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Coat of arms

Vilna
Vilna
Governorate (light green), 1843–1915, with modern Lithuania outlined

Capital Vilna

History

 •  Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1795

 •  World War I 1915

Today part of  Belarus  Lithuania

Vilna
Vilna
Governorate (light green), 1795–97, again with modern Lithuania
Lithuania
outlined

Vilna
Vilna
Governorate in 1897

Coat of arms of Vilna
Vilna
Governorate used since 1845

The Vilna
Vilna
Governorate (1795–1915; also known as Lithuania-Vilnius Governorate from 1801 until 1840; Russian: Виленская губерния, Vilenskaya guberniya, Lithuanian: Vilniaus gubernija, Polish: gubernia wileńska) or Government of Vilnius
Vilnius
was a governorate (guberniya) of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
created after the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
in 1795. It was part of the Lithuanian General Governorate, which was called the Vilnius General Governorate after 1830, and was attached to the Northwestern Krai. The seat was in Vilnius
Vilnius
( Vilna
Vilna
in Russian), where the Governors General resided.

Contents

1 History 2 Demographics 3 Subdivisions 4 Governors General residing in Vilnius 5 Ethnic composition 6 See also 7 References

History[edit] The first governorates, Vilnius
Vilnius
Governorate (consisting of eleven uyezds or districts) and Slonim Governorate, were established after the third partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Just a year later, on December 12, 1796, by order of Tsar Paul I they were merged into one governorate, called the Lithuanian Governorate, with its capital in Vilnius.[1] By order of Tsar Alexander I on September 9, 1801, the Lithuanian Governorate was split into the Lithuania-Vilnius Governorate and the Lithuania-Grodno Governorate. After 39 years, the word "Lithuania" was dropped from the two names by Nicholas I.[2] In 1843, another administrative reform took place, creating the Kaunas Governorate (Kovno in Russian) out of seven western districts of the Vilnius
Vilnius
Governorate, including all of Žemaitija. The Vilnius Governorate received three additional districts: Vileyka
Vileyka
and Dzisna from the Minsk Governorate
Minsk Governorate
and Lida
Lida
from Grodno Governorate.[3] It was divided to districts of Vilnius, Trakai, Disna, Oshmyany, Lida, Vileyka
Vileyka
and Sventiany. This arrangement remained unchanged until World War I. A part of the Vilnius
Vilnius
Governorate was then included in the Lithuania District
Lithuania District
of Ober-Ost, formed by the occupying German Empire. During the Polish-Soviet War, the area was annexed by Poland. The Council of Ambassadors
Council of Ambassadors
and the international community (with the exception of Lithuania) recognized Polish sovereignty over Vilnus region in 1923.[4] In 1923, the Wilno Voivodeship was created, which existed until 1939, when the Soviet Union occupied Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland and returned most of the Polish-annexed land to Lithuania. Demographics[edit] In 1834, the Vilnius
Vilnius
Governorate had about 789,000 inhabitants; by 1897, the population had grown to about 1,591,000 residents[5] (37 per square kilometer) The population was 56.1 percent Belarusian, 17.6 percent Lithuanian, 12.7 percent ethnic Jewish and 8.2 percent Polish.[6] Between 1944 and 1946, about 150,000 people, mostly but not all of Polish extraction, left the area for Poland (about 10 percent of this group may have been Lithuanians hoping to escape Soviet rule). Between 1955 and 1959, another 46,000 Poles left Lithuania
Lithuania
(see the Ethnic history of the Vilnius
Vilnius
region). Meanwhile, the Jewish population of the area, just as in the rest of Lithuania, was virtually exterminated by the Nazis during World War II. As of 2001, ethnic Lithuanians once again predominated within the city of Vilnius (59 percent), but the area of the former governorate as a whole remained about 62 percent Polish, with the percentage of Russians (8.6) and Belarusians
Belarusians
(4.4) having dwindled to a tiny minority. Subdivisions[edit]

Uyezds in 1795 Uyezds in 1843

Ashmiany

Braslaw
Braslaw
(since 1835 Novoaleksandrovsk (Zarasai County)) (To Kovno Governorate)

(From Minsk Governorate) Dzisna

Kovno County (To Kovno Governorate)

(From Grodno Governorate) Lida

Rossieny County (To Kovno Governorate)

Shavli County (To Kovno Governorate)

Švenčionys

Telshi County (To Kovno Governorate)

Trakai

Ukmergė (To Kovno Governorate)

Upytė
Upytė
(since 1843 Panevėžys) (To Kovno Governorate)

(From Minsk Governorate) Vileyka

Vilna
Vilna
County

Governors General residing in Vilnius[edit]

Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin
Nikolai Vasilyevich Repnin
(1794–1797) Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov
Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov
(1799–1801) Levin August, Count von Bennigsen
Levin August, Count von Bennigsen
(1801–1806) Alexander Michailovič Rimsky-Korsakov (1806–1830) Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov-Vilensky
Mikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov-Vilensky
(1863–1865) Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman
Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman
(1865–1866) Aleksandr Potapov
Aleksandr Potapov
(1868–1874) Eduard Totleben
Eduard Totleben
(1880–1884) Pyotr Dmitrievich Sviatopolk-Mirskii
Pyotr Dmitrievich Sviatopolk-Mirskii
(1902–1904)

Ethnic composition[edit] Russian authorities periodically performed censuses. However, they reported strikingly different numbers:[7]

Year Total Lithuanians Poles Belarusians Russians Jews Other

1862 838,464 418,880 50% 154,386 18% 146,431 17% 14,950 2% 76,802 9% 27,035 3%

1865 891,715 210,273 24% 154,386 17% 418,289 47% 27,845 3% 76,802 9% 4,120 0%

1883 1,192,000 417,200 35% 281,312 24% 239,592 20%

- 176,416 15% 77,480 7%

1897 1,561,713 274,414 18% 126,770 8% 880,940 56% 75,803 5% 197,929 13% 5,857 0%

1909 1,550,057 231,848 15% 188,931 12% 570,351 37% 408,817 26% 146,066 9% 4,094 0%

See also[edit]

Ethnic history of the Vilnius
Vilnius
region History of Vilnius Poland’s Wilno Voivodeship Byelorussia’s Vileyka
Vileyka
Voblast

References[edit]

^ Kulakauskas, Antanas (2002). "Administracinės reformos". Gimtoji istorija. Nuo 7 iki 12 klasės (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Elektroninės leidybos namai. ISBN 9986-9216-9-4. Archived from the original on 2008-03-03. Retrieved 2008-01-01.  ^ "Литовская губерния". Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary (in Russian). 1890–1906.  ^ Simas Sužiedėlis, ed. (1970–1978). "Administration". Encyclopedia Lituanica. I. Boston, Massachusetts: Juozas Kapočius. pp. 17–21. LCC 74-114275.  ^ Jan Tomasz Gross. Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. Princeton University Press. 2002. p. 3. ^ Vaitiekūnas, Stasys (2006). Lietuvos gyventojai: Per du tūkstantmečius (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas. pp. 79, 92. ISBN 5-420-01585-4.  ^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 6th edition, Vol. 20, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, pp. 655-656. ^ Nikolajew, Christina Juditha (2005). Zum Zusammenhang zwischen nationaler Identitätsbildung und Katholischer Kirche in Litauen (PDF) (in German). Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen. p. 16. 

v t e

Western Krai
Western Krai
Governorates of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
1795–1912

Northwestern Krai

Vilna
Vilna
Governorate Kovno Governorate Grodno Governorate Minsk Governorate Mogilev Governorate Vitebsk Governorate

Southwestern Krai

Volhynia Governorate Podolia Governorate Kiev Governorate Kholm Governorate (from 1912)

v t e

Subdivisions of the Russian Empire

Governorates (List)

Azov¹ *Altai² Arkhangelsk Archangelgorod Astrakhan Belgorod Bessarabia Bratslav Byelorussia Caucasus Chernigov Grodno Finland Iziaslav Ingermanland Irkutsk Kazan Kaluga Kiev (1708) Kiev Kharkov Kherson Kholm Kovno Kolyvan Kostroma Kursk Lithuania Little Russia (1764) Little Russia (1796) Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nikolayev Nizhny Novgorod Novhorod-Siverskyi Novgorod Novorossiysk Olonets Orenburg Oryol Penza Perm *Petrograd² Podolia Polotsk Poltava Pskov Ryazan Samara Saint Petersburg Saratov Siberia Simbirsk Sloboda Ukraine Slonim Smolensk Stavropol Taurida Tambov Tver Tobolsk Tomsk Tula Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Voznesensk Vologda Volhynian Voronezh Vyatka Vyborg Yaroslavl Yekaterinoslav Yeniseysk

Oblasts

Amur Belostok Bessarabia Don Voisko Zabaikalskaya Kamchatka Caspian Kwantung Orenburg Kirgiz Omsk Primorskaya Sakhalin Taurida Tarnopol Turgay Ural Yakut

Oblasts of Stepnoy Krai

Akmolinsk Siberia Kirgiz Semipalatinsk Oblast

Oblasts of Turkestan Krai

Transcaspian Samarkand Semirechye Oblast Syr-Darya Oblast Turkestan Fergana

Caucasus Viceroyalty

Baku Governorate Black Sea Governorate Derbent Governorate Elizavetpol Governorate Erivan Governorate Georgia-Imeretia Governorate Georgia Governorate Kutais Governorate Shemakha Governorate Tiflis Governorate Armenian Oblast Batum Oblast Dagestan Oblast Imeretia Oblast Kars Oblast Kuban Oblast Terek Oblast Black Sea Okrug Sukhum Okrug Zakatal Okrug Ozurget Uyezd

Baltic Governorates³

Courland Livonia Reval Riga Estonia

Governorates of Finland

Abo-Byorneborg Vaza Vyborg Kuopio Nyuland Sankt Mikhel Tavastgus Uleoborg

Governorates of Poland

Avgustov Varshava Kalish Kelets Krakov Lomzha Lyublin Mazovia Petrokov Plotsk Podlasie Radom Sandomir Sedlets Suvalki

Governorates of Galicia

Lvov Peremyshl Tarnopol Chernovtsy

Territories and dependencies

Bukeyev Horde Emirate of Bukhara Kokand Khanate Russian America Uriankhayskiy Krai Khanate of Khiva Zeravshan Okrug

¹ Italics indicates renamed or abolished governorates, oblasts, etc on 1 January 1914. ² An asterisk (*) indicates governorates formed or created with renaming after 1 January 1914. ³ Ostsee or Baltic general-governorship was abolished in 1876.

Coordinates: 54°41′00″N 25°17′00″E / 54.6833°N 25.2833°E

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