Vidarbha is the eastern region of the Indian state of Maharashtra,
Nagpur Division and
Amravati Division. Its former name is
Berar (Varhad in Marathi). It occupies 31.6% of the total area
and holds 21.3% of the total population of Maharashtra. It borders
the state of
Madhya Pradesh to the north,
Chhattisgarh to the east,
Telangana to the south and
Khandesh regions of
Maharashtra to the west. Situated in central India,
Vidarbha has its
own rich, cultural and historical background distinct from rest of
Maharashtra. The largest city in
Vidarbha is Nagpur. A majority of
Varhadi and Zadi dialects of Marathi.
Nagpur region is famous for growing oranges and cotton. Vidarbha
holds two-thirds of Maharashtra's mineral resources and three-quarters
of its forest resources, and is a net producer of power. Vidarbha
has Tadoba Andhari Tiger Project,
Melghat Tiger Reserve, Pench Tiger
Reserve, Bor Wildlife Sanctuary, Navegaon National Park, Nagzira
Wildlife Sanctuary and
Umred Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary, all are
Pench Tiger Reserve
Pench Tiger Reserve is one of the premier
tiger reserves of
India and the only one to straddle across two states
Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
Throughout its history,
Vidarbha has remained much calmer than the
rest of India, especially during the communal troubles; but it is
plagued very much by poverty and malnutrition. It is less
economically prosperous compared to the rest of Maharashtra.
In recent times, there have been calls for a separate state of
Vidarbha, due to perceived neglect from the Government of Maharashtra
and incompetent political leadership in Vidarbha. The living
conditions of farmers in this region are poor compared to
India as a
whole. There have been more than 200,000 farmers' suicides in
Maharashtra in a decade, of which 70% being in the 11 districts of
Vidarbha region. Though rich in minerals, coal, forests and
mountains, this region has mostly remained underdeveloped because of
the continuous dominance of political leadership from the other parts
of the state, especially Western Maharashtra.Though
being culturally, politically and financially different from the rest
of Maharashtra, the calls for a separate state rose to prominence only
when the leaders from this region were sidelined by other political
leaders in the Government of
Maharashtra in recent years.
Statehood demands have not been fulfilled mainly due to the opposition
from a major state political party, the Shiv Sena.
1.1 Ancient period
1.2 Medieval period
1.3 Modern period
5 Language and Culture
6.2 Mineral wealth
10.1 Representation in Lok Sabha
10.2 Representation in Vidhan Sabha
10.3 Separate statehood movement
11 See also
13 External links
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Coin of the Vidarbhas of the Deccan. Uncertain ruler. (1st century
Obv Linear cross with each arm terminating in pellet-in-annulet.
Rev Tree in railing.
Vidarbha was ruled by the
Vakataka dynasty in the 3rd and 4th
centuries BCE. It consists of two branches - The Pravarapura
Nandivardhana and Vatsagulma (now called as Washim) branches. The
Pravarapura Nandivardhana branch ruled from different capitals like
Pravarapura (Paunar) in
Wardha district and Mansar and Nandivardhan
Nagpur district. This branch used to maintain
matrimonial alliances with the Guptas.
The Vatsagulma branch was founded by Sarvasena, the second son of
Pravarasena I after his death.
Sarvasena made Vatsagulma (present-day
Washim) his capital. The territory ruled by this branch was between
the Sahydri Range and the
Godavari River. They patronised some of the
Buddhist caves at Ajanta. Prabhavatigupta was the queen and regent of
the Vākāṭaka Empire. Her father was
Chandragupta II of the Gupta
Empire and her mother was Kuberanaga of the Naga. She married
Rudrasena II of the Vākāṭaka. After his death in 385, she ruled as
regent for her two young sons, Divakarasena and Damodarasena for
twenty years. This region is named after the
Vidarbha Kingdom mentioned in the Mahabharata.
Coin of king
Jagadeva of the Paramaras of Vidarbha, 12th-13th
Nagpur was the capital of the Berar Subah, known as the
Gulshan-e-Berar in the Medieval period from the rule of the Khaljis to
Mughals according to the
Ain-i-Akbari and Alamgir Namah.[citation
needed] report the Berar is hole Fourteen sarkar of Vidarhbha region
and Sawai Shiri Shrimant Santaji
Bhonsle deputy "Sena Sahibe -E-Subah
of Berar and Gondwana. He was the father-in-law of Aurangzeb's
grandson "Bedar Bakht Mirza, son of Mirza Mohammed Azam Shah Emperor
of India, Buland Bakht the king of Gondwana in 1681 deputed by
Aurangzeb Alamgeer Emperor of
India after sultan Chand Shah son of
Buland Bakht After the death of Sultanchand Shah widow wife call
Relative of "Sena Sahib-E-Subah". Raghuji
Bhonsle "I" In 1732 Raghuji
Bhonsle "I"appointed Military officer for collection of revenue and
chauth for sultan chand shah family. Then
Bhonsle dynasty of Marathas
who in the mid-eighteenth century created an independent Hindu
princely state that covered much of east-central India. After their
defeat in the Third Anglo-
Maratha War in 1818, the
were reduced to the
Nagpur division. In 1853 the last Maharaja of
Nagpur died without a male heir and subsequently
Nagpur division was
incorporated into mainstream British India.
Nagpur division became a
part of the British Raj's
Central Provinces in 1861.
Central Provinces and Berar regions of British India.
shown as capital of Central provinces
Amravati division, formerly known as Berar division, was administered
by the Nizam of Hyderabad until 1853. In that year, citing
misgovernance by the Nizam, the British colonial administration took
direct control over the province. Berar was added to the Central
Provinces in 1903.
During India's independence struggle
Nagpur hosted the sessions of
Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress several times.
Sevagram was arguably the
capital of nationalistic
India during the Gandhian era.
After India's independence in 1947,
Central Provinces and Berar became
the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. In 1956
Vidarbha was transferred
Bombay state along with all Marathi-speaking areas. In 1960 Bombay
State was split along linguistic lines into the states of Maharashtra
and Gujarat. Marathi-speaking
Vidarbha became part of the state of
Vidarbha lies on the northern part of Deccan Plateau.
Unlike the Western Ghats, there are no major hilly areas . The Satpura
Range lies to the north of
Vidarbha region in Madhya Pradesh. The
Melghat area of
Amravati district is on southern offshoot of the
Satpura Range. Large basaltic rock formations exists throughout
Vidarbha, part of the 66-million-year-old volcanic Deccan Traps.
Gondia district is unique in
Maharashtra in the sense
that the entire area of the district is occupied by metamorphic rock
Buldhana has the
Lonar crater created by impact of
meteorite or comet. The eastern districts of Gondia, Bhandara,
Nagpur fall in earthquake zone 1, which is considered
safest in India, while other districts fall in zone 2.
Wainganga is the largest of all the
Vidarbha rivers. Other major
rivers that drain
Vidarbha region are the Wardha, and Kanhan rivers
which are all tributaries of
Godavari river. In north, five small
rivers, Khapra, Sipna, Gadga and Dolar along with Purna, are the
Tapti river. Penganga river is another big river which
Buldhana district. Then it flows through Washim
district. There onwards it forms a border between districts, Washim
(Vidarbha) and Hingoli (Marathwada), Yavatmal(Vidarbha) and Hingoli,
Yavatmal(Vidarbha) and Nanded(Marathwada),
Yavatmal and Telangana,
Yavatmal and Chandrapur. After that it meets
Wardha flowing through
Chandrapur district and meets
Wainganga to become Pranhita river which
is a tributary of Godavari. Kas, Kayadhu, Adan, Pus and Arunavati are
main tributaries of Penganga river.
Vidarbha region has 11 districts divided into two divisions (Amravati
Name of Division
Following detailed table shows the districts of Vidarbha, their
Sub-Divisions and Talukas :
Districts and Talukas in Vidarbha
Name of Division
Each district has a collector's office which is responsible for
day-to-day administration. The District Collector is a Central Indian
Government appointee who is in charge of the governance of a district
in a state.
Nagpur city, the largest city in Vidarbha, has a
special civic body, the
Nagpur Improvement Trust, which along with
Nagpur Municipal Corporation is responsible for overall development
and planning activity. Other significant cities like Amravati, Akola
Chandrapur too have their own municipal corporation. The
corporators (representatives) in these civic bodies are elected via
elections. Urban areas are split in different wards and each ward
elects a representative. Rural areas have a panchayat raj system.
Vidarbha has total population of 23,003,179 according to the 2011
census of the government of India.
Hinduism is the predominant
religion in this region.
Buddhism is second most followed religion.
This is unusual compared to the rest of
Maharashtra and even most
north Indian states where usually
Islam is second most followed
religion. The significant following of
Buddhism is due to Neo-Buddhist
movement started by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar.
Religion not stated
Language and Culture
Situated in central India,
Vidarbha has a rich cultural and historical
background distinct from rest of Maharashtra. Even though Marathi
culture is most dominant,
Vidarbha has been a melting pot of Telugu
speaking people from south,
Hindi speaking central
India and tribal
people of Chhattisgarh.
Vidarbha is famous for the Varhādi in
Amravati division and Zadipatti in
Zadipatti is another type of speaking Marathi available in only
Marathi language spoken in the rest of
Maharashtra but it
has some another type of speaking like Puneri [
Pune and area], Ahirani
Khandesh [North of Nashik, Dhule, Jalgaon, Nandurbar], Kolhapuri
[Kolhapur], etc. The
Gadchiroli district of
Vidarbha has a large
population of tribal people.
Hindu festivals like holi, diwali and Dasara are celebrated throughout
the region. There are many prominent cultural and literary
societies working in Vidarbha.
Vidarbha Sahitya Sangh (for development of Marathi), Vidarbha
Rashtrabhasha Prachar Samiti (promotion and spreading Hindi) and
Hindi Sahitya Sammelan (for promoting Hindi). The Nagpur
Central Museum (estb 1863) maintains collections that are mainly from
Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi
Vasudev Vishnu Mirashi (1893–1985) served as the principal of
Aside from cultural distinctness from the rest of Maharashtra,
Vidarbha has evolved historically in a different fashion. Many
Vidarbha as the location of:
The marriage of
Agastya and Lopamudra.
Rukmini-haran (the elopement of
Rukmini with Krishna).
described as the princess of the Vidarbhas king Bhishmak and when she
came to amravati for worship of goddess Ambadevi Lord krishna run with
Rukmini became one of the chief queens of Krishna.
Kundinpur/Kaundinyapur/Kundinapuri, the mythological capital of
Vidarbha has been mentioned in Mahabharata
Rukhmini Udana: The Flight to sri Krishna Reunion by Dr Hemant Bonde
Patil Atlantic publishers & Distributors, India, ISSN
The story of king
Nala and Damayanti, also in the Mahabharata.
Ramayana has the reference of
Vidarbha as one on the Janapadas at that
time. In Ramayana, The Queen Indumatee - Mother of King Dasharath and
the paternal grandmother of Rama, Lakshmana, Bharat and Shatrughna was
the Princess of Vidarbha.
Kalidasa's epic poem "Meghaduta" also mentions
Vidarbha as the place
of banishment of the Yaksha Gandharva.
The ancient 'Vijasan' hill, a Buddhist Monastery was discovered
Vidarbha's economy is primarily agricultural and also the region is
rich in forest and mineral wealth. From a business point of view,
Bhandara Gondia, Chandrapur, Akola, yavatmal,
important cities of Vidarbha.
Nagpur is a central hub for business.
Amravati is well known for film distributors and its cloth markets.
Chandrapur has a thermal power station which is one of the biggest in
India and some other heavy industries such as Paper Industries (BILT
Ballarpur), Steel Industries (MEL from Steel Authority of India,
etc.), Cement Industries (UltraTech Cement, Ambuja Cements, ACC
Limited, Manikgarh Cement, Murli Cement) and numerous Coal Mines.
Nagpur is also a health hub with people from Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh,
Telangana regularly come to
Nagpur for their health needs.
An International cargo hub project, the Multi-modal International
Cargo Hub and Airport at Nagpur, (MIHAN), is being developed at
MIHAN will be used for handling heavy cargo coming
from South-East Asia and Middle-East Asia. The project will also
include a ₹100 billion (US$1.5 billion)
Special Economic Zone
(SEZ) for information technology companies. This will be the
biggest development project in
India so far.
The main cash crops of the region are cotton, oranges and soya beans .
Nagpur is the largest Orange growing district. Traditional crops are
sorghum (jowar), pearl millet (bajra) and rice.
Yavatmal is the
largest cotton growing district.
Bhandara is the largest rice growing
Bhandara ( tumsar) is a Rice city. Recently
has become infamous for a large number of farmer suicides occurring.
On 1 July 2006 the Prime Minister of
Manmohan Singh announced a
Rs. 3,750-crore (Rupees 37.5 billion) relief package for Vidarbha. The
package should help farmers in six districts of the region. However
the package was not welcomed by most financial pundits and the
P Sainath wrote the following in The
criticising the package and saying that it was destined to fail for
sure. Recently it was found that most of the government officials are
involved in corruption of the 'packages' which were announced for
farmers. Government can suspended more that 400 government officials
in this scam.
Bhiwapur is famous for red chillies.
The Chandrapur, Gadchiroli,
Nagpur Districts form the
main mineral belt, with coal and manganese as the major minerals.
Chandrapur district alone contributes 29% of all mineral output of
Maharashtra. Iron ore and limestone are identified as potential
Vidarbha has lagged behind western
industrial growth. Various incentives were granted to attract
industries but have failed. Butibori Industrial Area
Nagpur is one of the largest industrial areas in country but few
industries have actually opened there.
MIHAN an international cargo
hub project is currently underway at Nagpur. The project aims to
exploit the central location of
Nagpur and convert the present airport
into a major freight hub with integrated road and rail connectivity
along with a
Special Economic Zone.
Ballarpur Industries, India's
largest manufacturer and exporter of paper is located in Chandrapur
See also: List of higher education institutions in Vidarbha
Nagpur University at Nagpur
SGBA University at Amravati
Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Agriculture University at Akola
There are many reputed educational institutes in
Vidarbha region. Most
of the higher education institutes in the region are affialiated to
Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj
Nagpur and Sant Gadge
Amravati and Gondwana University, Gadchiroli
and Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola.
Major institutes in
Maharashtra Animal and Fishery
Sciences University, Nagpur, Kavikulaguru Kalidas Sanskrit University,
Ramtek, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur,
Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur, Government College Of
Engineering, Nagpur, Government Polytechnic, Nagpur, Indian Institute
Nagpur and AIIMS, Nagpur.
Cricket is the most popular sport in this region and Nagpur's Vidarbha
Cricket Association Ground (VCA) hosted international cricket
matches now superseded by the
Vidarbha Cricket Association
Stadium, built in 2008 in Jamtha. The
Vidarbha cricket team plays
in the Ranji Trophy.
Entrance of Anand Sagar, Shegaon, Holy place for Hindus and a famous
picnic spot in Vidarbha.
Vidarbha has lush green deciduous forests which are home to a variety
of flora and fauna. These attract a large number of visitors each
year. All of Maharashtra's tiger reserves are located in
Vidarbha. They are
Melghat Tiger Reserve in Amravati
Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve
Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in
Chandrapur district, Umred
Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary in
Nagpur district and Pench Tiger
Reserve in neighbouring state of madhya Pradesh to the north . The
Nagzira wild life sanctuary and Navegoan Bandh National Park (bird
Gondia District are also very popular. Although the
eastern region of the
Vidarbha is poorer in natural resources in
comparison with the west, it contains Maharashtra's oldest National
Park created in 1955, the Tadoba Tiger Reserve spanning
575.78 km2, one of India's 39 Project Tiger Reserves.
The National Park consists of two forested rectangles of the Tadoba
and Andhari range. Aside from around 50 tigers, Tadoba Tiger Reserve
is home to rare Indian wildlife like leopards, sloth bears, gaur, wild
dogs, hyenas, civet and jungle cats, and many species of Indian deer
like sambar, cheetal, nilgai, and barking deer. The Tadoba lake
sustains the Marsh Crocodile, which were once common all over
Maharashtra. Tadoba is also an ornithologist's paradise with a varied
diversity of aquatic birdlife.
Thickly clad hills form the northern and western boundary of the Tiger
Reserve. To the southwest is a huge lake which acts as a buffer
between the park's forest and the extensive farmland which extends up
to Irai Lake.
Adjacent to the core forested hills is the Chichghat valley which
hosts the forest lodge. The Tadoba Tiger Reserve is an undisturbed
forest not crowded by too many tourists. Tadoba Tiger Reserve is open
throughout the year and is at three-hour road journey from the city of
Chikhaldara is a Hill Station and a municipal council in
Amravati district in the state of Maharashtra, India. Featured in the
epic, the Mahabharata, this is the place where Bheema killed the
villainous Keechaka in a herculean bout and then threw him into the
valley. It thus came to be known as Keechakadara—
Chikhaldara is its
corruption. But there's more to Chikhaldara. The sole hill resort in
Vidarbha region, it is situated at an altitude of 1118 m and has
the added dimension of being the only coffee-growing area in
Maharashtra. It abounds in wildlife—panthers, sloth bears, sambar,
wild boar, and even the rarely seen wild dogs. Close by is the famous
Melghat Tiger Project which has 82 tigers. The scenic beauty of
Chikhaldara can be enjoyed from Hurricane Point, Prospect Point, and
Devi Point. Other interesting excursions include Gavilgad and Narnala
Fort, the Pandit Nehru Botanical Gardens, the
Tribal Museum and the
Representation in Lok Sabha
Vidarbha is represented at national level by 10 Lok sabha seats.
Nagpur district which has the highest population density is split into
2 lok sabha seats of
Ramtek while districts with lower
population density like
Gadchiroli are clubbed together.
Amravati seats are reserved for
Scheduled caste candidates
only while Gadchiroli-
Chimur is reserved for Scheduled Tribes.
Representation in Vidhan Sabha
Vidarbha is represented at state level by 62 assembly seats. Nagpur
boasts the densest concentration of assembly seats with the city
divided into 6 areas. Certain seats are reserved for Scheduled Tribe
candidates only, while others are open to all to contest. As part
Nagpur Pact the winter session of
Maharashtra assembly is held
Nagpur Vidhan Bhavan.
Separate statehood movement
1853: After British conquests from Marathas in central India, in 1853
Nagpur Province" was formed with
Nagpur as capital. It was
administered by a commissioner under the central government.
1861: "Central Province" was formed by the British, with
1903: On 1 October Berar was also placed under the administration of
the commissioner of Central Provinces. It was now named as "Central
Province and Berar".
1935: Government of
India Act, passed by British parliament formed
provincial assembly, providing for an election. Central Province and
Berar was kept a separate entity, with
Nagpur as capital.
1950: When constitution of
India went into effect in 1950; Central
Province and Berar became Madhya Pradesh, with
Nagpur as capital.
Vidarbha State" with
Nagpur as capital was recommended by Fazal
Ali commission (appointed in 1953) for reorganisation of states in
1960: On 1 May the "
Vidarbha state", recommended by Fazal Ali
commission for reorganisation of states, was merged with, newly formed
In recent years there have been sporadic calls by its population for
Vidarbha to secede from Maharashtra. This is based on a feeling of
being neglected by the
Maharashtra state government and a desire to
assert a distinct political identity. The region has been seen to have
fallen behind others in
Maharashtra in attracting investment and
development funds, being comparatively poorly served by roads,
irrigation facilities and educational institutions. However political
movements for attaining statehood have failed to hold sway as their
leaders have been considered opportunistic.
Vidarbha Rajya Party and
Vidarbha Rajya Nirman Congress are very small political parties
created by leaders that have split from national level parties like
INC. Only one national party - BJP has officially included demand for
Vidarbha state in its national manifesto.
Vidarbha has total population of 20,630,987 according to the 2001
census of the government of India. Though rich in minerals, coal,
forests and mountains, this region is always underdeveloped primarily
because of lack of agriculture. Tata group started the country's first
textile mill at Nagpur, formally known as Central
India Spinning and
Weaving Company Ltd. The company was popularly known as "Empress
Mills" as it was inaugurated on 1 January 1877, the day Queen Victoria
was proclaimed Empress of India.
Noted politician and economist from
Vidarbha Late Dr. Shrikant Jichkar
opposed separation of
Vidarbha from rest of
Maharashtra based on the
facts that such separation is nonviable for sustenance of Vidarbha. In
the quotes of Dr. Jichkar: ″I do this every time the demand
surfaces. Those who made an issue of it have lost elections. The Shiv
Sena won seats there despite being opposed to
Vidarbha and the BJP
lost despite being in favor of it. If
Vidarbha is hived off, we will
have no funds from day one to run the new State. The region's share is
burdened by a deficit and Monopoly Cotton Purchase Scheme, Employment
Guarantee Scheme and such activity will immediately cease since we
would not have money to pay salaries. All available resources - iron
ore, surplus power generation, forestry - would not be enough. In this
Mumbai - and by implication the rest of the State -
subsidizes Vidarbha's sustenance. ``
Mumbai is the door to the temple
of development and we cannot allow a division of the Marathi-speaking
List of cities in Vidarbha
Proposed states and territories of India
Manav Vikas Mission
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Article regarding environment of
Vidarbha by Dr. Heda
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Berar". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3
(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 763. This
details the history of the province up to 1903, and itself cites
Imperial Gazetteer of India (Oxford, 1908)
State of Maharashtra
Mumbai Second capital: Nagpur
Mumbai Metropolitan Region
Other cities with
Nagpur Second largest: Amravati
Districts of Vidarbha
Kaleshwaram Lift Irrigation Project
Sriram Sagar Project
Neher water system
Devadula lift irrigation scheme
Upper Dudhana Dam
Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects
Pattiseema Lift Irrigation Project
features / regions
Komaram Bheem Asifabad
Languages / people
Godavari Valley Coalfield
Wardha Valley Coalfield
Pench Kanhan Coalfield
Oil / gas fields
Ravva oil field
Khaparkheda Thermal Power Station
Koradi Thermal Power Station
Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station
Warora Power Plant
Vidarbha Power Plant
Nashik Thermal Power Station
Dhariwal Power Station
Nashik Thermal Power Station
Kothagudem Thermal Power Station
Kakatiya Thermal Power Station
Parli Thermal Power Station
NTPC Mauda Super Thermal Power Station
Ramagundam B Thermal Power Station
Tiroda Thermal Power Station
Butibori Power Project
Heavy Water Plant at Manuguru
Shendra – Bidkin Industrial Park
National Highway 6 (India)(old numbering)
Godavari Arch Bridge
Godavari Valley Railways
River basin's sustainable
productivity & ecology
Algal bloom in reservoirs
High alkalinity of river water in the river basin upstream of
Frequent floods in tail end area of the river basin
Alkali salts / high pH water run off from ash / red mud dumps of coal
fired power stations / bauxite ore enrichment
Excessive silting of reservoirs due to deforestation and mining
Godavari Water Disputes Tribunal
Proposed states and territories of India
Awadh (Uttar Pradesh)
Baghelkhand (Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh)
Bhojpur (Uttar Pradesh/Bihar)
Bundelkhand (Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh)
Chola Nadu (Tamil Nadu)
Coastal Andhra (Andhra Pradesh)
Dogradesh (Jammu and Kashmir)
Gird (Madhya Pradesh)
Gondwana (Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh/Odisha)
Gorkhaland (West Bengal)
Harit Pradesh (Uttar Pradesh)
Kamtapur (West Bengal)
Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir)
Kongu Nadu (Tamil Nadu)
Mahakoshal (Madhya Pradesh)
Malwa (Madhya Pradesh)
Male Nadu (Karnataka)
Maru Pradesh (Rajasthan)
Nagalim (Nagaland/Assam/Arunachal Pradesh)
Pandya Nadu (Tamil Nadu)
Panun Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir)
Purvanchal (Uttar Pradesh)
Rayalaseema (Andhra Pradesh)
Tulu Nadu (Karnataka/Kerala)
Vindhya Pradesh (Madhya Pradesh)
Uttarandhra (Andhra Pradesh)
Karbi Anglong (Assam)
Ladakh (Jammu and Kashmir)