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Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
(Ukrainian: Ві́нниця, translit. Vinnycja, pronounced [ˈʋinːɪtsʲɐ]; Russian: Ви́нница, translit. Vinnica; Polish: Winnica; German: Winniza, and Romanian: Vinița) is a city in west-central Ukraine, located on the banks of the Southern Bug. It is the administrative center of Vinnytsia Oblast
Vinnytsia Oblast
and the largest city in the historic region of Podillia. Administratively, it is incorporated as a town of oblast significance. It also serves as an administrative center of Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Raion, one of the 27 districts of Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Oblast, though it is not a part of the district. Population: 372,484 (2015 est.)[2] The city's roots date back to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and it was under Polish control for centuries until the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
annexed it in 1793. During 1930s and early 1940s the city was the site of massacres, first during Stalin's purges and then during the Holocaust in Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Nazi occupation. A Cold War-era airbase was located near the city.

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography

2.1 Location 2.2 Climate

3 History

3.1 From Medieval to Early Modern period 3.2 World War II 3.3 Cold War
Cold War
period 3.4 Spy town

4 Education 5 Economy 6 Politics 7 Buildings and structures 8 Transport

8.1 Air 8.2 Railway 8.3 Tram 8.4 Bus

9 Notable people 10 International relations

10.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

11 Gallery 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Name[edit] The name of Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
appeared for the first time in 1363. It is assumed that the name is derived from the old Slavic word "Vino", meaning "given as a gift." This name can be explained by the fact that the Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
and surrounding land were captured by Lithuanian Duke Algirdas
Algirdas
in the 14th century, and then, they were given as a gift to his nephews. [3] Geography[edit] Location[edit] Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
is located about 260 km (160 mi) southwest of the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, 429 km (267 mi) north-northwest of the Black Sea
Black Sea
port city of Odessa, and 369 km (229 mi) east of Lviv. It is the administrative center of the Vinnytsia Oblast
Vinnytsia Oblast
(province), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Raion (district) within the oblast. The city itself is directly subordinated to the oblast. Climate[edit] A long lasting warm summer with a sufficient quantity of moisture and a comparatively short winter is characteristic of Vinnytsia. The average temperature in January is −5.8 °C (21.6 °F) and 18.3 °C (64.9 °F) in July. The average annual precipitation is 638 mm (25 in). Over the course of a year there are around 6–9 days when snowstorms occur, 37–60 days when mists occur during the cold period, and 3–5 days when thunderstorms with hail occur.

Climate data for Vinnytsia, Ukraine

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 11.6 (52.9) 17.3 (63.1) 22.3 (72.1) 29.4 (84.9) 32.2 (90) 35.0 (95) 37.8 (100) 37.3 (99.1) 31.5 (88.7) 28.6 (83.5) 19.9 (67.8) 15.4 (59.7) 37.8 (100)

Average high °C (°F) −1.4 (29.5) −0.3 (31.5) 5.1 (41.2) 13.4 (56.1) 20.1 (68.2) 22.7 (72.9) 24.8 (76.6) 24.3 (75.7) 18.7 (65.7) 12.4 (54.3) 4.7 (40.5) −0.4 (31.3) 12.0 (53.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) −4.1 (24.6) −3.3 (26.1) 1.2 (34.2) 8.3 (46.9) 14.5 (58.1) 17.4 (63.3) 19.2 (66.6) 18.6 (65.5) 13.4 (56.1) 7.8 (46) 1.7 (35.1) −2.8 (27) 7.7 (45.9)

Average low °C (°F) −6.7 (19.9) −6.1 (21) −2.2 (28) 3.7 (38.7) 9.1 (48.4) 12.3 (54.1) 14.1 (57.4) 13.4 (56.1) 8.9 (48) 4.0 (39.2) −0.8 (30.6) −5.2 (22.6) 3.7 (38.7)

Record low °C (°F) −35.5 (−31.9) −33.6 (−28.5) −24.2 (−11.6) −12.7 (9.1) −2.8 (27) 2.5 (36.5) 5.2 (41.4) 1.5 (34.7) −4.5 (23.9) −11.4 (11.5) −24.6 (−12.3) −27.2 (−17) −35.5 (−31.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 29 (1.14) 28 (1.1) 30 (1.18) 45 (1.77) 50 (1.97) 94 (3.7) 86 (3.39) 67 (2.64) 61 (2.4) 31 (1.22) 38 (1.5) 35 (1.38) 594 (23.39)

Average rainy days 7 6 10 13 14 15 15 10 12 11 12 9 134

Average snowy days 16 16 11 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 1 8 14 69

Average relative humidity (%) 85 83 78 68 66 72 72 71 76 80 86 88 77

Mean monthly sunshine hours 58 70 114 171 248 255 267 261 194 132 58 41 1,869

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[4]

Source #2: NOAA (sun only 1961–1990)[5]

History[edit] From Medieval to Early Modern period[edit]

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Historical affiliations

Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
1363–1569 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1569–1672 Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1672–1699 Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
1699–1793   Russian Empire
Russian Empire
1793–1917 Russian Republic
Russian Republic
1917 Various Ukrainian states 1917–1920 Soviet Ukraine
Ukraine
1920–1922   Soviet Union
Soviet Union
1922–1991 (Occupied by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
between 1941-1944)   Ukraine
Ukraine
1991–present

Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
has been an important trade and political center since the fourteenth century, when Fiodor Koriatowicz, the nephew of the Lithuanian Duke Algirdas, built a fortress (1363) against Tatar raiders on the banks of the Southern Bug. The original settlement was built and populated by Aleksander Hrehorovicz Jelec, hetman under Lithuanian Prince Švitrigaila. Aleksander Jelec built the fort, which he commanded as starosta afterwards. In the 15th century, Lithuanian Grand Duke Alexander Jagiellon
Alexander Jagiellon
granted Winnica Magdeburg city rights. In 1566, it became part of the Bracław Voivodeship. Between 1569 and 1793 the town was a part of Poland
Poland
and in this period, for a short time between 1672 and 1699 was a part of the Ottoman Empire. During period of Polish rule, Winnica was a Polish royal city. On March 18, 1783, Antoni Protazy Potocki
Antoni Protazy Potocki
opened in Winnica the Trade Company Poland. After Second Partition of Poland
Second Partition of Poland
in 1793 the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
annexed the city and the region. Russia
Russia
moved to expunge the Roman Catholic religion – Catholic churches in the city (including what is now the Transfiguration Cathedral) were converted to Russian Orthodox churches.

Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
on a 1910s postcard

According to the Russian census of 1897, Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
with a population of 30,563 was the third largest city of Podolia after Kamianets-Podilskyi
Kamianets-Podilskyi
and Uman. World War II[edit] It was occupied by German troops on 19 July 1941 during World War II. In 1943, the invading Germans exhumed almost 10,000 people, mostly male Ukrainians, from mass graves in Vinnytsia.[citation needed] The majority of the executions happened during the Stalinist Great Purge between 1937–1938 in the Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
massacre. Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
sited his easternmost headquarters Führerhauptquartier Werwolf near the town and spent a number of weeks there in 1942 and early 1943.[6] Nazi atrocities were committed in and near Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
by Einsatzgruppe C. Estimates of the number of victims run as high as 28,000. This included the mass murder of the town's large Jewish population who comprised 40% of all inhabitants at the time of the Nazi's invasion. In 1942 a large part of the Jewish quarter of Yerusalimka
Yerusalimka
was destroyed by Germans. One infamous photo, The Last Jew
Jew
of Vinnytsia, shows a member of Einsatzgruppe D about to execute a Jewish man kneeling before a mass grave.[7] The text The Last Jew
Jew
of Vinnytsia was written on the back of the photograph, which was found in a photo album belonging to a German soldier. It was captured by the Red Army on 20 March 1944. Cold War
Cold War
period[edit] Since the end of World War II, Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
has been the home for major Soviet Air Forces
Soviet Air Forces
base, including an airfield, a hospital, arsenals, and other military installations. The headquarters of the 43rd Rocket Army of the Strategic Rocket Forces
Strategic Rocket Forces
was stationed in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
from 1960 to the early 1990s.[8] The 2nd Independent Heavy Bomber Aviation Corps, which later became 24th Air Army, was also stationed in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
from 1960 to 1992. The Ukrainian Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force
Command has been based in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
since 1992.[citation needed] Spy town[edit] In early 1959, Major Per Lindgren, writing in the Swedish military journal "Contact with the Armed Forces" reported that the Soviet Union had built a school in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
for training KGB infiltrators in how to live in the United States. A mock-up of an entire American small town was built, complete with American-style stores, movie theater, houses, restaurants, American vehicles, and a small college campus that served as the classrooms of the school.[9][10] In 1960 the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
created a educational documentary entitled "Spy Town".[11] Education[edit] There are many educational universities and research institutions in Vinnytsia:

Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Institute of Economics and Social Sciences Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
National Medical University, named after M. I. Pirogov Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
National Technical University Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
State Pedagogical University, named after Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky; Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
National Agriculture University Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
European University Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Trade and Economics Institute Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Social Economical Institute Donetsk
Donetsk
National University, evacuated from Donetsk
Donetsk
in 2014 due to armed conflict on the East part of Ukraine

There is also the Regional Universal Scientific Library named after Kliment Timiryazev
Kliment Timiryazev
in Vinnytsia. Economy[edit] Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
is a tourist[citation needed], scientific and industrial center in Ukraine. There are the Roshen
Roshen
confectionery corporation, the Crystal diamond polishing corporation,[12] RPC Fort
RPC Fort
largest Ukrainian firearms manufacturing corporation, Analog corporation,[13] Mayak corporation,[14] Budmash corporation,[15] Agregat corporation,[16] Pnevmatika corporation,[17] etc. The headquarters of the Ukrainian Air Force
Ukrainian Air Force
is situated in Vinnytsia. Politics[edit] Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
is considered the long-time political base for the current Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko. He owns a local confectionery (as part of the Roshen
Roshen
Corporation) and was elected member of parliament from the local constituency for several convocations. However, contrary to some speculations, Poroshenko has never lived in the city. The present Ukrainian Prime Minister Volodymyr Groysman
Volodymyr Groysman
is from Vinnytsia. Buildings and structures[edit]

Play media

Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
Church as seen from South Bug River in Vinnytsia

New Orthodox Church Construction in Vinnytsia

Concert Hall in Vinnytsia

Ukrainian Aviation Monument in Vinnytsia

Mansion-museum[18] of Nikolay Pirogov.

Fountain Roshen[19] is the only one in Ukraine
Ukraine
and the largest floating fountain in Europe, built in the river Southern Buh
Southern Buh
in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
City
City
near Festivalny Isle (Campa Isle)

The Transfiguration Cathedral, built in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
in 1758. The new Greek Catholic
Greek Catholic
Church at South Bug river. Baptist Church – reportedly one of the largest Evangelical Church Buildings in Europe. TV Tower Vinnytsia Vaksman family’s real estate, 1915 – Style: Art Nouveau. Address: 24 Chkalov Street. Built by architect Moisey Aaronovitch Vaksman. Architectural landmark. Afghan War Museum and War Glory Memorial Park – The Afghan War Museum is located in the red-brick bell tower. Exhibits include photos, letters and other artifacts representing Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
soldiers who fought in that war. The Memorial Park contains a large statue representing three different soldiers from World War II. An eternal flame burns in front of the statue. Multimedia Fountain Roshen
Roshen
– Built in 2011 it is considered as one of the largest floating fountains in Europe.[20] It is the major multimedia attraction in the city.

Transport[edit] Air[edit] Havryshivka International Airport
Havryshivka International Airport
(IATA: VIN, ICAO: UKWW) is situated near Vinnytsia. Railway[edit] There is a railway station in Vinnytsia, which is a part of 'South-Western Railway'. In 2013 it was named among 10 biggest railway stations in Ukraine
Ukraine
[21] Current building of Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
railway station was built in 1952 and considered to be the 4th railway building in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
(previous three were destroyed in different years). Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
is an important transport point, both for internal and external railway connection. Most of the international trains, which cross through Ukraine, have a stop in Vinnytsia. For example, trains from Moscow and Saint Petersburg (Russia), Minsk (Belarus), Sofia (Bulgaria), Chisinau (Moldova), Bratislava (Slovakia), Belgrade (Serbia), Budapest (Hungary) transit through Vinnytsia.[21] [In internal railiway connection, Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
is also an important transport point for trains, heading to Western Ukraine
Ukraine
(Lviv, Khmelnytskyi, Chernivtsi) and to South (Odessa), as well as to Central Ukraine (Kiev).

Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
railway station, Ukraine

Tram[edit] The tram is the most popular public transport in Vinnytsia. There are six tram routes in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
(1,2,3,4,5,6).[22]

The table of tram routes in Vinnytsia

Number of the route Route starting and ending point

1 The railway station (Zaliznychnyi vokzal) - Elektromerezha.

2 Barske Shose - Vyshynka

3 Vyshynka - Electromerezha

4 Barske Shose - the Railway station (Zaliznychnyi vokzal)

5 Barske Shose - Elektromerezha

6 The railway station (Zaliznychnyi vokzal) - Vyshynka.

There are a lot of trams in Vinnytsia. The newest ones (blue trams) are from Switzerland.

Old diesel locomotive TEM2M-063 in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
railway station, Ukraine

Bus[edit] There are the central bus station [23] and the Western bus station in Vinnytsia.[24][25]

Modern bus at Western bus station in Vinnytsia

Notable people[edit]

The house where Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky
Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky
was born.

Nathan Altman
Nathan Altman
(1889–1970) – avant-garde artist Sam Born (1891-1959) - confectioner Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky
Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky
(1864–1913) – Ukrainian author of novels and short stories. His home is a museum. Mykola Leontovych
Mykola Leontovych
(1877–1921) – Ukrainian composer who worked here Alexander Lerner (1913–2004) – Soviet-Israeli cyberneticist and dissident Yuri Levada
Yuri Levada
(1930–2006) – sociologist, political scientist and the founder of the Levada Center Jerzy Niezbrzycki (1902–1968) – captain of the Polish Army Nikolai Pirogov (1810–1881) – originally from Moscow, this Imperial Russian doctor, considered to be the founder of field surgery, spent the later years of his life in Vinnytsia. His home is a museum and his chapel tomb is open to visitors. Olga Storozhenko (1992) Miss Ukraine
Ukraine
Universe 2013 & Top 10 Miss Universe 2013

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Ukraine Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
is twinned with:[26]

Kielce, Poland Peterborough, England, United Kingdom Birmingham, Alabama, United States Rîbnița, Moldova

Bursa, Turkey[27] Bat Yam, Israel Panevėžys, Lithuania

Gallery[edit]

Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
regional council

The main train station.

The Transfiguration Cathedral in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
(1758).

Baptist church.

Glory Memorial and Eternal Flame.

Modernist building, built by architect V.P. Listovichiy.

Medical University in Vinnytsia.

State academic theater.

Savoy Hotel in Vinnytsia

City
City
hall

Home stadium of PFC Nyva Vinnytsia.

ROSHEN Factory in Vinnytsia.

See also[edit]

Ukraine
Ukraine
portal

FC Nyva Vinnytsia Roshen Fountain Roshen TIK (band) Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
massacre Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
tram Werwolf (Wehrmacht HQ)
Werwolf (Wehrmacht HQ)
- the codename used for one of Adolf Hitler's World War II
World War II
Eastern Front military headquarters. It was one the most easterly ever used by Hitler in person. Harold F. Cherniss, famous American scholar, son of emigrant from Vinnytsia

References[edit]

^ Acting mayor Morhunov wins Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
election runoff – exit polls, Interfax- Ukraine
Ukraine
(16 November 2015) ^ a b "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 1 July 2016.  ^ http://www.diclib.com/cgi-bin/d1.cgi?l=ru&base=geo_rus&page=showid&id=1223#.V1KMRE2R_IU ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). May 2011. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ "Vinnica (Vinnytsia) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ Speer, Albert (1995). Inside the Third Reich. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 328–329. ISBN 9781842127353.  ^ "The last Jew
Jew
in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
[1941]". World's famous photos. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.  ^ "43rd Missile Army". Ww2.dk. Retrieved 2011-09-16.  ^ KGB Spy Town ^ Author Unknown, (1959, April 27), RUSSIA: Iowa in the Ukraine, 'Time Magazine', Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,811036,00.html ^ "Small Town Espionage – 1960 Soviet Spy School / CIA Educational Documentary – WDTVLIVE42". YouTube. 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2014-07-17.  ^ http://vinnitsakristall.com/ ^ http://zavodanalog.com/ru/o-kompanii.html ^ http://www.termia.com.ua/ ^ http://www.budmash.vn.ua/pro_nas_ua.htm ^ http://www.vzta.com.ua/ ^ http://www.pnevmatica.com.ua/o_kompanii.htm ^ "The national Pirogov's estate museum". Pirogov.com.ua. Retrieved 2014-07-17.  ^ "About fountain :: Europe's largest floating fountain". Fountainroshen.com. Retrieved 2013-01-05.  ^ " Roshen
Roshen
Fountain in Vinnitsa was opened! :: Confectionery Corporation ROSHEN". roshen.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.  ^ a b http://cfts.org.ua/articles/desyat_krupneyshikh_zh_d_vokzalov_ukrainy_2014_goda_667/66829/ ^ "Розклад Вінницький трамвай". depo.vn.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2018-03-26.  ^ http://bus.com.ua/cgi-bin/tablo.pl?as=050100 ^ http://avtobys.in.ua/vinnycka/vinnycja-as-2-zakhidna/ ^ http://bus.com.ua/cgi-bin/tablo.pl?as=050200 ^ " Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Twin Cities".  ^ "Kardeş Şehirler". Bursa
Bursa
Büyükşehir Belediyesi Basın Koordinasyon Merkez. Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved 2013-07-27. 

External links[edit]

Look up Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vinnytsia.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Vinnytsya.

Official website (in Ukrainian) (in English)

v t e

Administrative divisions of Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Oblast

Administrative center: Vinnytsia

Raions

Bar Bershad Chechelnyk Chernivtsi Haisyn Illintsi Kalynivka Khmilnyk Koziatyn Kryzhopil Lityn Lypovets Mohyliv-Podilskyi Murovani Kurylivtsi Nemyriv Orativ Pishchanka Pohrebyshche Sharhorod Teplyk Tomashpil Trostianets Tulchyn Tyvriv Vinnytsia Yampil Zhmerynka

Cities

Regional

Khmilnyk Koziatyn Ladyzhyn Mohyliv-Podilskyi Vinnytsia Zhmerynka

District

Bar Bershad Haisyn Hnivan Illintsi Kalynivka Lypovets Nemyriv Pohrebyshche Sharhorod Tulchyn Yampil

Urban-type settlements Category: Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
Oblast

v t e

Cities in Ukraine
Ukraine
(including Crimea) by population

City
City
with special status City
City
of regional significance City
City
of district significance

1,000,000+

Kiev Kharkiv Dnipro Odessa

500,000+

Donetsk Zaporizhia Lviv Kryvyi Rih Mykolaiv

200,000+

Mariupol Luhansk Makiivka Vinnytsia Simferopol Sevastopol Kherson Poltava Chernihiv Cherkasy Sumy Horlivka Zhytomyr Kamianske Kropyvnytskyi Khmelnytskyi Rivne Chernivtsi Kremenchuk Ternopil Ivano-Frankivsk Lutsk Bila Tserkva

100,000+

Kramatorsk Melitopol Kerch Nikopol Sloviansk Berdiansk Sievierodonetsk Alchevsk Pavlohrad Uzhhorod Lysychansk Yevpatoria Yenakiieve

Crimea
Crimea
is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) and Russia
Russia
(Republic of Crimea)

v t e

 Administrative divisions of Ukraine

Capital: Kiev

Oblasts

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipropetrovsk Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kirovohrad Luhansk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sumy Ternopil Vinnytsia Volyn Zakarpattia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

Cities with special status

Kiev Sevastopol1

Autonomous republic

Crimea1

Administrative centers

Cherkasy Chernihiv Chernivtsi Dnipro Donetsk Ivano-Frankivsk Kharkiv Kherson Khmelnytskyi Kiev Kropyvnytskyi Luhansk Lutsk Lviv Mykolaiv Odessa Poltava Rivne Sevastopol Simferopol Sumy Ternopil Uzhhorod Vinnytsia Zaporizhia Zhytomyr

1Claimed and controlled by Russia
Russia
as the Republic of Crimea
Crimea
and the Federal City
City
of Sevastopol

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 21144647637997600507 GND: 4254197-9 BNF:

.