Vinnytsia (Ukrainian: Ві́нниця, translit. Vinnycja,
pronounced [ˈʋinːɪtsʲɐ]; Russian: Ви́нница,
translit. Vinnica; Polish: Winnica; German: Winniza, and
Romanian: Vinița) is a city in west-central Ukraine, located on the
banks of the Southern Bug.
It is the administrative center of
Vinnytsia Oblast and the largest
city in the historic region of Podillia. Administratively, it is
incorporated as a town of oblast significance. It also serves as an
administrative center of
Vinnytsia Raion, one of the 27 districts of
Vinnytsia Oblast, though it is not a part of the district. Population:
372,484 (2015 est.)
The city's roots date back to the
Middle Ages and it was under Polish
control for centuries until the
Russian Empire annexed it in 1793.
During 1930s and early 1940s the city was the site of massacres, first
during Stalin's purges and then during the Holocaust in
the Nazi occupation. A Cold War-era airbase was located near the city.
3.1 From Medieval to Early Modern period
3.2 World War II
Cold War period
3.4 Spy town
7 Buildings and structures
9 Notable people
10 International relations
10.1 Twin towns — Sister cities
12 See also
14 External links
The name of
Vinnytsia appeared for the first time in 1363. It is
assumed that the name is derived from the old Slavic word "Vino",
meaning "given as a gift." This name can be explained by the fact that
Vinnytsia and surrounding land were captured by Lithuanian Duke
Algirdas in the 14th century, and then, they were given as a gift to
his nephews. 
Vinnytsia is located about 260 km (160 mi) southwest of the
Ukrainian capital, Kiev, 429 km (267 mi) north-northwest of
Black Sea port city of Odessa, and 369 km (229 mi) east
It is the administrative center of the
Vinnytsia Oblast (province), as
well as the administrative center of the surrounding
(district) within the oblast. The city itself is directly subordinated
to the oblast.
A long lasting warm summer with a sufficient quantity of moisture and
a comparatively short winter is characteristic of Vinnytsia. The
average temperature in January is −5.8 °C (21.6 °F) and
18.3 °C (64.9 °F) in July. The average annual
precipitation is 638 mm (25 in).
Over the course of a year there are around 6–9 days when snowstorms
occur, 37–60 days when mists occur during the cold period, and 3–5
days when thunderstorms with hail occur.
Climate data for Vinnytsia, Ukraine
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net
Source #2: NOAA (sun only 1961–1990)
From Medieval to Early Modern period
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Grand Duchy of
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1569–1672
Ottoman Empire 1672–1699
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1699–1793
Russian Empire 1793–1917
Russian Republic 1917
Various Ukrainian states 1917–1920
Soviet Union 1922–1991 (Occupied by
Nazi Germany between
Vinnytsia has been an important trade and political center since the
fourteenth century, when Fiodor Koriatowicz, the nephew of the
Lithuanian Duke Algirdas, built a fortress (1363) against Tatar
raiders on the banks of the Southern Bug. The original settlement was
built and populated by Aleksander Hrehorovicz Jelec, hetman under
Lithuanian Prince Švitrigaila. Aleksander Jelec built the fort, which
he commanded as starosta afterwards.
In the 15th century, Lithuanian Grand Duke
Alexander Jagiellon granted
Winnica Magdeburg city rights. In 1566, it became part of the Bracław
Voivodeship. Between 1569 and 1793 the town was a part of
in this period, for a short time between 1672 and 1699 was a part of
the Ottoman Empire. During period of Polish rule, Winnica was a Polish
royal city. On March 18, 1783,
Antoni Protazy Potocki
Antoni Protazy Potocki opened in
Winnica the Trade Company Poland.
Second Partition of Poland
Second Partition of Poland in 1793 the
Russian Empire annexed
the city and the region.
Russia moved to expunge the Roman Catholic
religion – Catholic churches in the city (including what is now the
Transfiguration Cathedral) were converted to Russian Orthodox
Vinnytsia on a 1910s postcard
According to the Russian census of 1897,
Vinnytsia with a population
of 30,563 was the third largest city of Podolia after
Kamianets-Podilskyi and Uman.
World War II
It was occupied by German troops on 19 July 1941 during World War II.
In 1943, the invading Germans exhumed almost 10,000 people, mostly
male Ukrainians, from mass graves in Vinnytsia. The
majority of the executions happened during the Stalinist Great Purge
between 1937–1938 in the
Adolf Hitler sited his easternmost headquarters Führerhauptquartier
Werwolf near the town and spent a number of weeks there in 1942 and
Nazi atrocities were committed in and near
Vinnytsia by Einsatzgruppe
C. Estimates of the number of victims run as high as 28,000. This
included the mass murder of the town's large Jewish population who
comprised 40% of all inhabitants at the time of the Nazi's invasion.
In 1942 a large part of the Jewish quarter of
destroyed by Germans. One infamous photo, The Last
Jew of Vinnytsia,
shows a member of Einsatzgruppe D about to execute a Jewish man
kneeling before a mass grave. The text The Last
Jew of Vinnytsia
was written on the back of the photograph, which was found in a photo
album belonging to a German soldier. It was captured by the Red Army
on 20 March 1944.
Cold War period
Since the end of World War II,
Vinnytsia has been the home for major
Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Air Forces base, including an airfield, a hospital, arsenals,
and other military installations. The headquarters of the 43rd Rocket
Army of the
Strategic Rocket Forces
Strategic Rocket Forces was stationed in
1960 to the early 1990s. The 2nd Independent Heavy Bomber Aviation
Corps, which later became 24th Air Army, was also stationed in
Vinnytsia from 1960 to 1992. The
Ukrainian Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force Command has been
Vinnytsia since 1992.
In early 1959, Major Per Lindgren, writing in the Swedish military
journal "Contact with the Armed Forces" reported that the Soviet Union
had built a school in
Vinnytsia for training KGB infiltrators in how
to live in the United States. A mock-up of an entire American small
town was built, complete with American-style stores, movie theater,
houses, restaurants, American vehicles, and a small college campus
that served as the classrooms of the school.
In 1960 the
Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency created a educational
documentary entitled "Spy Town".
There are many educational universities and research institutions in
Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences
Vinnytsia National Medical University, named after M. I. Pirogov
Vinnytsia National Technical University
Vinnytsia State Pedagogical University, named after Mykhailo
Vinnytsia National Agriculture University
Vinnytsia European University
Vinnytsia Trade and Economics Institute
Vinnytsia Social Economical Institute
Donetsk National University, evacuated from
Donetsk in 2014 due to
armed conflict on the East part of Ukraine
There is also the Regional Universal Scientific Library named after
Kliment Timiryazev in Vinnytsia.
Vinnytsia is a tourist, scientific and industrial
center in Ukraine.
There are the
Roshen confectionery corporation, the Crystal diamond
RPC Fort largest Ukrainian firearms
manufacturing corporation, Analog corporation, Mayak
corporation, Budmash corporation, Agregat corporation,
Pnevmatika corporation, etc.
The headquarters of the
Ukrainian Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force is situated in Vinnytsia.
Vinnytsia is considered the long-time political base for the current
Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko. He owns a local confectionery
(as part of the
Roshen Corporation) and was elected member of
parliament from the local constituency for several convocations.
However, contrary to some speculations, Poroshenko has never lived in
The present Ukrainian Prime Minister
Volodymyr Groysman is from
Buildings and structures
Greek Catholic Church as seen from South Bug River in Vinnytsia
New Orthodox Church Construction in Vinnytsia
Concert Hall in Vinnytsia
Ukrainian Aviation Monument in Vinnytsia
Mansion-museum of Nikolay Pirogov.
Fountain Roshen is the only one in
Ukraine and the largest
floating fountain in Europe, built in the river
Southern Buh in
City near Festivalny Isle (Campa Isle)
The Transfiguration Cathedral, built in
Vinnytsia in 1758.
Greek Catholic Church at South Bug river.
Baptist Church – reportedly one of the largest Evangelical Church
Buildings in Europe.
TV Tower Vinnytsia
Vaksman family’s real estate, 1915 – Style: Art Nouveau. Address:
24 Chkalov Street. Built by architect Moisey Aaronovitch Vaksman.
Afghan War Museum and War Glory Memorial Park – The Afghan War
Museum is located in the red-brick bell tower. Exhibits include
photos, letters and other artifacts representing
who fought in that war. The Memorial Park contains a large statue
representing three different soldiers from World War II. An eternal
flame burns in front of the statue.
Roshen – Built in 2011 it is considered as one
of the largest floating fountains in Europe. It is the major
multimedia attraction in the city.
Havryshivka International Airport
Havryshivka International Airport (IATA: VIN, ICAO: UKWW) is situated
There is a railway station in Vinnytsia, which is a part of
'South-Western Railway'. In 2013 it was named among 10 biggest railway
Ukraine  Current building of
Vinnytsia railway station
was built in 1952 and considered to be the 4th railway building in
Vinnytsia (previous three were destroyed in different years).
Vinnytsia is an important transport point, both for internal and
external railway connection. Most of the international trains, which
cross through Ukraine, have a stop in Vinnytsia. For example, trains
from Moscow and Saint Petersburg (Russia), Minsk (Belarus), Sofia
(Bulgaria), Chisinau (Moldova), Bratislava (Slovakia), Belgrade
(Serbia), Budapest (Hungary) transit through Vinnytsia. [In
internal railiway connection,
Vinnytsia is also an important transport
point for trains, heading to Western
Ukraine (Lviv, Khmelnytskyi,
Chernivtsi) and to South (Odessa), as well as to Central Ukraine
Vinnytsia railway station, Ukraine
The tram is the most popular public transport in Vinnytsia. There are
six tram routes in
The table of tram routes in Vinnytsia
Number of the route
Route starting and ending point
The railway station (Zaliznychnyi vokzal) - Elektromerezha.
Barske Shose - Vyshynka
Vyshynka - Electromerezha
Barske Shose - the Railway station (Zaliznychnyi vokzal)
Barske Shose - Elektromerezha
The railway station (Zaliznychnyi vokzal) - Vyshynka.
There are a lot of trams in Vinnytsia. The newest ones (blue trams)
are from Switzerland.
Old diesel locomotive TEM2M-063 in
Vinnytsia railway station, Ukraine
There are the central bus station  and the Western bus station in
Modern bus at Western bus station in Vinnytsia
The house where
Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky was born.
Nathan Altman (1889–1970) – avant-garde artist
Sam Born (1891-1959) - confectioner
Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky (1864–1913) – Ukrainian author of novels and
short stories. His home is a museum.
Mykola Leontovych (1877–1921) – Ukrainian composer who worked here
Alexander Lerner (1913–2004) – Soviet-Israeli cyberneticist and
Yuri Levada (1930–2006) – sociologist, political scientist and the
founder of the Levada Center
Jerzy Niezbrzycki (1902–1968) – captain of the Polish Army
Pirogov (1810–1881) – originally from Moscow, this
Imperial Russian doctor, considered to be the founder of field
surgery, spent the later years of his life in Vinnytsia. His home is a
museum and his chapel tomb is open to visitors.
Olga Storozhenko (1992) Miss
Ukraine Universe 2013 & Top 10 Miss
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine
Twin towns — Sister cities
Vinnytsia is twinned with:
Peterborough, England, United Kingdom
Birmingham, Alabama, United States
Bat Yam, Israel
Vinnytsia regional council
The main train station.
The Transfiguration Cathedral in
Glory Memorial and Eternal Flame.
Modernist building, built by architect V.P. Listovichiy.
Medical University in Vinnytsia.
State academic theater.
Savoy Hotel in Vinnytsia
Home stadium of PFC Nyva Vinnytsia.
ROSHEN Factory in Vinnytsia.
FC Nyva Vinnytsia
Werwolf (Wehrmacht HQ)
Werwolf (Wehrmacht HQ) - the codename used for one of Adolf Hitler's
World War II
World War II Eastern Front military headquarters. It was one the most
easterly ever used by Hitler in person.
Harold F. Cherniss, famous American scholar, son of emigrant from
^ Acting mayor Morhunov wins
Vinnytsia election runoff – exit polls,
Ukraine (16 November 2015)
^ a b "Чисельність наявного населення
України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian).
State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 1 July 2016.
^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). May 2011. Retrieved 13 October
^ "Vinnica (Vinnytsia) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
^ Speer, Albert (1995). Inside the Third Reich. London: Weidenfeld
& Nicolson. pp. 328–329. ISBN 9781842127353.
^ "The last
Vinnytsia ". World's famous photos. Archived
from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
^ "43rd Missile Army". Ww2.dk. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
^ KGB Spy Town
^ Author Unknown, (1959, April 27), RUSSIA: Iowa in the Ukraine, 'Time
Magazine', Retrieved from
^ "Small Town Espionage – 1960 Soviet Spy School / CIA Educational
Documentary – WDTVLIVE42". YouTube. 2012-07-20. Retrieved
^ "The national Pirogov's estate museum". Pirogov.com.ua. Retrieved
^ "About fountain :: Europe's largest floating fountain".
Fountainroshen.com. Retrieved 2013-01-05.
Roshen Fountain in Vinnitsa was opened! :: Confectionery
Corporation ROSHEN". roshen.com. Archived from the original on 10 July
2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
^ a b
^ "Розклад Вінницький трамвай". depo.vn.ua
(in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2018-03-26.
Vinnytsia Twin Cities".
^ "Kardeş Şehirler".
Bursa Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın
Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved
Vinnytsia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vinnytsia.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vinnytsya.
Official website (in Ukrainian) (in English)
Administrative divisions of
Administrative center: Vinnytsia
Ukraine (including Crimea) by population
City with special status
City of regional significance
City of district significance
Crimea is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine
(Autonomous Republic of Crimea) and
Russia (Republic of Crimea)
Administrative divisions of Ukraine
Cities with special status
1Claimed and controlled by
Russia as the Republic of
Crimea and the
City of Sevastopol