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Vinkovci
Vinkovci
(pronounced [ʋîːŋkoːʋtsi]) is a city in Slavonia, in the Vukovar-Srijem County
Vukovar-Srijem County
in eastern Croatia. In the 2011 census, the total population of the city was 35,312,[2] making it the largest town of the county. Surrounded by many large villages, it is a local transport hub, particularly because of its railways.

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Geography 4 Demographics 5 Economy and transportation 6 Culture 7 Monuments and Sights 8 Notable natives and residents 9 International relations

9.1 Twin towns — Sister cities

10 Sport 11 See also 12 References

12.1 Bibliography 12.2 Notes

13 External links

Name[edit] The name Vinkovci
Vinkovci
is supposed to come from the common Croatian personal name "Vinko". It was called Cibalae in antiquity. There are several proposed etymologies for "Cibalae". Those who advocate that Illyrian was a satem language generally advocate that it comes from Proto-Indo-European *ghebhel (head), in the sense "hill". Those who advocate the theory that Ilyrian was a centum language generally advocate that it comes from Proto-Indo-European words *kjey (house) and *bel (strong), so that it means "strong house".[3][unreliable source?] History[edit]

Building in the city center

Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
stamp cancelled with the Hungarian name VINKOVCE in 1874.

The area around Vinkovci
Vinkovci
(German: Winkowitz, Hungarian: Vinkovce, Latin: Colonia Aurelia Cibalae, Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Kibelae, Κιβέλαι) has been continually inhabited since the Neolithic period. It was made a municipium (the Roman name for town or city) under Hadrian
Hadrian
and gained the status of Colonia Aurelia Cibalae during the reign of emperor Caracalla.[4][5] It was the birthplace of Roman emperors Valentinian I
Valentinian I
and Valens. The Roman thermal bath is still preserved underground, along with several other Roman buildings located near the center of today's Vinkovci.[6] The 4th century Battle of Cibalae, between the armies of Constantine I
Constantine I
and Licinius, was fought nearby. From 1526 to 1687 it was part of the Ottoman Empire, administratively located in Sirem sanjak (whose seat was in Dimitrofça) within the Budin Eyalet. It was captured by the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
in 1687, which was later confirmed by the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
in 1699. Until 1918, Vinkovci
Vinkovci
(named Winkowcze before 1850)[7] was part of the Austrian monarchy (Kingdom of Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
after the compromise of 1867), in the Slavonian Military Frontier, under the administration of the Brooder Grenz-Infanterie-Regiment N°VII until 1881. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Vinkovci
Vinkovci
was a district capital in the Syrmia
Syrmia
County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. From 1941 to 1945, Vinkovci
Vinkovci
was part of the Independent State of Croatia. From 17 April 1944 the city was heavily bombed by the Allies due to its important position in transportation.[8] Vinkovci Synagogue
Vinkovci Synagogue
was among the largest and the most prestigious synagogues in Croatia. It was destroyed by the government in 1941-42. The city and its surroundings were gravely impacted by the 1991–95 Croatian War of Independence. The city was close to the front lines between the forces of Croatia
Croatia
and the rebel Serbs, but it managed to avoid the fate of nearby Vukovar, which was besieged in the infamous Battle of Vukovar. The eastern sections of the town were substantially damaged by shelling, and the nearby village of Cerić
Cerić
was almost completely destroyed. The most significant destruction in the town center were the town library, which burned down to the ground, the town court, the Catholic and Orthodox churches (the Church of Saints Eusebius and Polion and the Church of Pentecost, respectively), both of its hospitals, the town theatre, two cinemas, and a host of businesses and factories. The Church of Pentecost was dynamited by local Croatian forces as retaliation after rebel Serbs
Serbs
forces severely damaged the local Catholic rectory.[9] In December 1995–96, the Vinkovci
Vinkovci
rail station served as a rail offloading base for the United States Army's 1st Armored Division en route to Županja
Županja
to cross the Sava River into Bosnia during Operation Joint Endeavor.

Hotel Slavonija

Bosut river

The Croatian Ground Army
Croatian Ground Army
has stationed the headquarters of its Armored-Mechanized Guard Brigade at Vinkovci
Vinkovci
barracks. The current brigade was formed in 2007 and it incorporated two former guards brigades (3rd and 5th) as well as several other units formed in the 1990s during the war of independence. Geography[edit] Vinkovci
Vinkovci
is located in the eastern part of the Slavonia
Slavonia
region, 19 km (12 mi) southwest of Vukovar, 24 km (15 mi) north of Županja
Županja
and 43 km (27 mi) south of Osijek. The city lies in a flatland on the Bosut river, at an elevation of approx. 90 metres (300 ft), and has a mild continental climate. Vinkovci is also part of the smaller subregion of Syrmia. It is connected to all main railroad routes in the region, while state roads D46 and D55 connect it to motorways; river Bosut is not a waterway. Nearby villages and adjacent municipalities include Ivankovo, Jarmina, Markušica, Nuštar, Privlaka and Stari Jankovci. Demographics[edit]

Historical populations of Vinkovci

Year Pop. ±%

1857 4,493 —    

1869 5,773 +28.5%

1880 7,315 +26.7%

1890 8,123 +11.0%

1900 9,832 +21.0%

1910 11,670 +18.7%

1921 12,640 +8.3%

1931 16,038 +26.9%

1948 18,633 +16.2%

1953 20,834 +11.8%

1961 25,313 +21.5%

1971 31,605 +24.9%

1981 35,944 +13.7%

1991 38,580 +7.3%

2001 35,912 −6.9%

2011 35,312 −1.7%

Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005 & Popis stanovništva 2011

The city administrative area includes the following settlements:[2]

Mirkovci, population 3,283 Vinkovci, population 32,029

In 2011, it was the 17th largest city in Croatia. By ethnic group, as of census 2011, the population of Vinkovci
Vinkovci
is:[10]

Croats, 92.35% Serbs, 4.87% Hungarians, 0.46% Others, 2.32%

Economy and transportation[edit]

Vinkovci
Vinkovci
railway station

Its economy is primarily based on trade, transport and food and metal processing. Industries include foodstuff, building material, wood and timber, metal-processing, leather and textile. Due to the surrounding farmland, also notable are farming and livestock breeding, and the town hosts a Crop Improvement Centre. Vinkovci
Vinkovci
is the main railway junction of eastern Croatia, of railroads leading from Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
toward Hungary
Hungary
and from the capital Zagreb
Zagreb
toward Belgrade. The large railway junction, after Zagreb
Zagreb
the second largest in Croatia, underlies the importance of transit in Vinkovci. Vinkovci
Vinkovci
is also the meeting point of the Posavina
Posavina
and Podravina
Podravina
roads and the intersection of the main road D55 Županja–Vinkovci– Vukovar
Vukovar
and several regional roads. Vinkovci, though it is spelled Vincovci in the book, and its rail station are featured in Agatha Christie's Murder on the Orient Express as the place near which the Orient Express breaks down. Culture[edit] The town features extremely rich cultural and historical heritage, the most interesting attraction being the pre-Romanesque church on Meraja from 1100, with the coats of arms of the kings Koloman and Ladislas, as one of the most important medieval cultural monuments in Croatia. The building has recently[when?] had the ancient timber beams removed and a new, modern, brick upper section and roof added. The most famous annual event, one of the biggest in Slavonia, is the folk music festival " Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Autumns" (Vinkovačke Jeseni), which includes the folklore show and the presentation of folk customs of Slavonia. It is characterized by a number of original folk music performances, beautiful traditional costumes, a beauty contest, competitions of the manufacturers of kulen (smoked paprika-flavoured sausage), plum brandy and other traditional foodstuffs, and especially by the magnificent closing parade.

The Church of Pentecost in Vinkovci.

Vinkovci's music school Josip Runjanin
Josip Runjanin
is named after the composer of the Croatian national anthem Lijepa naša domovino. The Vinkovci gymnasium is named after Matija Antun Reljković, a Slavonian writer who lived in the city in the 18th century. Monuments and Sights[edit]

Vinkovačke jeseni

Notable natives and residents[edit]

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Goran Bare, rock singer (Majke, Hali Gali Halid) Vanja Drach, actor Mirko Filipović, Kickboxer and Mixed Martial-Arts fighter Mavro Frankfurter, last Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Rabbi Carl Heitzmann, pathologist and dermatologist Lavoslav Kadelburg, lawyer, judge, polyglot and activist Branko Karačić, footballer/manager Mario Kasun, basketballer Josip Kozarac, writer Ivan Kozarac, writer Dubravko Mataković, cartoonist Dina Merhav, Israeli sculptor Eugen Miskolczy, physician Otto Miskolczy, entrepreneur and World War II Partisan Josip Runjanin, composer of Croatian anthem Stjepan Šejić, comic-book author Rade Šerbedžija, actor Erich Šlomović, art collector Josip Šokčević, Croatian viceroy Sava Šumanović, Serbian painter Danijel Ljuboja, Serbian football player Theodoric the Great, ostrogothic ruler and king of Italy Valens, Roman Emperor Valentinian, Roman Emperor

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Croatia Twin towns — Sister cities[edit] Vinkovci
Vinkovci
is twinned with:

Camponogara, Italy Kenzingen, Germany Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia

Koprivnica, Croatia Kőbánya
Kőbánya
(Budapest), Hungary Široki Brijeg, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sport[edit] A local football club still carries the Latin name for Vinkovci, Cibalia. See also[edit]

Vinkovci
Vinkovci
Treasure

References[edit] Bibliography[edit]

Cresswell, Peterjon; Atkins, Ismay; Dunn, Lily (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia
Croatia
(First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SV1V 2SA. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 

Notes[edit]

^ "Vinkovci" (in Croatian). Vukovar-Srijem County. 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-12.  ^ a b c "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Vinkovci". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.  ^ "Croatian toponyms - Linguist Forum". linguistforum.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018.  ^ Report on the Situation of Urban Archaeology in Europe. Council of Europe Publishing. 1999. p. 54. ISBN 978-9287136718. Retrieved 2 November 2017.  ^ "Povijest grada". vinkovci.hr (in Croatian). City of Vinkovci. Retrieved 25 September 2015.  ^ Ivana Iskra Janosic, Urbanization of Cibalae and development of centers for pottery production, Zagreb- Vinkovci
Vinkovci
2001, 31-33, 147-150 ^ Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961. ^ Marica Karakaš. "Saveznička bombardiranja Srijema u Drugome svjetskom ratu" (PDF) (in Croatian, English, and German). Zagreb, Croatia: Political Science Research Centre. Retrieved 2010-08-12.  ^ "Zlo u ratu, dobrota u miru". Novosti (in Serbian) (585). 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2012-04-05.  ^ "Population by Ethnicity, by Towns/Municipalities, 2011 Census: County of Vukovar-Sirmium". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Vinkovci.

Official website (in Croatian)

v t e

Vinkovci

Settlements

Vinkovci Mirkovci

History

Treasure Battle of Cibalae

Buildings and landmarks

Bosut Gymnasium Technical College

Places of worship

Catholic Church

Church of Sts. Eusebius and Polion Church of St. Nicholas Church of Immaculate Heart of Mary Church of St. Vincent Pallotti Church of Sts. Cyril and Methodius Church of The Sacred Heart of Jesus

Serbian Orthodox

Church of Pentecost Church of St. Nicholas Church of St. Panteleimon

Other

Synagogue

Transport

Zagreb- Belgrade
Belgrade
Railway D46 road D55 road

Culture

Vinkovačke jeseni

Sports

HNK Cibalia Stadion HNK Cibalia NK Dilj

v t e

Cities and towns of Croatia
Croatia
by population

100,000+

Osijek Rijeka Split Zagreb

35,000+

Bjelovar Dubrovnik Karlovac Kaštela Pula Samobor Šibenik Sisak Slavonski Brod Varaždin Velika Gorica Vinkovci Zadar

10,000+

Beli Manastir Belišće Benkovac Čakovec Crikvenica Đakovo Daruvar Donji Miholjac Duga Resa Dugo Selo Garešnica Gospić Imotski Ivanec Ivanić-Grad Jastrebarsko Kastav Knin Koprivnica Krapina Križevci Kutina Labin Makarska Metković Našice Nova Gradiška Novi Marof Novska Ogulin Omiš Opatija Petrinja Pleternica Ploče Popovača Poreč Požega Rovinj Sinj Slatina Solin Sveta Nedelja Sveti Ivan Zelina Trogir Umag Valpovo Virovitica Vrbovec Vukovar Zaprešić Županja

v t e

Subdivisions of Vukovar-Srijem County

Towns

Ilok Otok Vinkovci Vukovar
Vukovar
(seat) Županja

Municipalities

Andrijaševci Babina Greda Bogdanovci Borovo Bošnjaci Cerna Drenovci Gradište Gunja Ivankovo Jarmina Lovas Markušica Negoslavci Nijemci Nuštar Privlaka Stari Jankovci Stari Mikanovci Štitar Tompojevci Tordinci Tovarnik Trpinj

.