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Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is typically termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until later in Victoria's reign. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles mixed with the introduction of Middle Eastern and Asian influences. The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it follows Georgian architecture
Georgian architecture
and later Regency architecture, and was succeeded by Edwardian architecture.

Contents

1 Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
in the United Kingdom

1.1 Other styles popularised during the period

2 International spread of Victorian styles

2.1 Australia 2.2 Sri Lanka 2.3 North America

3 Preservation 4 See also 5 References and sources 6 External links

Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
in the United Kingdom[edit]

Selwyn College, Cambridge

During the early 19th century, the romantic medieval Gothic revival style was developed as a reaction to the symmetry of Palladianism, and such buildings as Fonthill Abbey
Fonthill Abbey
were built. By the middle of the 19th century, as a result of new technology, construction was able to incorporate steel as a building component; one of the greatest exponents of this was Joseph Paxton, architect of the Crystal Palace. Paxton also continued to build such houses as Mentmore Towers, in the still popular English Renaissance
English Renaissance
styles. New methods of construction were developed in this era of prosperity, but ironically the architectural styles, as developed by such architects as Augustus Pugin, were typically retrospective. In Scotland, the architect Alexander Thomson
Alexander Thomson
who practiced in Glasgow was a pioneer of the use of cast iron and steel for commercial buildings, blending neo-classical conventionality with Egyptian and oriental themes to produce many truly original structures. Other notable Scottish architects of this period are Archibald Simpson
Archibald Simpson
and Alexander Marshall Mackenzie
Alexander Marshall Mackenzie
whose stylistically varied work can be seen in the architecture of Aberdeen. While Scottish architects pioneered this style it soon spread right across the United Kingdom and remained popular for another 40 years. Its architectural value in preserving and reinventing the past is significant. Its influences were diverse but the Scottish architects who practiced it were inspired by unique ways to blend architecture, purpose, and everyday life in a meaningful way.

Central Hall of the Natural History Museum, London

Jacobethan
Jacobethan
(1830–1870; the precursor to the Queen Anne style) Renaissance Revival (1840–1890) Neo-Grec
Neo-Grec
(1845–1865) Romanesque Revival Second Empire (1855–1880; originated in France) Queen Anne Revival (1870–1910) Scots Baronial (predominantly Scotland) British Arts and Crafts movement
Arts and Crafts movement
(1880–1910)

Other styles popularised during the period[edit] While not uniquely Victorian, and part of revivals that began before the era, these styles are strongly associated with the 19th century owing to the large number of examples that were erected during that period. Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
usually has many intricate window frames inspired by the famous architect Elliot Rae.[1]

Gothic Revival Italianate Neoclassicism

Palace of Westminster, Neo-Gothic completed in 1870. Designed by Sir Charles Barry
Charles Barry
and August Pugin

Royal Albert Hall, London

The "Red Brick" Victoria Building at the University of Liverpool, completed in 1893 in Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
style. Designed by Sir Alfred Waterhouse

The Victorian Pavilion at The Oval
The Oval
cricket ground in London

Victorian School of Art and Science at Stroud, Gloucestershire

House on the Hardwick House estate near Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk

Manchester Town Hall

The John Rylands Library
John Rylands Library
in Manchester.

The Aston Webb
Aston Webb
building at the University of Birmingham, UK

Victoria Law Courts, Birmingham, UK

The Gilbert Scott Building of University of Glasgow, as viewed from Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow. An example of the Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
style

North of Scotland
Scotland
Bank in Aberdeen by Archibald Simpson
Archibald Simpson
1839–42

Balmoral Castle, completely rebuilt for Queen Victoria, an example of the Scots Baronial style

Walsall
Walsall
Victorian Arcade, UK

Barclays Bank building, Sutton, Greater London

Forth Rail Bridge, Firth of Forth, near Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

Somerville College, Oxford, UK

International spread of Victorian styles[edit]

The China Merchants Bank Building is an example of Victorian architecture found in Shanghai, China

During the 18th century, a few English architects emigrated to the colonies, but as the British Empire
British Empire
became firmly established during the 19th century, many architects emigrated at the start of their careers. Some chose the United States, and others went to Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Normally, they applied architectural styles that were fashionable when they left England. By the latter half of the century, however, improving transport and communications meant that even remote parts of the Empire had access to publications such as the magazine The Builder, which helped colonial architects keep informed about current fashion. Thus, the influence of English architecture spread across the world. Several prominent architects produced English-derived designs around the world, including William Butterfield (St Peter's Cathedral, Adelaide) and Jacob Wrey Mould (Chief Architect of Public Works in New York City). Australia[edit]

Modern skyscrapers on Collins Street, Melbourne
Collins Street, Melbourne
have been deliberately set back from the street in order to retain Victorian-era buildings.

The Victorian period flourished in Australia and is generally recognised as being from 1840 to 1890, which saw a gold rush and population boom during the 1880s in the state of Victoria. There were fifteen styles that predominated:[2]

Victorian Georgian Victorian Regency Egyptian

Academic Classical Free Classical Filigree

Mannerist Second Empire Italianate

Romanesque Tudor Academic Gothic

Free Gothic Rustic Gothic Carpenter Gothic

The Arts and Crafts style and Queen Anne style are considered to be part of the Federation Period, from 1890 to 1915.[3]

Melbourne's world heritage Royal Exhibition Building, built in 1880 (Free Classical)

Hotel Windsor, 1885

Rialto Building, Melbourne, built during the land boom of 1888 (Free Gothic)

Winahra, Mayfield, New South Wales
Mayfield, New South Wales
(Filigree/Italianate)

St Peters Cathedral, Adelaide, South Australia
Adelaide, South Australia
(Gothic Revival)

Chastleton Mansion, Toorak, Victoria
Toorak, Victoria
(Italianate)

Ruessdale, 1868, High Victorian, Glebe Point, New South Wales

Town Hall, Sydney from The Powerhouse Museum Collection (Second Empire)

Former General Post Office, Martin Place, Sydney
Martin Place, Sydney
(Free Classical)

Sri Lanka[edit] During the British colonial period of British Ceylon: Sri Lanka Law College, Sri Lanka College of Technology
Technology
and the Galle Face Hotel. North America[edit]

The Painted Ladies
Painted Ladies
are an example of Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
found in San Francisco, California

In the United States, 'Victorian' architecture generally describes styles that were most popular between 1860 and 1900. A list of these styles most commonly includes Second Empire (1855–85), Stick-Eastlake
Stick-Eastlake
(1860–ca. 1890), Folk Victorian
Folk Victorian
(1870-1910), Queen Anne (1880–1910), Richardsonian Romanesque
Richardsonian Romanesque
(1880–1900), and Shingle (1880–1900). As in the United Kingdom, examples of Gothic Revival and Italianate
Italianate
continued to be constructed during this period, and are therefore sometimes called Victorian. Some historians classify the later years of Gothic Revival
Gothic Revival
as a distinctive Victorian style named High Victorian Gothic. Stick-Eastlake, a manner of geometric, machine-cut decorating derived from Stick and Queen Anne, is sometimes considered a distinct style. On the other hand, terms such as "Painted Ladies" or "gingerbread" may be used to describe certain Victorian buildings, but do not constitute a specific style. The names of architectural styles (as well as their adaptations) varied between countries. Many homes combined the elements of several different styles and are not easily distinguishable as one particular style or another.

Victorian facades on 16th Street, San Francisco

In the United States of America, notable cities which developed or were rebuilt largely during this era include Alameda, Astoria, Albany, Deal, Troy, Philadelphia, Boston, the Brooklyn Heights
Brooklyn Heights
and Victorian Flatbush sections of New York City, Buffalo, Rochester, Chicago, Columbus, Detroit, Eureka, Galena, Galveston, Grand Rapids, Baltimore, Jersey City/Hoboken, Cape May, Louisville, Cincinnati, Atlanta, Milwaukee, New Orleans, Pittsburgh, Richmond, Saint Paul, Midtown in Sacramento, and Angelino Heights in Los Angeles. San Francisco is well known for its extensive Victorian architecture, particularly in the Haight-Ashbury, Lower Haight, Alamo Square, Noe Valley, Castro, Nob Hill, and Pacific Heights
Pacific Heights
neighborhoods. The extent to which any one is the "largest surviving example" is debated, with numerous qualifications. The Distillery District
Distillery District
in Toronto, Ontario contains the largest and best preserved collection of Victorian-era industrial architecture in North America.[citation needed] Cabbagetown is the largest and most continuous Victorian residential area in North America.[citation needed] Other Toronto Victorian neighbourhoods include The Annex, Parkdale, and Rosedale. In the USA, the South End of Boston
Boston
is recognized by the National Register of Historic Places as the oldest and largest Victorian neighborhood in the country.[4][5] Old Louisville
Old Louisville
in Louisville, Kentucky also claims to be the nation's largest Victorian neighborhood.[6][7] Richmond, Virginia
Richmond, Virginia
is home to several large Victorian neighborhoods, the most prominent being The Fan. The Fan district is best known locally as Richmond's largest and most 'European' of Richmond's neighborhoods and nationally as the largest contiguous Victorian neighborhood in the United States.[8] The Old West End neighborhood of Toledo, Ohio
Toledo, Ohio
is recognized as the largest collection of late Victorian and Edwardian homes in the United States, east of the Mississippi.[9] Summit Avenue in Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul, Minnesota
has the longest line of Victorian homes in the country. Over-The-Rhine
Over-The-Rhine
in Cincinnati, Ohio
Cincinnati, Ohio
has the largest collection of early Victorian Italianate architecture
Italianate architecture
in the United States,[10][11][12] and is an example of an intact 19th-century urban neighborhood.[13] The photo album L'Architecture Americaine by Albert Levy published in 1886 is perhaps the first recognition in Europe of the new forces emerging in North American architecture.[14]

Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Philadelphia, by Frank Furness

Allegheny County Courthouse, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, by Henry Hobson Richardson

The California Southern Railroad's San Diego passenger terminal, built in 1887

Banff Springs Hotel, Banff National Park, Alberta, built in 1888

Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Bridge, 1883, New York City

The Carson Mansion
Carson Mansion
in Eureka, California, widely considered one of the highest executions of American Queen Anne Style, built 1884-86

John Steinbeck's childhood home in Salinas, California

Emlen Physick Estate
Emlen Physick Estate
in Cape May Historic District, New Jersey, by Frank Furness

The Saitta House, Dyker Heights, Brooklyn, New York built in 1899 is designed in the Queen Anne Style[15]

This is an 1880s photo of 653 W Wrightwood (now 655 W Wrightwood) in the Lincoln Park
Lincoln Park
neighborhood of Chicago, Illinois

The Italianate
Italianate
style Farnam Mansion
Farnam Mansion
in Oneida, New York. Built circa 1862

James J. Hill House
James J. Hill House
in St. Paul, MN, built in 1891

Victorian gazebo in Ohio

Series of Italianate
Italianate
tenements in Over-The-Rhine, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Ford Piquette Avenue Plant, Detroit, Michigan, built 1904.

Preservation[edit] Efforts to preserve landmarks of Victorian architecture
Victorian architecture
are ongoing and are often led by the Victorian Society. A recent campaign the group has taken on is the preservation of Victorian gasometers after utility companies announced plans to demolish nearly 200 of the now-outdated structures.[16] See also[edit]

architecture portal

Victorian decorative arts Victorian house Victorian restoration Folk Victorian Albert Levy (photographer) Georgian architecture

References and sources[edit]

References

^ "Old Windows". howoldismyhouse.co.uk.  ^ Apperly, Irving & Reynolds 1994, pp. 40-97. ^ Apperly, Irving & Reynolds 1994, pp. 132-143. ^ "South End Realty Community". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16.  ^ "South End Historical Society". South End Historical Society.  ^ "Louisville Facts & Firsts". LouisvilleKy.gov. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  ^ "What is Old Louisville?". Old Louisville
Old Louisville
Guide. Retrieved 2009-12-14.  ^ "The Fan District
Fan District
- Great Public Spaces- Project for Public Spaces (PPS)".  ^ Stine, L. (2005) Historic Old West End Toledo, Ohio. Bookmasters. ^ Quinlivan (2001) ^ http://cincinnati.com/blogs/developingnow/2012/01/04/demolition-begins-in-over-the-rhine/ ^ Lonely Planet (14 January 2016). "Top 10 US travel destinations for 2012". Lonely Planet.  ^ Over-the-Rhine Chamber of Commerce, Over-the-Rhine Historical Sites ^ Lewis 1975. ^ " Saitta House
Saitta House
- Report Part 1",DykerHeightsCivicAssociation.com ^ Sean O'Hagan, Gasworks wonders…, The Guardian, 14 June 2015.

Apperly, Richard; Irving, Robert; Reynolds, Peter L. (1994). A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Australian Architecture: Styles and Terms from 1788 to the Present. Angus & Robertson. ISBN 978-0-207-18562-5.  Dixon, Roger; Muthesius, Stefan (1978). Victorian Architecture: With a Short Dictionary of Architects and 251 Illustrations. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-18163-8.  Lewis, Arnold (1975). American Victorian architecture: a survey of the 70's and 80's in contemporary photographs. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-23177-8.  Prentice, Helaine K. (1986). Rehab Right. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-0-89815-172-5. , includes descriptions of different Victorian and early-20th-century architectural styles common in the San Francisco Bay Area, particularly Oakland, and detailed instructions for repair and restoration of details common to older house styles.

External links[edit]

History and Style of Victorian Architecture and Hardware Manchester, a Victorian City Photographs of Victorian Homes in Hamilton, Ontario Canada Victorian era
Victorian era
architecture in San Francisco, California Victorian era
Victorian era
architecture and history in Buffalo, New York Architectural influences on Victorian style Victorian churches blog

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