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v t e

The ' Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana' (IAST: Viṣṇu Purāṇa) is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism.[1] It is an important Pancharatra
Pancharatra
text in the Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
literature corpus.[1][2] The manuscripts of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
have survived into the modern era in many versions.[3][4][5] More than any other major Purana, the Vishnu Purana
Purana
presents its contents in Pancalaksana format – Sarga (cosmogony), Pratisarga (cosmology), Vamśa (mythical genealogy of the gods, sages and kings), Manvañtara (cosmic cycles), and Vamśānucaritam (legends during the times of various kings).[6][7][8] Some manuscripts of the text are notable for not including sections found in other major Puranas, such as those on Mahatmyas and tour guides on pilgrimage,[9] but some versions include chapters on temples and travel guides to sacred pilgrimage sites.[1][10] The text is also notable as the earliest Purana
Purana
to have been translated and published in 1864 CE by HH Wilson, based on manuscripts then available, setting the presumptions and premises about what Puranas
Puranas
may have been.[11][12] The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is among the shorter Purana
Purana
texts, with about 7,000 verses in extant versions.[13][14] It primarily centers around the Hindu
Hindu
god Vishnu
Vishnu
and his avatars such as Krishna, but it praises Brahma
Brahma
and Shiva
Shiva
and asserts that they are one with Vishnu.[14] The Purana, states Wilson, is pantheistic and the ideas in it, like other Puranas, are premised on the Vedic beliefs and ideas.[15] Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, like all major Puranas, attributes its author to be sage Veda
Veda
Vyasa.[16] The actual author(s) and date of its composition are unknown and contested. Estimates range of its composition range from 1st millennium BCE to early 2nd-millennium CE.[9] The text was likely composed and rewritten in layers over a period of time, with roots possibly in ancient 1st-millennium BCE texts that have not survived into the modern era.[17] The Padma Purana
Padma Purana
categorizes Vishnu Purana
Purana
as a Sattva
Sattva
Purana
Purana
( Purana
Purana
which represents goodness and purity).[18]

Contents

1 Date of composition 2 Structure 3 Contents

3.1 First aṃśa: cosmology 3.2 Second aṃśa: earth 3.3 Third aṃśa: time 3.4 Fourth aṃśa: dynasties 3.5 Fifth aṃśa: Krishna 3.6 Sixth aṃśa: liberation

4 Influences 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 Further reading 9 External links

Date of composition[edit]

Part of a series on

Vaishnavism

Supreme deity

Vishnu

Important deities

Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parasurama Rama Balarama Krishna Buddha Kalki

Other Avatars

Mohini Nara-Narayana Hayagriva

Related

Lakshmi Sita Hanuman Shesha

Texts

Vedas Upanishads Bhagavad Gita Divya Prabandha Ramcharitmanas

Puranas

Vishnu Bhagavata Naradiya Garuda Padma Agni

Sampradayas

Sri (Vishishtadvaita) Brahma
Brahma
(Dvaita, Acintyabhedabheda) Rudra
Rudra
(Shuddhadvaita) Nimbarka
Nimbarka
(Dvaitadvaita)

Philosophers–acharyas

Nammalvar Yamunacharya Ramanuja Madhva Chaitanya Vallabha Sankardev Madhavdev Nimbarka Pillai Lokacharya Prabhupada Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika

Related traditions

Bhagavatism Pancharatra Tattvavada Pushtimarg Radha Krishna ISKCON Swaminarayan Ekasarana Pranami Ramanandi Vaikhanasas

Hinduism
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portal

v t e

Samudra mantham mythology, depicted in above sculpture, is described in the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana. Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok

The composition date of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is unknown and contested, with estimates widely disagreeing.[9] Some proposed dates for the earliest version[note 1] of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
by various scholars include:

Vincent Smith (1908): 400-300 BCE,[9] CV Vaidya (1925): ~9th-century,[9] Moriz Winternitz (1932): possibly early 1st millennium, but states Rocher, he added, "it is no more possible to assign a definite date to the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
than it is for any other Purana".[9] Rajendra Chandra Hazra (1940): 275-325 CE[9] Ramachandra Dikshitar (1951): 700-300 BCE,[9][21] Roy (1968): after the 9th century.[9] Horace Hayman Wilson
Horace Hayman Wilson
(1864): acknowledged that the tradition believes it to be 1st millennium BCE text and the text has roots in the Vedic literature, but after his analysis suggested that the extant manuscripts may be from the 11th century.[9][22] Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
(1988): c. 450 CE.[23]

Rocher states that the "date of the Visnu Purana
Purana
is as contested as that of any other Purana".[9] References to Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
in texts such as Brihadvishnu whose dates are better established, states Rocher, suggest that a version of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
existed by about 1000 CE, but it is unclear to what extent the extant manuscripts reflect the revisions during the 2nd millennium.[9][5] Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
like all Puranas
Puranas
has a complicated chronology. Dimmitt and van Buitenen state that each of the Puranas
Puranas
including the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is encyclopedic in style, and it is difficult to ascertain when, where, why and by whom these were written:[24]

As they exist today, the Puranas
Puranas
are a stratified literature. Each titled work consists of material that has grown by numerous accretions in successive historical eras. Thus no Purana
Purana
has a single date of composition. (...) It is as if they were libraries to which new volumes have been continuously added, not necessarily at the end of the shelf, but randomly. — Cornelia Dimmitt and J.A.B. van Buitenen, Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Puranas[24]

Many of the extant manuscripts were written on palm leaf or copied during the British India colonial era, some in the 19th century.[25][26] The scholarship on Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, and other Puranas, has suffered from cases of forgeries, states Ludo Rocher, where liberties in the transmission of Puranas
Puranas
were normal and those who copied older manuscripts replaced words or added new content to fit the theory that the colonial scholars were keen on publishing.[25][26] Structure[edit] The extant text comprises six aṃśas (parts) and 126 adhyāyas (chapters).[27] The first part has 22 chapters, the second part consists 16 chapters, the third part comprises 18 chapters and the fourth part has 24 chapters. The fifth and the sixth parts are the longest and the shortest part of the text, comprising 38 and 8 chapters respectively.[28][29] The textual tradition claims that the original Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
had 23,000 verses,[30] but the surviving manuscripts have just a third of these, about 7,000 verses.[13] The text is composed in metric verses or sloka, wherein each verse has exactly 32 syllables, of which 16 syllables in the verse may be free style per ancient literary standards.[31] The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is an exception in that it presents its contents in Vishnu
Vishnu
worship-related Pancalaksana format – Sarga (cosmogony), Pratisarga (cosmology), Vamśa (mythical genealogy of the gods, sages and kings), Manvañtara (cosmic cycles), and Vamśānucaritam (legends during the times of various kings).[6][7][8] This is rare, state Dimmitt and van Buitenen, because just 2% of the known Puranic literature corpus is about these five Pancalaksana items, and about 98% is about diverse range of encyclopedic topics.[32] Contents[edit]

Who is Vishnu?

Out of Vishnu
Vishnu
this universe has arisen, in him its exists, he is the one who governs its existence and destruction, he is the universe.

Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, 1.14[33][34]

Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
opens as a conversation between sage Maitreya and his guru, Parashara, with the sage asking, "what is the nature of this universe and everything that is in it?"[27][35] First aṃśa: cosmology[edit] The first Amsha (part) of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
presents cosmology, dealing with the creation, maintenance and destruction of the universe.[36] The mythology, states Rocher, is woven with the evolutionary theories of Samkhya
Samkhya
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[36] The Hindu
Hindu
god Vishnu
Vishnu
is presented as the central element of this text's cosmology, unlike some other Puranas
Puranas
where Shiva
Shiva
or Brahma
Brahma
or goddess Shakti
Shakti
are. The reverence and the worship of Vishnu
Vishnu
is described in 22 chapters of the first part as the means for liberation, along with the profuse use of the synonymous names of Vishnu
Vishnu
such as Hari, Janardana, Madhava, Achyuta, Hrishikesha
Hrishikesha
and others.[36][37] The chapters 1.16 through 1.20 of the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana presents the legend of compassionate and Vishnu
Vishnu
devotee Prahlada
Prahlada
and his persecution by his demon king father Hiranyakasipu, wherein Prahlada
Prahlada
is ultimately saved by Vishnu.[38][39] This story is also found in other Puranas.[40] Vishnu
Vishnu
is described in the first book of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
as, translates Wilson, all elements, all matter in the world, the entire universe, all living beings, as well as Atman (soul) within every living being, nature, intellect, ego, mind, senses, ignorance, wisdom, the four Vedas, all that is and all that is not.[37][41] Second aṃśa: earth[edit] The second part of the text describes its theory of earth, the seven continents and seven oceans.[33][42] It describes mount Meru, mount Mandara and other major mountains, as well as Bharata-varsha (literally, the country of Bharata) along with its numerous rivers and diverse people.[33][43] The seven continents are named Jambu, Plaksha, Salmala, Kusha, Krauncha, Saka and Pushkara, each surrounded by different types of liquids (salt water, fresh water, wine, sugarcane juice, clarified butter, liquid yoghurt, and milk).[33][42] This part of the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
describes spheres above the earth, planets, the sun and the moon. Four chapters (2.13 to 2.16)[44] of the second book of the text present the legends of King Bharata, who abdicates his throne to lead the life of a sannyasi, which is similar to the legends found in section 5.7 to 5.14 of the Bhagavata Purana.[33] The geography of Mount Mandara
Mount Mandara
as east of Mount Meru, presented in this book and other Puranas, states Stella Kramrisch, may be related to the word Mandir ( Hindu
Hindu
temple) and the reason of its design, "image, aim and destination".[45] Third aṃśa: time[edit] The initial chapters of the third book of the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
presents its theory of manvantaras, or Manus-ages (each equals about 4.3 million years).[33][46] This is premised upon the Hindu
Hindu
belief that everything is cyclic, and even Yuga
Yuga
(era, ages) start, mature and then dissolve. Six manvantaras, states the text, have already passed, and the current age belong to the seventh.[46] In each age, asserts the text, the Vedas
Vedas
are arranged into four, it is challenged, and this has happened twenty eight times already.[47] Each time, a Veda-Vyasa appears and he diligently organizes the eternal knowledge, with the aid of his students.[33][48]

The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
includes several chapters in book 3 on rites of passage from birth through death. Included are chapters on cremation rites (above).

After presenting the emergence of Vedic schools, the text presents the ethical duties of the four varnas in chapter 2.8, the four Ashrama (stages) of the life of each human being in chapter 2.9, the rites of passage including wedding rituals in chapters 2.10 through 2.12, and Shraddha (rites in honor of ancestors, faith) in chapters 2.13 through 2.16.[33][49] The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
asserts that the Brahmin
Brahmin
should study shastras, worship gods and perform libations on behalf of others, the Kshatriya should maintain arms and protect the earth, the Vaishya
Vaishya
should engage in commerce and farming, while the Shudra
Shudra
should subsist by profits of trade, service other varnas and through mechanical labor.[50][51] The text asserts the ethical duties of all varnas is to do good to others, never abuse anyone, never engage in calumny or untruth, never covet another person's wife, never steal another's property, never bear ill-will towards anyone, never beat or slay any human being or living being.[52][51] Be diligent in the service of the gods, sages and guru, asserts the Purana, seek the welfare of all creatures, one's own children and of one's own soul.[52][53] Anyone, regardless of their varna or stage of life, who lives a life according to the above duties is the best worshipper of Vishnu, claims the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana.[52][53] Similar statements on ethical duties of man are found in other parts of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana.[54] The text describes in chapter 2.9, the four stages of life as brahmacharya (student), grihastha (householder), vanaprastha (retirement) and sannyasa (renunciation, mendicant).[55][56] The text repeats the ethical duties in this chapter, translates Wilson.[55][56] The chapters on Shraddha (rites for ancestors) describe the rites associated with a death in family, the preparation of the dead body, its cremation and the rituals after the cremation.[57] The third book closes with the legend of Vishnu, through Mayamoha, helping the Devas win over Asuras, by teaching the Asuras heretical doctrines that deny the Vedas, who declare their contempt for the Vedas, which makes them easy to identify and thereby defeat.[33][58]

The longest part of the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is dedicated to the legend of Krishna
Krishna
(above).

Fourth aṃśa: dynasties[edit] The fourth book of the text, in 24 long chapters, presents mythical royal dynasties, starting with Brahma, followed by solar and lunar dynasties, then those on earth over the Yugas (eras), with Pariksit asserted as the "current king".[33][59][60] The text includes the legends of numerous mythical characters such as Shaubhri, Mandhatri, Narmada, sage Kapila, Rama, Nimi, Janaka, Buddha, Satyavati, Puru, Yadu, Krishna, Devaka, Pandu, Kuru, Bharata, Bhisma and others.[61] Fifth aṃśa: Krishna[edit] The fifth book of the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is the longest, with 38 chapters.[62][63][64] It is dedicated to the legend of Krishna, as an avatar of Vishnu.[65] The book begins with the story of Krishna's birth, his childhood pranks and plays, his exploits, his purpose of ending the tyranny of demon-tyrant king of Mathura, named Kamsa.[62][66][64] The Krishna
Krishna
story in the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is similar to his legend in the Bhagavata Purana, in several other Puranas
Puranas
and the Harivamsa of the Mahabharata.[62] Scholars have long debated whether the Bhagavata Purana
Purana
expanded the Krishna
Krishna
legend in the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, or whether the latter abridged the version in former, or both depended on the Harivamsa estimated to have been composed sometime in the 1st millennium of the common era.[62][67][68] Sixth aṃśa: liberation[edit]

Soul and Prakriti

This soul is of its own nature, pure, composed of happiness and wisdom. The properties of pain, ignorance and impurity, are those of Prakriti, not of soul.

Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana, 6.7[69]

The last book of the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is the shortest, with 8 chapters.[62][70] The first part of the sixth book asserts that Kali Yuga
Yuga
is vicious, cruel and filled with evilness that create suffering, yet " Kali
Kali
Yuga
Yuga
is excellent" because one can refuse to join the evil, devote oneself to Vishnu
Vishnu
and thus achieve salvation.[71] The last chapters, from 6.6 to 6.7 of the text discusses Yoga
Yoga
and meditation, as a means to Vishnu
Vishnu
devotion.[62][72] Contemplative devotion, asserts the text, is the union with the Brahman
Brahman
(supreme soul, ultimate reality), which is only achievable with virtues such as compassion, truth, honesty, disinterestedness, self-restraint and holy studies.[73] The text mentions five Yamas, five Niyamas, Pranayama
Pranayama
and Pratyahara.[74] The pure and perfect soul is called Vishnu, states the text, and absorption in Vishnu
Vishnu
is liberation.[75] The final chapter 6.8 of the text asserts itself to be an "imperishable Vaishnava Purana".[76] Influences[edit] Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is one of the 18 major Puranas, and these text share many legends, likely influenced each other.[62] The fifth chapter of the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
was likely influenced by the Mahabharata.[67] Similarly, the verses on rites of passage and ashramas (stages) of life are likely drawn from the Dharmasutra
Dharmasutra
literature. Rajendra Hazra, in 1940, assumed that Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
is ancient and proposed that texts such as Apasthamba Dharmasutra
Dharmasutra
borrowed text from it.[77] Modern scholars such as Allan Dahlaquist disagree, however, and state that the borrowing may have been in the other direction, from Dharmasutras into the Purana.[77] Other chapters, particularly those in book 5 and 6 of the Vishnu Purana
Purana
have Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
and Yoga
Yoga
influences.[78][79][80] The theistic Vedanta
Vedanta
scholar Ramanuja, according to Sucharita Adluri, incorporated ideas from the Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
to identify the Brahman concept in the Upanishads
Upanishads
with Vishnu, thus providing a Vedic foundation to the Srivaishnava tradition.[81] See also[edit]

Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta Hindu
Hindu
texts Upanishad Veda

Notes[edit]

^ This is not the version that has survived into the modern era. The estimates for earliest version are based on the analysis of the content, events described, literary style, references to other Indian texts within this Purana.[19][20]

References[edit]

^ a b c Dalal 2014, p. 460. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 245-249. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 18, 245-249. ^ Wilson 1864, pp. xxxiv-xxxv. ^ a b Gregory Bailey (2003). Arvind Sharma, ed. The Study of Hinduism. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 141–142. ISBN 978-1-57003-449-7.  ^ a b Rocher 1986, pp. 248-249. ^ a b Rao 1993, pp. 85–100. ^ a b Johnson 2009, p. 248. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Rocher 1986, p. 249. ^ Ariel Glucklich 2008, p. 146, Quote: The earliest promotional works aimed at tourists from that era were called mahatmyas. ^ Wilson 1864, pp. i-xviii, for full context and comparison of Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
with other Puranas
Puranas
then known, see all of the Preface section.. ^ Gregory Bailey (2003). Arvind Sharma, ed. The Study of Hinduism. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 148–149. ISBN 978-1-57003-449-7.  ^ a b Wilson 1864, p. xxxv. ^ a b Rocher 1986, p. 246, 248 with footnote 501. ^ Wilson 1864, pp. xii-xiv. ^ Rocher 1986, p. 48. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 41-48, 249. ^ Wilson, H. H. (1840). The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana: A system of Hindu
Hindu
mythology and tradition. Oriental Translation Fund. p. 12.  ^ Dimmitt & van Buitenen 2012, p. 1-7. ^ Rocher 1986, p. 38-49, 59-66. ^ K P Gietz 1992, p. 986 with note 5739. ^ Edward Balfour (1885). The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia. B. Quaritch. p. 1025.  ^ Collins 1988, p. 36. ^ a b Dimmitt & van Buitenen 2012, p. 5. ^ a b Rocher 1986, pp. 49-53. ^ a b Avril Ann Powell (2010). Scottish Orientalists and India: The Muir Brothers, Religion, Education and Empire. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 130, 128–134, 87–90. ISBN 978-1-84383-579-0.  ^ a b Rocher 1986, p. 246. ^ Rocher 1986, pp. 246-248. ^ Wilson 1864. ^ Kireet Joshi (1991). The Veda
Veda
and Indian Culture: An Introductory Essay. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 106. ISBN 978-81-208-0889-8.  ^ Dimmitt & van Buitenen 2012, p. xiii. ^ Dimmitt & van Buitenen 2012, p. 9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rocher 1986, p. 247. ^ Wilson 1865, pp. 94-95. ^ "A Brief History of India", by Alain Daniélou, publisher = Inner Traditions / Bear & Co., p. 25 ^ a b c Rocher 1986, pp. 246-247. ^ a b Wilson 1865, pp. 93-96. ^ Dutt 1896, pp. ii-iii. ^ Wilson 1865, pp. 32-68. ^ Wendy Doniger
Wendy Doniger
(2000), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster, ISBN 978-0877790440, page 455 ^ Wilson 1864, pp. 170-172, 196-198. ^ a b Wilson 1865, pp. 109-126. ^ Wilson 1865, pp. 127-190. ^ Wilson 1865, pp. 312-336. ^ Kramrisch 1976, p. 161 with footnote 78. ^ a b Wilson 1866, pp. 1-19. ^ Wilson 1866, pp. 33-51. ^ Wilson 1866, pp. 40-42. ^ Wilson 1866, pp. 80-199. ^ Wilson 1866, pp. 85-87. ^ a b Dutt 1896, pp. 191-192. ^ a b c Wilson 1866, pp. 80-90. ^ a b Dutt 1896, pp. 191-193. ^ NK Devaraja (1976), What is living and what is dead in traditional Indian philosophy?, Philosophy East and West, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 427-442, Quote: "Thus in the Visnu Purana, Prahlada, the great devotee of Visnu, is found making a number of statements of the following type: Knowing that god Visnu is present in all creatures - since neither the totality of living beings, nor myself, nor the food is other than Viṣṇu - I serve all creatures with food; may this food bring them satisfaction. Elsewhere, in the same text, we read: We offer obeisance to that unborn, imperishable Brahman
Brahman
which is present in our and others bodies and in everything else, there being nothing other than it anywhere. This teaching of the ethics of universal love and service..." ^ a b Wilson 1866, pp. 92-96. ^ a b Dutt 1896, pp. 194-196. ^ Wilson 1866, pp. 1 48-170. ^ Wilson 1866, pp. 207-227. ^ Wilson 1866, pp. 229-336. ^ Wilson 1868, pp. 1-242. ^ Dutt 1896, pp. 237-306. ^ a b c d e f g Rocher 1986, p. 248. ^ Wilson 1868, pp. 245-342. ^ a b Wilson 1870, pp. 1-167. ^ Dutt 1896, pp. 317-418. ^ Wilson 1870, pp. 245-342. ^ a b Walter Ruben (1941), The Kṛṣṇacarita in the Harivaṃśa and Certain Purāṇas, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 61, No. 3, pages 115-127 ^ Bryant 2007, pp. 9-10, 95-109 (Chapter by Ekkehard Lorenz). ^ Wilson 1870, p. 225. ^ Wilson 1870, pp. 168-255. ^ Wilson 1870, pp. 177-185 with footnotes. ^ Wilson 1870, pp. 216-255. ^ Wilson 1870, pp. 227-229 with footnotes. ^ Wilson 1870, pp. 230-232 with footnotes. ^ Wilson 1870, pp. 242-243. ^ Wilson 1870, p. 244. ^ a b Allan Dahlaquist (1996). Megasthenes and Indian Religion. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 92 with footnote 1. ISBN 978-81-208-1323-6.  ^ NK Devaraja (1970), Contemporary Relevance of Advaita Vedānta, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 20, No. 2, pages 129-136 ^ KSR Datta (1978), The Visnu Purana
Purana
and Advaita, Journal: Purana, Vol 20, pages 193-196 ^ R. Balasubramanian (2000). "Advaita in the Puranas". Advaita Vedānta. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 51–78. ISBN 978-8187586043.  ^ Sucharita Adluri (2015), Textual authority in Classical Indian Thought: Ramanuja
Ramanuja
and the Visnu Purana, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415695756, pages 1-11, 18-26

Bibliography[edit]

Bryant, Edwin Francis (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803400-1.  Collins, Charles Dillard (1988). The Iconography and Ritual of Siva at Elephanta: On Life, Illumination, and Being. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-88706-773-0.  Dimmitt, Cornelia; van Buitenen, J. A. B. (2012). Classical Hindu Mythology: A Reader in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Puranas. Temple University Press (1st Edition: 1977). ISBN 978-1-4399-0464-0.  Dalal, Rosen (2014). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin. ISBN 978-8184752779.  Dutt, MN (1896). A prose translation of Vishnupuranam. Elysium Press.  Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.  K P Gietz; et al. (1992). Epic and Puranic Bibliography (Up to 1985) Annoted and with Indexes: Part I: A - R, Part II: S - Z, Indexes. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-03028-1.  Ariel Glucklich (2008). The Strides of Vishnu : Hindu
Hindu
Culture in Historical Perspective: Hindu
Hindu
Culture in Historical Perspective. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-971825-2.  Johnson, W.J. (2009). A Dictionary of Hinduism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-861025-0.  Kramrisch, Stella (1976). The Hindu
Hindu
Temple, Volume 1 & 2. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0223-3.  Rao, Velcheru Narayana (1993). " Purana
Purana
as Brahminic Ideology". In Doniger Wendy. Purana
Purana
Perennis: Reciprocity and Transformation in Hindu
Hindu
and Jaina Texts. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1381-0.  Rocher, Ludo (1986). The Puranas. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3447025225.  Wilson, H. H. (1864). The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana: A System of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology and Tradition (Volume 1: Introduction, Book I). Read Country Books (reprinted in 2006). ISBN 1-84664-664-2.  Wilson, H. H. (1865). The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana: A System of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology and Tradition (Volume 2: Book I & II).  Wilson, H. H. (1866). The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana: A System of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology and Tradition (Volume 3: Book III & IV).  Wilson, H. H. (1868). The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana: A System of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology and Tradition (Volume 4: Book IV & V).  Wilson, H. H. (1870). The Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana: A System of Hindu
Hindu
Mythology and Tradition (Volume 5 Part 1: Book V & VI). 

Further reading[edit]

Mani, Vettam. Puranic Encyclopedia. 1st English ed. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1975. Shri Vishnupuran published by Gitapress Gorakhpur

External links[edit]

Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
translation by H.H. Wilson at sacred-texts Vishnu
Vishnu
Purana
Purana
English translation correct IAST
IAST
transliteration and glossary Other language versions on the Internet Archive: Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(by Vishnuchitta Alwar, 1922), Bengali by Kaliprasanna Vidyaratna (1926), Hindi, Telugu by K. Bhavanarayana (1930)

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