monarchs of the Iberian Peninsula

al-Andalus (taifas)

Aragon

Family tree

Asturias

Family tree

Castile

Family tree

Catalonia

Galicia

Granada

León

Family tree

Majorca

Navarre

Family tree

Portugal

Family tree

Spain Medieval · Modern

Family tree

Suebi

Valencia

Viguera

Visigoths

Family tree

Terving kings[edit] These kings and leaders – with the exception of Fritigern and possibly Alavivus – were pagans.

Athanaric (369–381)

Rothesteus, sub-king Winguric, sub-king

Alavivus (c. 376), rebel against Valens Fritigern (c. 376–c. 380), rebel against Athanaric and Valens

Balti dynasty[edit] These kings were Arians
Arians
(followers of the theological teaching of Arius). They tended to succeed their fathers or close relatives on the throne and thus constitute a dynasty, the Balti.

Alaric I
Alaric I
(395–410) Athaulf
Athaulf
(410–415) Sigeric (415) Wallia
Wallia
(415–419) Theodoric I
Theodoric I
(419–451) Thorismund (451–453) Theodoric II
Theodoric II
(453–466) Euric
Euric
(466–484) Alaric II
Alaric II
(484–507) Gesalec
Gesalec
(507–511)

Theoderic the Great
Theoderic the Great
(511–526), regent

Amalaric
Amalaric
(526–531)

Post-Balti kings[edit] The Visigothic monarchy took on a completely elective character with the fall of the Balti, but the monarchy remained Arian until Reccared I converted in 587 ( Hermenegild
Hermenegild
had also converted earlier). Only a few sons succeeded their fathers to the throne in this period.

Theudis (531–548) Theudigisel (548–549) Agila I
Agila I
(549–554) Athanagild
Athanagild
(554–568) Liuva I (568–572), only ruled in Narbonensis from 569 Liuvigild
Liuvigild
(569–586), ruled only south of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
until 572

Hermenegild
Hermenegild
(580–585), sub-king in Baetica

Reccared
Reccared
I (580–601), son, sub-king in Narbonensis until 586, first Catholic king

Segga (586–587), rebel Argimund (589–590), rebel

Liuva II
Liuva II
(601–603), son Witteric
Witteric
(603–610) Gundemar
Gundemar
(610–612) Sisebut
Sisebut
(612–621) Reccared
Reccared
II (621), son Suintila
Suintila
(621–631)

Reccimer (626–631), son and associate

Sisenand
Sisenand
(631–636)

Iudila (632–633), rebel

Chintila
Chintila
(636–640) Tulga
Tulga
(640–641) Chindasuinth
Chindasuinth
(641–653) Recceswinth
Recceswinth
(649–672), son, initially co-king

Froia (653), rebel

Wamba (672–680)

Hilderic (672), rebel Paul (672–673), rebel

Erwig
Erwig
(680–687) Egica (687–702)

Suniefred (693), rebel

Wittiza
Wittiza
(694–710), son, initially co-king or sub-king in Gallaecia Roderic
Roderic
(710–711), only in Lusitania
Lusitania
and Carthaginiensis Agila II (711–714), only in Tarraconensis and Narbonensis

Oppas (712), perhaps in opposition to Roderic
Roderic
and Agila II

Ardo (714–721), only in Narbonensis

Kings' family tree[edit]

Kings of the Visigoths
Visigoths
family tree

Rothesteus Sub-king of the Visigoths

Theodosius I the Great Roman Emperor 347-379–395

? Athanaric ?-381

Atharid

Alaric I King
King
of the Visigoths 370/375–395–410

Unknown

Galla Placidia 388–450

Ataulf King
King
of the Visigoths ≈370–410-415

Wallia King
King
of the Visigoths ≈385–415-419

Theodoric I King
King
of the Visigoths ≈393–418-451

Unknown

Theodosius 414-415

Rechila Suevic King
King
of Galicia ?-438-448

Unknown

Thorismund King
King
of the Visigoths ≈420–451–453

Theodoric II King
King
of the Visigoths ≈426–453-466

Frederic ?-466

Euric King
King
of the Visigoths 415–466–484

Ragnachildis

Retimer

Himnerith

Theoderic the Great K. of Ostrogoths 454-475–526 Regent r.511-526

Remismund King
King
of the Suevi ?-464–469

Unknown

Odoacer King
King
of Italy 433–476–493

Evochilde 446-?

Alaric II King
King
of the Visigoths ≈458/466–484-507

Theodegotha 476?-524

Clovis I King
King
of the Franks 466-509–511-511

Gesalec King
King
of the Visigoths ?–507-511-513

Amalaric King
King
of the Visigoths 502–511-531

Clotilde ≈500–531

Eustere 494?-521

Theuderic I King
King
of Metz 485–511-533/4

Chlothar I King
King
of the Franks 497–558–561

Liuva I King
King
of the Visigoths ?-568–571/2

Theodosia

Liuvigild King
King
of the Visigoths ≈519–568–586

Goiswintha

Athanagild King
King
of the Visigoths ≈517–554–567

Galswintha 540–568

Chilperic I King
King
of Neustria c.539–561-584

Brunhilda of Austrasia c.543–613

Sigebert I King
King
of Austrasia c.535–561-c.575

Baddo

Reccared
Reccared
I King
King
of the Visigoths 559–586-601

Chlodosind 569-?

Hermenegild ?-585

Ingund 568/567-585

Merovech

Liuva II King
King
of the Visigoths 584–601–603

Unknown

Sisebut King
King
of the Visigoths 565-612–621

Atanagildo ≈583-?

Witteric King
King
of the Visigoths ≈565-603–610

Reccared
Reccared
II King
King
of the Visigoths ?–621

Theodora ≈590-?

Suintila King
King
of the Visigoths ≈588–621– 631-633/635

Geila

Ermenberga ≈590-?

Theuderic II King
King
of Burgundy 587-595–613

Chintila King
King
of the Visigoths ≈606-636–640

Sisenand King
King
of the Visigoths 605–631-636

Ricimer ≈610–631

Chindasuinth King
King
of the Visigoths 563–641–653

Recciberga

?

?

Tulga King
King
of the Visigoths ?-640–641-?

Recceswinth King
King
of the Visigoths ?-649–672

Theodofred Duke of Cordoba

Favila Duke of Cantabria ≈684-701

Gada

Ardabasto

?

?

?

? Giscila

Ariberga

Wamba King
King
of the Visigoths ≈643–672– 680-687/688

Roderic King
King
of the Visigoths ?-710–712

Pelagius King
King
of Asturias 685-718–737

Erwig King
King
of the Visigoths aft.642–680-687

Liuvigoto 620-?

Kings of the Kingdom of Asturias

?

Egica King
King
of the Visigoths 610–687–701/703

Cixilo

Peter Duke of Cantabria ?-730

Wittiza King
King
of the Visigoths ≈687–694–710?

Oppas Bishop of Seville ?-712

Sisebuto

Alfonso I King
King
of Asturias ≈693-739–757

Fruela of Cantabria ?-758

? Achila II King
King
of the Visigoths ?-711–714?

Kings of the Kingdom of Asturias

Kings of the Kingdom of Asturias

See also[edit]

Spanish surnames of Goth origin For evidence of Visigothic taxation, see De fisco Barcinonensi Councils of Toledo

Notes[edit]

^ After the defeat at Vouillé (507) and the loss of Toulouse. See: S. J. B. Barnish, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Social Stress, The Ostrogoths from the migration period to the sixth century: an ethnographic perspective (Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2007), p. 368. ^ Following the death of Amalaric
Amalaric
(531). See: S. J. B. Barnish, Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Social Stress, The Ostrogoths from the migration period to the sixth century: an ethnographic perspective (Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2007), p. 369. ^ Capital of the Visigothic kingdom by the end of the reign of Athanagild
Athanagild
(died 567). See: Collins, Roger. Visigothic Spain, 409–711 (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004), p. 44. ^ Orlandis, José (2003). Historia del reino visigodo español : los acontecimientos, las instituciones, la sociedad, los protagonistas (2. ed. ed.). Madrid: Rialp. ISBN 8432134694. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ Strategies of Distinction: Construction of Ethnic Communities, 300-800 (Transformation of the Roman World) by Walter Pohl, ISBN 90-04-10846-7 (p.119-121: dress and funerary customs cease to be distinguishing features in AD 570/580) ^ Cameron, Ward; Perkins and Whitby. The Cambridge Ancient HIstory - Volume XIV. Late Antiquity: Empire and Successors, A.D. 425–600. p. 48. . ^ Cambridge Ancient v. 14, p. 113. ^ David Abulafia et al. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 1 c. 500 – c. 700, p. 165. ^ Cambridge Ancient v. 14, p. 24. ^ NC Medieval v. I, p. 167–171. ^ Cambridge Ancient v. 14, p. 113–114. ^ Charles William Previté-Orton, The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History, (Cambridge University Press, 1979), 145. ^ NC Medieval v. I, p. 183–209. ^ Cambridge Ancient v. 14, p. 122–124. ^ NC Medieval v. I, p. 346–350. ^ NC Medieval v. I, p. 350–353. ^ NC Medieval v. I, p. 356–360. ^ NC Medieval v. I, p. 360–369. ^ NC Medieval v. I, p. 369–370. ^ David Abulafia et al. The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume II c. 700 — c. 900, p. 256–258, 275–276. ^ World and Its Peoples: Europe, Marshall Cavendish 2010, ISBN 978-0-7614-7883-6 (p.603) ^ a b c Thompson, "The Barbarian Kingdoms in Gaul
Gaul
and Spain". ^ Lacarra, "Panorama de la historia urbana en la Península Ibérica desde el siglo V al X," La città nell'alto medioevo, 6 (1958:319–358), in Estudios de alta edad media española, p. 48. ^ Fernández-Morera 2016, pp. 57-59. ^ Fernández-Morera 2016, p. 238. ^ Fernández-Morera 2016, pp. 68-70. ^ Fernández-Morera 2016, pp. 60-64. ^ Fernández-Morera 2016, p. 41, note 94. ^ Kampers 2008, p. 321. ^ Fernández-Morera & 2016, pp. 68-69. ^ Fernández-Morera & 2016, p. 70. ^ Kampers 2008, p. 322. ^ Fear 1997, XXII-XXIII.

Sources[edit]

Bachrach, Bernard S. "A Reassessment of Visigothic Jewish Policy, 589–711." American Historical Review 78, no. 1 (1973): 11–34. Collins, Roger. The Arab
Arab
Conquest of Spain, 710–797. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1989. Reprinted 1998. Collins, Roger. Law, Culture, and Regionalism in Early Medieval Spain. Great Yarmouth: Variorum, 1992. ISBN 0-86078-308-1. Collins, Roger. Visigothic Spain, 409–711. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-631-18185-7. Heather, Peter. The Goths. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. James, Edward, ed. Visigothic Spain: New Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-19-822543-1. Fernández-Morera, Darío (2016). The Myth of the Andalusian Paradise. Muslims, Christians and Jews under Islamic Rule in Medieval Spain. ISI Books. ISBN 9781504034692.  Fear, A. T. (1997). Lives of the Visigothic Fathers. Liverpool University. ISBN 0853235821.  Kampers, Gerd (2008). Geschichte der Westgoten. Ferdinand Schöningh. ISBN 9783506765178.  Lacarra, José María. Estudios de alta edad media española. Valencia: 1975. Sivan, Hagith. "On Foederati, Hospitalitas, and the Settlement of the Goths in A.D. 418." American Journal of Philology 108, no. 4 (1987): 759-772. Thompson, E. A.. "The Barbarian Kingdoms in Gaul
Gaul
and Spain", Nottingham Mediaeval Studies, 7 (1963:4n11). Thompson, E. A.. The Goths in Spain. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969. Vázquez, Federico Gallegos (2011). "El ejército visigodo: el primer ejército español". In Leandro Martínez Peñas, Manuela Fernández Rodríguez. Reflexiones sobre poder, guerra y religión en la Historia de España. pp. 11–56. ISBN 978-84-615-2931-5. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) Wallace-Hadrill, John Michael. The Barbarian West, 400–1000. 3rd ed. London: Hutchison, 1967. Wolfram, Herwig. History of the Goths. Thomas J. Dunlap, trans. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

v t e

Barbarian kingdoms
Barbarian kingdoms
established around the Migration Period

Germanic kingdoms

Alamannian Kingdom Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy Bavarian Duchy Burgundian Kingdom Frankish Kingdom Frisian Kingdom Gepid Kingdom Odoacer's Kingdom Lombard Kingdom Petty kingdoms of Norway Suevian Kingdom Ostrogothic Kingdom Rugian Kingdom Saxonian Duchy Thuringii
Thuringii
Kingdom Vandal Kingdom Visigothic Kingdom

Hunnic kingdoms

Hunnic Empire

Turkic kingdoms

Great Bulgaria Bulgar Khanate Khazar Khaganate

Iranian kingdoms

Alani Kingdom Avar Khaganate

Celtic kingdoms

Bro Gwened Cantabri Cornouaille Domnonée Hen Ogledd Gaelic Ireland Petty kingdoms of Wales

Slavic kingdoms

Carantian Principality Samo's Empire

v t e

Spain in the Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages

Visigoths

Visigothic Kingdom

Suebi

Kingdom of the Suebi

Province of Spania Duchy of Cantabria Duchy of Vasconia

Al-Andalus

Caliphate of Córdoba Taifas Almoravid Caliphate Almohad Caliphate Emirate of Granada

Reconquista

Kingdom of Asturias
Kingdom of Asturias
→ Kingdom of León

Kingdom of Galicia County of Castile

Kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Castile
Crown of Castile
Crown of Castile
(Castile-León)

Marca Hispanica
Marca Hispanica
→ County of Barcelona
Barcelona
→ Principality of Catalonia Kingdom of Viguera Kingdom of Pamplona
Kingdom of Pamplona
→ Kingdom of Navarre County of Aragon
County of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
Kingdom of Aragon
→ Crown of Aragon

Kingdom of Majorca Kingdom of Valencia

Visigothic monarchs Suebic monarchs Monarchs of al-Andalus Monarchs of Aragon Monarchs of Asturias Monarchs of Barcelona Monarchs of Castile Monarchs of Galicia Monarchs of Granada Monarchs of León Monarchs of Majorca Monarchs of Navarre Monarchs of Valencia Mil

.