Publius Vergilius Maro (Classical Latin: [ˈpuː.blɪ.ʊs
wɛrˈɡɪ.lɪ.ʊs ˈma.roː]; traditional dates October 15, 70 BC –
September 21, 19 BC), usually called
Virgil or Vergil
/ˈvɜːrdʒɪl/ in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan
period. He wrote three of the most famous poems in
Eclogues (or Bucolics), the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A
number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are
sometimes attributed to him.
Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His
Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient
Rome since the
time of its composition. Modeled after Homer's
Iliad and Odyssey, the
Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee
Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill
his destiny and reach Italy, where his descendants Romulus and Remus
were to found the city of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep
influence on Western literature, most notably Dante's Divine Comedy,
Virgil appears as Dante's guide through
1 Life and works
1.1 Birth and biographical tradition
1.2 Early works
1.3 The Eclogues
1.4 The Georgics
1.5 The Aeneid
1.6 Reception of the Aeneid
1.7 Virgil's death and editing of the Aeneid
2 Later views and reception
2.1 In antiquity
2.2 Late antiquity and Middle Ages
2.4 Virgil's tomb
6 Further reading
7 External links
Life and works
Birth and biographical tradition
A bust of
Virgil in Naples
Virgil's biographical tradition is thought to depend on a lost
biography by Varius, Virgil's editor, which was incorporated into the
Suetonius and the commentaries of
Servius and Donatus,
the two great commentators on Virgil's poetry. Although the
commentaries no doubt record much factual information about Virgil,
some of their evidence can be shown to rely on inferences made from
his poetry and allegorizing; thus, Virgil's biographical tradition
The tradition holds that
Virgil was born in the village of Andes, near
Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. Analysis of his name has led to
beliefs that he descended from earlier Roman colonists. Modern
speculation ultimately is not supported by narrative evidence either
from his own writings or his later biographers.
Macrobius says that
Virgil's father was of a humble background; however, scholars
generally believe that
Virgil was from an equestrian landowning family
which could afford to give him an education. He attended schools in
Rome and Naples. After considering briefly a
career in rhetoric and law, the young
Virgil turned his talents to
According to Robert Seymour Conway, the only ancient source which
reports the actual distance between Andes and
Mantua is a surviving
fragment from the works of Marcus Valerius Probus. Probus flourished
during the reign of
Nero (reigned 54-68).  Probus reports that
Andes was located 30 Roman miles from Mantua. Conway translated this
to a distance of about 45 kilometres or 28 English miles. 
Relatively little is known about the family of Virgil. His father
reportedly belonged to gens Vergilia, and his mother belonged to gens
Magia.  According to Conway, gens Vergilia is poorly attested in
inscriptions from the entire Northern Italy, where
Mantua is located.
Among thousands of surviving ancient inscriptions from this region,
there are only 8 or 9 mentions of individuals called "Vergilius"
(masculine) or "Vergilia" (feminine). Out of these mentions, 3 appear
in inscriptions from Verona, and one in an inscription from Calvisano.
Conway theorized that the inscription from
Calvisano had to do with a
kinswoman of Virgil.
Calvisano is located 30 Roman miles from Mantua,
and would fit with Probus' description of Andes.  The inscription
in this case is a votive offering to the Matronae (a group of deities)
by a woman called Vergilia, asking the goddesses to deliver from
danger another woman, called Munatia. Conway notes that the offering
belongs to a common type for this era, where women made requests for
deities to preserve the lives of female loved ones who were pregnant
and were about to give birth. In most cases, the woman making the
request was the mother of a woman who was pregnant or otherwise in
danger. Though there is another inscription from Calvisano, where a
woman asks the deities to preserve the life of her sister. 
Munatia, the woman who Vergilia wished to protect, was likely a close
relative of Vergilia or Vergilia's daughter. The name "Munatia"
indicates that this woman was a member of gens Munatia, and makes it
likely that Vergilia married into this family. 
Main article: Appendix Vergiliana
According to the commentators,
Virgil received his first education
when he was five years old and he later went to Cremona, Milan, and
Rome to study rhetoric, medicine, and astronomy, which he soon
abandoned for philosophy. From Virgil's admiring references to the
neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was,
for a time, associated with Catullus' neoteric circle. According to
Servius, schoolmates considered
Virgil extremely shy and reserved, and
he was nicknamed "Parthenias" or "maiden" because of his social
Virgil also seems to have suffered bad health throughout
his life and in some ways lived the life of an invalid. According to
the Catalepton, he began to write poetry while in the
of Siro the
Epicurean at Naples. A group of small works attributed to
Virgil by the commentators survive collected under the
title Appendix Vergiliana, but are largely considered spurious by
scholars. One, the Catalepton, consists of fourteen short poems,
some of which may be Virgil's, and another, a short narrative poem
titled the Culex ("The Gnat"), was attributed to
Virgil as early as
the 1st century AD.
Main article: Eclogues
Page from the beginning of the
Eclogues in the 5th-century Vergilius
The biographical tradition asserts that
Virgil began the hexameter
Eclogues (or Bucolics) in 42 BC and it is thought that the collection
was published around 39–38 BC, although this is controversial.
Eclogues (from the Greek for "selections") are a group of ten
poems roughly modeled on the bucolic hexameter poetry ("pastoral
poetry") of the Hellenistic poet Theocritus. After his victory in the
Battle of Philippi
Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, fought against the army led by the
assassins of Julius Caesar,
Octavian tried to pay off his veterans
with land expropriated from towns in northern Italy, supposedly
including, according to the tradition, an estate near
to Virgil. The loss of his family farm and the attempt through poetic
petitions to regain his property have traditionally been seen as
Virgil's motives in the composition of the Eclogues. This is now
thought to be an unsupported inference from interpretations of the
Eclogues 1 and 9,
Virgil indeed dramatizes the
contrasting feelings caused by the brutality of the land
expropriations through pastoral idiom, but offers no indisputable
evidence of the supposed biographic incident. While some readers have
identified the poet himself with various characters and their
vicissitudes, whether gratitude by an old rustic to a new god (Ecl.
1), frustrated love by a rustic singer for a distant boy (his master's
pet, Ecl. 2), or a master singer's claim to have composed several
eclogues (Ecl. 5), modern scholars largely reject such efforts to
garner biographical details from works of fiction, preferring to
interpret an author's characters and themes as illustrations of
contemporary life and thought. The ten
Eclogues present traditional
pastoral themes with a fresh perspective.
Eclogues 1 and 9 address the
land confiscations and their effects on the Italian countryside. 2 and
3 are pastoral and erotic, discussing both homosexual love (Ecl. 2)
and attraction toward people of any gender (Ecl. 3). Eclogue 4,
addressed to Asinius Pollio, the so-called "Messianic Eclogue" uses
the imagery of the golden age in connection with the birth of a child
(who the child was meant to be has been subject to debate). 5 and 8
describe the myth of
Daphnis in a song contest, 6, the cosmic and
mythological song of Silenus; 7, a heated poetic contest, and 10 the
sufferings of the contemporary elegiac poet Cornelius Gallus. Virgil
is credited[by whom?] in the
Eclogues with establishing Arcadia as a
poetic ideal that still resonates in
Western literature and visual
arts and setting the stage for the development of
Latin pastoral by
Calpurnius Siculus, Nemesianus, and later writers.
Main article: Georgics
Sometime after the publication of the
Eclogues (probably before 37
Virgil became part of the circle of Maecenas, Octavian's
capable agent d'affaires who sought to counter sympathy for Antony
among the leading families by rallying Roman literary figures to
Virgil came to know many of the other leading
literary figures of the time, including Horace, in whose poetry he is
often mentioned, and Varius Rufus, who later helped finish the
Late 17th-century illustration of a passage from the
Georgics by Jerzy
At Maecenas' insistence (according to the tradition)
Virgil spent the
ensuing years (perhaps 37–29 BC) on the long didactic hexameter poem
Georgics (from Greek, "On Working the Earth") which he
dedicated to Maecenas. The ostensible theme of the
instruction in the methods of running a farm. In handling this theme,
Virgil follows in the didactic ("how to") tradition of the Greek poet
Works and Days
Works and Days and several works of the later Hellenistic
poets. The four books of the
Georgics focus respectively on raising
crops and trees (1 and 2), livestock and horses (3), and beekeeping
and the qualities of bees (4). Well-known passages include the beloved
Laus Italiae of Book 2, the prologue description of the temple in Book
3, and the description of the plague at the end of Book 3. Book 4
concludes with a long mythological narrative, in the form of an
epyllion which describes vividly the discovery of beekeeping by
Aristaeus and the story of Orpheus' journey to the underworld. Ancient
scholars, such as Servius, conjectured that the
replaced, at the emperor's request, a long section in praise of
Virgil's friend, the poet Gallus, who was disgraced by Augustus, and
who committed suicide in 26 BC.
The Georgics' tone wavers between optimism and pessimism, sparking
critical debate on the poet's intentions, but the work lays the
foundations for later didactic poetry.
Maecenas are said to
have taken turns reading the
Octavian upon his return from
defeating Antony and
Cleopatra at the
Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium in 31 BC.
Main article: Aeneid
A 1st-century terracotta expressing the pietas of Aeneas, who carries
his aged father and leads his young son
Aeneid is widely considered Virgil's finest work and one of the
most important poems in the history of western literature. Virgil
worked on the
Aeneid during the last eleven years of his life (29–19
BC), commissioned, according to Propertius, by Augustus. The epic
poem consists of 12 books in dactylic hexameter verse which describe
the journey of Aeneas, a warrior fleeing the sack of Troy, to Italy,
his battle with the Italian prince Turnus, and the foundation of a
city from which
Rome would emerge. The Aeneid's first six books
describe the journey of
Aeneas from Troy to Rome.
Virgil made use of
several models in the composition of his epic; Homer, the
preeminent author of classical epic, is everywhere present, but Virgil
also makes special use of the
Ennius and the Hellenistic
Apollonius of Rhodes among the various other writers to which he
alludes. Although the
Aeneid casts itself firmly into the epic mode,
it often seeks to expand the genre by including elements of other
genres such as tragedy and aetiological poetry. Ancient commentators
Virgil seems to divide the
Aeneid into two sections based
on the poetry of Homer; the first six books were viewed as employing
Odyssey as a model while the last six were connected to the
Book 1 (at the head of the Odyssean section) opens with a storm
which Juno, Aeneas' enemy throughout the poem, stirs up against the
fleet. The storm drives the hero to the coast of Carthage, which
historically was Rome's deadliest foe. The queen, Dido, welcomes the
ancestor of the Romans, and under the influence of the gods falls
deeply in love with him. At a banquet in Book 2,
Aeneas tells the
story of the sack of Troy, the death of his wife, and his escape, to
the enthralled Carthaginians, while in Book 3 he recounts to them his
wanderings over the Mediterranean in search of a suitable new home.
Jupiter in Book 4 recalls the lingering
Aeneas to his duty to found a
new city, and he slips away from Carthage, leaving
Dido to commit
Aeneas and calling down revenge in a symbolic
anticipation of the fierce wars between
Carthage and Rome. In Book 5,
funeral games are celebrated for Aeneas' father Anchises, who had died
a year before. On reaching Cumae, in
Italy in Book 6,
the Cumaean Sibyl, who conducts him through the
Aeneas meets the dead
Anchises who reveals Rome's destiny to his son.
Book 7 (beginning the Iliadic half) opens with an address to the muse
and recounts Aeneas' arrival in
Italy and betrothal to Lavinia,
daughter of King Latinus.
Lavinia had already been promised to Turnus,
the king of the Rutulians, who is roused to war by the Fury Allecto,
Amata Lavinia's mother. In Book 8,
Aeneas allies with King
Evander, who occupies the future site of Rome, and is given new armor
and a shield depicting Roman history. Book 9 records an assault by
Nisus and Euryalus
Nisus and Euryalus on the Rutulians, Book 10, the death of Evander's
young son Pallas, and 11 the death of the Volscian warrior princess
Camilla and the decision to settle the war with a duel between Aeneas
and Turnus. The
Aeneid ends in Book 12 with the taking of Latinus'
city, the death of Amata, and Aeneas' defeat and killing of Turnus,
whose pleas for mercy are spurned. The final book ends with the image
of Turnus' soul lamenting as it flees to the underworld.
Reception of the Aeneid
Virgil Reading the
Aeneid to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia by
Jean-Baptiste Wicar, Art Institute of Chicago
Critics of the
Aeneid focus on a variety of issues. The tone of
the poem as a whole is a particular matter of debate; some see the
poem as ultimately pessimistic and politically subversive to the
Augustan regime, while others view it as a celebration of the new
Virgil makes use of the symbolism of the Augustan
regime, and some scholars see strong associations between
Aeneas, the one as founder and the other as re-founder of Rome. A
strong teleology, or drive towards a climax, has been detected in the
Aeneid is full of prophecies about the future of Rome, the
deeds of Augustus, his ancestors, and famous Romans, and the
Carthaginian Wars; the shield of
Aeneas even depicts Augustus' victory
at Actium against
Mark Antony and
Cleopatra VII in 31 BC. A further
focus of study is the character of Aeneas. As the protagonist of the
Aeneas seems to waver constantly between his emotions and
commitment to his prophetic duty to found Rome; critics note the
breakdown of Aeneas' emotional control in the last sections of the
poem where the "pious" and "righteous"
Aeneas mercilessly slaughters
Aeneid appears to have been a great success.
Virgil is said to
have recited Books 2, 4, and 6 to Augustus; and Book 6 apparently
caused Augustus' sister Octavia to faint. Although the truth of this
claim is subject to scholarly scepticism, it has served as a basis for
later art, such as Jean-Baptiste Wicar's
Virgil Reading the Aeneid.
Unfortunately, some lines of the poem were left unfinished, and the
whole was unedited, at Virgil's death in 19 BC.
Virgil's death and editing of the Aeneid
According to the tradition,
Virgil traveled to
Greece in about 19 BC
to revise the Aeneid. After meeting
Augustus in Athens and deciding to
Virgil caught a fever while visiting a town near Megara.
After crossing to
Italy by ship, weakened with disease,
Virgil died in
Brundisium harbor on September 21, 19 BC.
Augustus ordered Virgil's
Lucius Varius Rufus and Plotius Tucca, to
disregard Virgil's own wish that the poem be burned, instead ordering
it published with as few editorial changes as possible. As a
result, the text of the
Aeneid that exists may contain faults which
Virgil was planning to correct before publication. However, the only
obvious imperfections are a few lines of verse that are metrically
unfinished (i.e. not a complete line of dactylic hexameter). Some
scholars have argued that
Virgil deliberately left these metrically
incomplete lines for dramatic effect. Other alleged imperfections
are subject to scholarly debate.
Later views and reception
A 3rd-century Tunisian mosaic of
Virgil seated between
The works of
Virgil almost from the moment of their publication
Latin poetry. The Eclogues, Georgics, and above all the
Aeneid became standard texts in school curricula with which all
educated Romans were familiar. Poets following
Virgil often refer
intertextually to his works to generate meaning in their own poetry.
The Augustan poet
Ovid parodies the opening lines of the
Amores 1.1.1–2, and his summary of the
Aeneas story in Book 14 of
the Metamorphoses, the so-called "mini-Aeneid", has been viewed as a
particularly important example of post-Virgilian response to the epic
genre. Lucan's epic, the Bellum Civile has been considered an
anti-Virgilian epic, disposing with the divine mechanism, treating
historical events, and diverging drastically from Virgilian epic
practice. The Flavian poet
Statius in his 12-book epic Thebaid engages
closely with the poetry of Virgil; in his epilogue he advises his poem
not to "rival the divine Aeneid, but follow afar and ever venerate its
footsteps." In Silius Italicus,
Virgil finds one of his most
ardent admirers. With almost every line of his epic
references Virgil. Indeed, Silius is known to have bought Virgil's
tomb and worshipped the poet. Partially as a result of his
so-called "Messianic" Fourth Eclogue—widely interpreted later to
have predicted the birth of Jesus Christ—
Virgil was in later
antiquity imputed to have the magical abilities of a seer; the Sortes
Vergilianae, the process of using Virgil's poetry as a tool of
divination, is found in the time of Hadrian, and continued into the
Middle Ages. In a similar vein
Macrobius in the Saturnalia credits the
Virgil as the embodiment of human knowledge and experience,
mirroring the Greek conception of Homer.
Virgil also found
commentators in antiquity. Servius, a commentator of the 4th century
AD, based his work on the commentary of Donatus. Servius' commentary
provides us with a great deal of information about Virgil's life,
sources, and references; however, many modern scholars find the
variable quality of his work and the often simplistic interpretations
Late antiquity and Middle Ages
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A 5th-century portrait of
Virgil from the Vergilius Romanus
Even as the Western Roman empire collapsed, literate men acknowledged
Virgil was a master poet.
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours read Virgil, whom he
quotes in several places, along with some other
Latin poets, though he
cautions that "we ought not to relate their lying fables, lest we fall
under sentence of eternal death."
Virgil his guide in
Hell and the greater part of Purgatory
in The Divine Comedy.
Dante also mentions
Virgil in De vulgari
eloquentia, along with Ovid,
Lucan and Statius, as one of the four
regulati poetae (ii, vi, 7).
The best-known surviving manuscripts of Virgil's works include the
Vergilius Augusteus, the
Vergilius Vaticanus and the Vergilius
Virgil in his Basket, Lucas van Leyden, 1525
In the Middle Ages, Virgil's reputation was such that it inspired
legends associating him with magic and prophecy. From at least the 3rd
century, Christian thinkers interpreted
Eclogues 4, which describes
the birth of a boy ushering in a golden age, as a prediction of Jesus'
birth. In consequence,
Virgil came to be seen on a similar level to
the Hebrew prophets of the Bible as one who had heralded
Possibly as early as the second century AD, Virgil's works were seen
as having magical properties and were used for divination. In what
became known as the
Sortes Vergilianae (Virgilian Lots), passages
would be selected at random and interpreted to answer questions.
In the 12th century, starting around
Naples but eventually spreading
widely throughout Europe, a tradition developed in which
regarded as a great magician. Legends about
Virgil and his magical
powers remained popular for over two hundred years, arguably becoming
as prominent as his writings themselves. Virgil's legacy in
Wales was such that the Welsh version of his name, Fferyllt
or Pheryllt, became a generic term for magic-worker, and survives in
the modern Welsh word for pharmacist, fferyllydd.
The legend of "
Virgil in his basket" arose in the Middle Ages, and is
often seen in art and mentioned in literature as part of the Power of
Women literary topos, demonstrating the disruptive force of female
attractiveness on men. In this story
Virgil became enamoured of a
beautiful woman, sometimes described as the emperor's daughter or
mistress and called Lucretia. She played him along and agreed to an
assignation at her house, which he was to sneak into at night by
climbing into a large basket let down from a window. When he did so he
was only hoisted halfway up the wall and then left him trapped there
into the next day, exposed to public ridicule. The story paralleled
that of Phyllis riding Aristotle. Among other artists depicting the
Lucas van Leyden
Lucas van Leyden made a woodcut and later an engraving.
The verse inscription at
Virgil's tomb was supposedly composed by the
Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc
Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces. ("
Mantua gave me life, the
Calabrians took it away,
Naples holds me now; I sang of pastures,
farms, and commanders." [trans. Bernard Knox])
The structure known as "Virgil's tomb" is found at the entrance of an
ancient Roman tunnel (also known as "grotta vecchia") in Piedigrotta,
a district 3 kilometres (2 mi) from the centre of Naples, near the
Mergellina harbor, on the road heading north along the coast to
Virgil was already the object of literary admiration
and veneration before his death, in the Middle Ages his name became
associated with miraculous powers, and for a couple of centuries his
tomb was the destination of pilgrimages and veneration.
By the fourth or fifth century A.D. the original spelling Vergilius
had been corrupted to Virgilius, and then the latter spelling spread
to the modern European languages. The error probably originated
with scribes reproducing manuscripts by dictation. The error persisted
even though, as early as the 15th century, the classical scholar
Poliziano had shown Vergilius to be the original spelling. Today,
the anglicisations Vergil and
Virgil are both acceptable.
^ Jones, Peter. Reading Virgil: AeneidI and II. Cambridge University
Press. pp. 1, 4. ISBN 9780521768665. Retrieved 23 November
^ Bunson, Matthew. Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. Infobase
Publishing. p. 584. ISBN 9781438110271. Retrieved 23
^ Roberts, John. The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780192801463. Retrieved 23 November
^ Ruud, Jay. Critical Companion to Dante. Infobase Publishing.
p. 376. ISBN 9781438108414. Retrieved 23 November
^ Don Fowler "
Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro)" in The Oxford Classical
Dictionary, (3.ed. 1996, Oxford), pg.1602
^ The epitaph on his tomb in Posilipo near
genuit; Calabri rapuere; tenet nunc Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura,
Mantua gave birth to me, the Calabrians took me, now Naples
holds me; I sang of pastures [the Eclogues], country [the Georgics]
and leaders [the Aeneid]").
^ Map of Cisalpine Gaul
^ a b c d e f g h Conway (1967), p. 14-41
^ a b Fowler, pg.1602
^ a b c d Fowler, pg.1603
^ Horace, Satires 1.5, 1.6, and Odes 1.3
^ Fowler, pg.1605
^ Avery, W. T. (1957). "
Augustus and the "Aeneid"". The Classical
Journal. 52 (5): 225–229.
^ Jenkyns, p. 53
^ For a succinct summary, see Globalnet.co.uk
^ For a bibliography and summary see Fowler, pg.1605–6
^ Sellar, William Young; Glover, Terrot Reaveley (1911). "Virgil".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). p. 112. Retrieved
^ Miller, F. J. (1909). "Evidences of Incompleteness in the "Aeneid"
of Vergil". The Classical Journal. 4 (11th ed.). p. 343.
^ Pliny Ep. 3.7.8
^ Ziolkowski, Jan M.; Putnam, Michael C. J. (2008). The Virgilian
Tradition: The First Fifteen Hundred Years. Yale University Press.
pp. xxxiv–xxxv. ISBN 0300108222. Retrieved November 11,
^ Ziolkowski & Putnam, pp. xxxiv, 829–830.
^ Ziolkowski & Putnam, p. xxxiv.
^ Ziolkowski & Putnem, pp. 101–102.
^ Snyder, James. Northern Renaissance Art, 1985, Harry N. Abrams,
ISBN 0136235964, pp. 461–462
^ Chambers, Robert (1832). The Book of Days. London: W and R Chambers.
^ Comparetti, Domenico. Vergil in the Middle Ages. Princeton
University Press. ISBN 0691026785. Retrieved 23 November
^ Wilson-Okamura, David Scott.
Virgil in the Renaissance. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 9780521198127. Retrieved 23 November
^ Winkler, Anthony C.; McCuen-Metherell, Jo Ray. Writing the Research
Paper: A Handbook. Cengage Learning. p. 278.
ISBN 1133169023. Retrieved 23 November 2016.
Conway, Robert Seymour (1967), "Where Was Vergil's Farm", Harvard
Lectures on the Vergilian Age, Biblo and Tannen,
Library resources about
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Virgil at Internet Archive
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Virgil at the Perseus Digital Library
Latin texts, translations and commentaries
Aeneid translated by T. C. Williams, 1910
Aeneid translated by John Dryden, 1697
Georgics translated by J. C. Greenough, 1900
Virgil at Theoi Project
Georgics translated by H. R. Fairclough, 1916
Virgil at Sacred Texts
Aeneid translated by John Dryden, 1697
Georgics translated by J.W. MacKail, 1934
P. Vergilius Maro at The
Virgil's works: text, concordances and frequency list.
Virgil: The Major Texts: contemporary, line by line English
translations of Eclogues, Georgics, and Aeneid.
Virgil in the collection of
Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria
Ferdinand, Duke of Calabria at Somni:
Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera
Naples and Milan, 1450.
Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera Italy, between 1470 and 1499.
Publii Vergilii Maronis Opera Milan, 1465.
Virgil at Encyclopædia Britannica
Suetonius: The Life of Virgil, an English translation.
Vita Vergiliana, Aelius Donatus' Life of
Virgil in the original Latin.
Virgil.org: Aelius Donatus' Life of
Virgil translated into English by
Project Gutenberg edition of Vergil—A Biography, by Tenney Frank.
Vergilian Chronology (in German).
The Vergil Project.
Aeneid for the 21st century". A review of Robert Fagles's new
translation of the
Aeneid in the TLS, February 9, 2007.
Virgilmurder (Jean-Yves Maleuvre's website setting forth his theory
Virgil was murdered by Augustus)
The Secret History of Virgil, containing a selection on the magical
legends and tall tales that circulated about
Virgil in the Middle
Virgil scholar Richard Thomas and poet David Ferry, who
recently translated the "Georgics", on ThoughtCast
SORGLL: Aeneid, Bk I, 1–49; read by Robert Sonkowsky
SORGLL: Aeneid, Bk IV, 296–396; read by Stephen Daitz
Comprehensive bibliographies on all three of Virgil's major works,
downloadable in Word or pdf format
Bibliography of works relating Vergil to the literature of the
A selective Bibliographical Guide to Vergil's Aeneid
Virgil in Late Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Renaissance: an
The article above was originally sourced from Nupedia and is open
Works by Virgil
Eclogues (Eclogue 4)
Ancient Rome topics
historiography of the fall
Tribune of the Plebs
Frontiers and fortifications
Decorations and punishments
Conflict of the Orders
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Younger
Quintus Curtius Rufus
Seneca the Elder
Seneca the Younger
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Eusebius of Caesaria
Phlegon of Tralles
Lists and other
Cities and towns
Wars and battles
Aeneid (19 BC)
Ajax the Lesser
Evander of Pallene
Nisus and Euryalus
Pygmalion of Tyre
The Avenger (1962)
Roman d'Enéas (1160 poem)
Dido, Queen of
Carthage (c. 1593 play)
Amelia (1751 novel)
The Dunciad (1729 novel)
Lavinia (2008 novel)
Didone (1641 Cavalli)
Achille et Polyxène
Achille et Polyxène (1687 Lully/Collasse)
Aeneas (1688 Purcell)
Didon (1693 Desmarets)
Didone abbandonata (1724 libretto Metastasio)
Didone abbandonata (1724 Sarro)
Didone abbandonata (1724 Albinoni)
Didone abbandonata (1726 Vinci)
Didone abbandonata (1762 Sarti)
Didon (1783 Piccinni)
Dido, Queen of
Carthage (1792 Storace)
Les Troyens (1858 Berlioz)
Book of Ballymote
Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 31
Obscuris vera involvens
Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes
Laocoön and His Sons (25 BC)
Aeneas, Anchises, and
Ascanius Shooting the Stag of Sylvia (1689)
"And Then There Was Silence"
Gates of Fire
The Golden Bough
"Fortune favours the bold"
"Mind over matter"
Dido and Aeneas" from Virgil's Aeneid
Didone (1641, Cavalli)
Aeneas (1688, Purcell)
Didon (1693, Desmarets)
Didone abbandonata (1724, Metastasio)
Didone abbandonata (1724, Sarro)
Didone abbandonata (1724, Albinoni)
Didone abbandonata (1762, Sarti)
Didon (1783, Piccinni)
Dido, Queen of
Carthage (1792, Storace)
Les Troyens (1863, Berlioz)
Dido, Queen of
Carthage (c. 1593)
Roman d'Enéas (1160)
Dido building Carthage
Low Ham Roman Villa
ISNI: 0000 0001 2119 8069
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