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The Venera
Venera
(Russian: Венера, pronounced [vʲɪˈnʲɛrə]) series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera
Venera
being the Russian name for Venus. As with some of the Soviet Union's other planetary probes, the later versions were launched in pairs with a second vehicle being launched soon after the first of the pair. Ten probes from the Venera
Venera
series successfully landed on Venus
Venus
and transmitted data from the surface of Venus, including the two Vega program and Venera-Halley probes. In addition, thirteen Venera
Venera
probes successfully transmitted data from the atmosphere of Venus. Among the other results, probes of the series became the first human-made devices to enter the atmosphere of another planet ( Venera
Venera
4 on October 18, 1967), to make a soft landing on another planet (Venera 7 on December 15, 1970), to return images from the planetary surface ( Venera 9
Venera 9
on June 8, 1975), and to perform high-resolution radar mapping studies of Venus
Venus
( Venera 15
Venera 15
on June 2, 1983). The later probes in the Venera
Venera
series successfully carried out their mission, providing the first direct observations of the surface of Venus. Since the surface conditions on Venus
Venus
are extreme, the probes only survived on the surface for durations varying between 23 minutes (initial probes) up to about 2 hours (final probes).

Contents

1 The Venera
Venera
probes

1.1 Venera 1
Venera 1
and 2 1.2 Venera 3
Venera 3
to 6 1.3 Venera
Venera
7 1.4 Venera
Venera
8 1.5 Venera 9
Venera 9
to 12 1.6 Venera 13
Venera 13
and 14 1.7 Veneras 15 and 16 1.8 Vega probes

2 Scientific findings 3 Venera
Venera
camera successes and failures 4 Types of Venera
Venera
probes 5 Flight data for all Venera
Venera
missions 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

The Venera
Venera
probes[edit] Venera 1
Venera 1
and 2[edit] Main articles: Venera 1
Venera 1
and Venera
Venera
2

Full-scale model of the Venera 1
Venera 1
in the Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics

The first Soviet attempt at a flyby probe to Venus
Venus
was launched on February 4, 1961, but failed to leave Earth
Earth
orbit. In keeping with the Soviet policy at that time of not announcing details of failed missions, the launch was announced under the name Tyazhely Sputnik ("Heavy Satellite"). It is also known as Venera
Venera
1VA.[1] Venera 1
Venera 1
and Venera 2
Venera 2
were intended as fly-by probes to fly past Venus without entering orbit. Venera 1
Venera 1
was launched on February 12, 1961. Telemetry on the probe failed seven days after launch. It is believed to have passed within 100,000 km (62,000 mi) of Venus
Venus
and remains in heliocentric orbit. Venera 2
Venera 2
launched on November 12, 1965, but also suffered a telemetry failure after leaving Earth
Earth
orbit. Several other failed attempts at Venus
Venus
flyby probes were launched by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the early 1960s,[2][3] but were not announced as planetary missions at the time, and hence did not officially receive the "Venera" designation. Venera 3
Venera 3
to 6[edit] Main articles: Venera
Venera
3, Venera
Venera
4, Venera
Venera
5, and Venera
Venera
6

Venera
Venera
station liquid based engine.

The Venera 3
Venera 3
to 6 probes were similar. Weighing approximately one ton, and launched by the Molniya-type booster rocket, they included a cruise "bus" and a spherical atmospheric entry probe. The probes were optimised for atmospheric measurements, but not equipped with any special landing apparatus. Although it was hoped they would reach the surface still functioning, the first probes failed almost immediately, thereby disabling data transmission to Earth. Venera 3
Venera 3
became the first human-made object to impact another planet's surface as it crash-landed on March 1, 1966. However, as the spacecraft's dataprobes had failed upon atmospheric penetration, no data from within the Venusian boundary were retrieved from the mission. On 18 October 1967, Venera 4
Venera 4
became the first spacecraft to measure the atmosphere of another planet. While the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
initially claimed the craft reached the surface intact, re-analysis including atmospheric occultation data from the American Mariner 5
Mariner 5
spacecraft that flew by Venus
Venus
the day after its arrival demonstrated that Venus's surface pressure was 75-100 atmospheres, much higher than Venera
Venera
4's 25 atm hull strength, and the claim was retracted. Realizing the ships would be crushed before reaching the surface, the Soviets launched Venera 5
Venera 5
and Venera 6
Venera 6
as atmospheric probes. Designed to jettison nearly half their payload prior to entering the planet's atmosphere, these craft recorded 53 and 51 minutes of data, respectively, while slowly descending by parachute before their batteries failed. Venera
Venera
7[edit] Main article: Venera
Venera
7 The Venera 7
Venera 7
probe was the first one designed to survive Venus
Venus
surface conditions and to make a soft landing. Massively overbuilt to ensure survival, it had few experiments on board, and scientific output from the mission was further limited due to an internal switchboard failure which stuck in the "transmit temperature" position. Still, the control scientists succeeded in extrapolating the pressure (90 atm) from the temperature data with 465 °C (869 °F), which resulted from the first direct surface measurements. The Doppler measurements of the Venera 4
Venera 4
to 7 probes were the first evidence of the existence of high-speed zonal winds (up to 100 metres per second (330 ft/s) or 362 kilometres per hour (225 mph)) in the Venusian atmosphere (super rotation). Venera
Venera
7's parachute failed shortly before landing very close to the surface. It impacted at 17 metres per second (56 ft/s) and toppled over, but survived. Due to the resultant antenna misalignment, the radio signal was very weak, but was detected (with temperature telemetry) for 23 more minutes before its batteries expired. Thus, it became, on 15 December 1970, the first human-made probe to transmit data from the surface of Venus. Venera
Venera
8[edit] Main article: Venera
Venera
8 Venera 8
Venera 8
was equipped with an extended set of scientific instruments for studying the surface (gamma-spectrometer etc.). The cruise bus of Venera 7
Venera 7
and 8 was similar to that of earlier ones, with the design ascending to the Zond 3
Zond 3
mission. The lander transmitted data during the descent and landed in sunlight. It measured the light level but had no camera. It continued to send back data for almost an hour. Venera 9
Venera 9
to 12[edit] Main articles: Venera
Venera
9, Venera
Venera
10, Venera
Venera
11, and Venera
Venera
12 The Venera 9
Venera 9
to 12 probes were of a different design. They weighed approximately five tons and were launched by the powerful Proton booster. They included a transfer and relay bus that had engines to brake into Venus
Venus
orbit ( Venera 9
Venera 9
and 10, 15 and 16) and to serve as receiver and relay for the entry probe's transmissions. The entry probe was attached to the top of the bus in a spherical heat shield. The probes were optimized for surface operations with an unusual looking design that included a spherical compartment to protect the electronics from atmospheric pressure and heat for as long as possible. Beneath this was a shock absorbing "crush ring" for landing. Above the pressure sphere was a cylindrical antenna structure and a wide dish shaped structure that resembled an antenna but was actually an aerobrake. They were designed to operate on the surface for a minimum of 30 minutes. Instruments varied on different missions, but included cameras and atmospheric and soil analysis equipment. All four landers had problems with some or all of their camera lens caps not releasing. The Venera 9
Venera 9
lander operated for at least 53 minutes and took pictures with one of two cameras; the other lens cap did not release. The Venera 10
Venera 10
lander operated for at least 65 minutes and took pictures with one of two cameras; the other lens cap did not release. The Venera 11
Venera 11
lander operated for at least 95 minutes but neither cameras' lens caps released. The Venera 12
Venera 12
lander operated for at least 110 minutes but neither cameras' lens caps released. Venera 13
Venera 13
and 14[edit] Main articles: Venera 13
Venera 13
and Venera
Venera
14

Model of a lander Venera

The descent craft/lander contained most of the instrumentation and electronics, and was topped by an antenna. The design was similar to the earlier Venera
Venera
9–12 landers. They carried instruments to take scientific measurements of the ground and atmosphere once landed, including cameras, a microphone, a drill and surface sampler, and a seismometer. They also had instruments to record electric discharges during its descent phase through the Venusian atmosphere. The two descent craft landed about 950 km (590 mi) apart, just east of the eastern extension of an elevated region known as Phoebe Regio. The Venera 13
Venera 13
lander survived for 127 minutes, and the Venera 14
Venera 14
lander for 57 minutes, where the planned design protection of craft/lander was only 32 minutes. The Venera 14
Venera 14
craft had the misfortune of ejecting the camera lens cap directly under the surface compressibility tester arm, and returned information for the compressibility of the lens cap rather than the surface. The descent vehicles transmitted data to the buses, which acted as data relays as they flew by Venus. Veneras 15 and 16[edit] Main articles: Venera 15
Venera 15
and Venera
Venera
16

Radar
Radar
topography obtained by Venera
Venera
15/16

Venera 15
Venera 15
and 16 were similar to previous probes, but replaced the entry probes with surface imaging radar equipment. Radar
Radar
imaging was necessary to image radar make image when if is possible pass the dense cloud of Venus. Vega probes[edit] Main article: Vega program The Vega (Cyrillic: ВеГа) probes to Venus
Venus
and comet 1/P Halley launched in 1985 also used this basic Venera
Venera
design, including landers but also atmospheric balloons which relayed data for about two days. "Vega" is an agglutination of the words "Venera" ( Venus
Venus
in Russian) and "Gallei" (Halley in Russian). Scientific findings[edit] There were many scientific findings about Venus
Venus
from the data retrieved by the Venera
Venera
probes. For example, after analyzing the radar images returned from Venera 15
Venera 15
and 16, it was concluded that the ridges and grooves on the surface of Venus
Venus
were the result of tectonic deformations.[4] Venera
Venera
camera successes and failures[edit] The Venera 9
Venera 9
and 10 landers had two cameras each. Only one functioned because the lens covers failed to separate from the second camera on each lander. The design was changed for Venera 11
Venera 11
and 12, but this change made the problem worse and all cameras failed on those missions. Venera 13
Venera 13
and 14 were the only landers on which all cameras worked properly; although unfortunately, the titanium lens cap on Venera 14
Venera 14
landed precisely on the area which was targeted by the soil compression probe. The external link at the bottom of the page shows all lander imagery. Types of Venera
Venera
probes[edit]

Venera
Venera
program probe types[5]

Model Type First Launch Last Launch Missions (success / total) Launch Vehicle Mass Equipment

1VA Impact 04/02/1961 12/02/1961 0/2 Molniya 643.5 kg (1,419 lb) 5 Scientific instruments

2MV-1 Flyby and Atmospheric probe 25/08/1962 01/09/1962 0/2 Molniya 1,097 kg (2,418 lb) 11 Scientific instruments

2MV-2 Flyby 12/09/1962 12/09/1962 0/1 Molniya 890 kg (1,960 lb) 10 Scientific instruments

3MV-1 and 1A Flyby 19/02/1964 02/04/1964 0/3 Molniya 800 kg (1,800 lb) (1A) and 948 kg (2,090 lb) 10 Scientific instruments

3MV-4 Flyby 12/11/1965 23/11/1965 0/2 Molniya-M 963 kg (2,123 lb) 11 Scientific instruments

3MV-3 Atmospheric probe and Lander 16/11/1965 16/11/1965 0/1 Molniya-M 958 kg (2,112 lb) 10 Scientific instruments

1V Atmospheric probe and Lander 12/06/1967 17/06/1967 1/2 Molniya-M 1,106 kg (2,438 lb) 8 Scientific instruments

2V Atmospheric probe and Lander 05/01/1969 10/01/1969 2/2 Molniya-M 1,130 kg (2,490 lb) 8 Scientific instruments

3V Atmospheric probe and Lander 17/08/1970 31/03/1972 2/4 Molniya-M 1,180 kg (2,600 lb) 5 or 9 Scientific instruments

4V-1 and 1M Orbiter and Lander 22/10/1975 04/11/1981 6/6 Proton-K 4,363 kg (9,619 lb) 5,033 kg (11,096 lb) 16 and 21 Scientific instruments

4V-2 orbiteur 02/06/1983 07/06/1983 2/2 Proton-K 5,250 kg (11,570 lb) 5,300 kg (11,700 lb) 7 Scientific instruments with radar

Flight data for all Venera
Venera
missions[edit]

Name Mission Launch Arrival Survival time min Results Orbiter or probe (flyby, atmospheric) Lander coordin.

1VA (proto-Venera) Flyby February 4, 1961 N/A N/A Failed to leave earth orbit

N/A

Venera
Venera
1 Flyby February 12, 1961 N/A N/A Communications lost en route to Venus

N/A

Venera
Venera
2MV-1 No.1 Atmospheric probe August 25, 1962 N/A N/A Escape stage failed; Re-entered three days later

N/A

Venera
Venera
2MV-1 No.2 Atmospheric probe September 1, 1962 N/A N/A Escape stage failed; Re-entered five days later

N/A

Venera
Venera
2MV-2 No.1 Flyby September 12, 1962 N/A N/A Third stage exploded; Spacecraft destroyed

N/A

Venera
Venera
3MV-1 No.2 Flyby February 19, 1964 N/A N/A Did not reach parking orbit

N/A

Kosmos 27 Flyby March 27, 1964 N/A N/A Escape stage failed

N/A

Venera
Venera
2 Flyby November 12, 1965 N/A N/A Communications lost just before arrival

N/A

Venera
Venera
3 Atmospheric probe November 16, 1965 N/A N/A Communications lost just before atmospheric entry. This was the first manmade object to land on another planet on March 1966 (crash). Probable landing region: -20° to 20° N, 60° to 80° E.

N/A

Kosmos 96 Atmospheric probe November 23, 1965 N/A N/A Failed to leave Earth
Earth
orbit and reentered the atmosphere. Believed by some researchers to have crashed near Kecksburg, Pennsylvania, USA on December 9, 1965, an event which became known as the "Kecksburg Incident" among UFO
UFO
researchers. All Soviet spacecraft that never left Earth
Earth
orbit, were customarily renamed "Kosmos" regardless of the craft's intended mission. The name is also given to other Soviet/Russian spacecraft that are intended to—and do reach Earth orbit.

N/A

Venera
Venera
4 Atmospheric probe June 12, 1967 October 18, 1967 N/A The first probe to enter another planet's atmosphere and return data. Although it did not transmit from the surface, this was the first interplanetary broadcast of any probe. Landed somewhere near latitude 19° N, longitude 38° E.

N/A

Kosmos 167 Atmospheric probe June 17, 1967 N/A N/A Escape stage failed; Re-entered eight days later

N/A

Venera
Venera
5 Atmospheric probe January 5, 1969 May 16, 1969 53* Successfully returned atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure within 26 kilometres (16 mi) of the surface. Landed at 3° S, 18° E.

N/A

Venera
Venera
6 Atmospheric probe January 10, 1969 May 17, 1969 51* Successfully returned atmospheric data before being crushed by pressure within 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) of the surface. Landed at 5° S, 23° E.

N/A

Venera
Venera
7 Lander August 17, 1970 December 15, 1970 23 The first successful landing of a spacecraft on another planet, and the first broadcast from another planet's surface. Survived for 23 minutes before succumbing to heat and pressure.

5°S 351°E / 5°S 351°E / -5; 351

Kosmos 359 Lander August 22, 1970 N/A N/A Escape stage failed; Ended up in an elliptical Earth
Earth
orbit N/A N/A

Venera
Venera
8 Lander March 27, 1972 July 22, 1972 50 Landed within a 150 kilometres (93 mi) radius of 10.70° S, 335.25° E.

10°S 335°E / 10°S 335°E / -10; 335

Kosmos 482 Probe March 31, 1972 N/A N/A Escape stage exploded during Trans- Venus
Venus
injection; Some pieces re-entered and others remained in Earth
Earth
orbit N/A N/A

Venera
Venera
9 Orbiter and Lander June 8, 1975 October 22, 1975 53 Sent back the first (black and white) images of Venus' surface. Landed within a 150 kilometres (93 mi) radius of 31.01° N, 291.64° E.

31°N 291°E / 31°N 291°E / 31; 291

Venera
Venera
10 Orbiter and Lander June 14, 1975 October 25, 1975 65 Landed within a 150 kilometres (93 mi) radius of 15.42° N, 291.51° E.

15°42′N 291°51′E / 15.700°N 291.850°E / 15.700; 291.850

Venera
Venera
11 Flyby and Lander September 9, 1978 December 25, 1978 95 The lander arrived, but the imaging systems failed.

14°S 299°E / 14°S 299°E / -14; 299

Venera
Venera
12 Flyby and Lander September 14, 1978 December 21, 1978 110 The lander recorded what is thought to be lightning.

07°S 294°E / 7°S 294°E / -7; 294

Venera
Venera
13 Flyby and Lander October 30, 1981 March 1, 1982 127 Returned the first colour images of Venus' surface, and discovered leucite basalt in a soil sample using a spectrometer.

07°05′S 303°00′E / 7.083°S 303.000°E / -7.083; 303.000

Venera
Venera
14 Flyby and Lander November 14, 1981 March 5, 1982 57 A soil sample revealed tholeiitic basalt (similar to that found on Earth's mid-ocean ridges).

13°25′S 310°00′E / 13.417°S 310.000°E / -13.417; 310.000

Venera
Venera
15 Orbiter June 2, 1983 October 10, 1983 N/A Mapped (along with Venera
Venera
16) the northern hemisphere down to 30 degrees from North (resolution 1-2 km)

N/A

Venera
Venera
16 Orbiter June 7, 1983 October 14, 1983 N/A Mapped (along with Venera
Venera
15) the northern hemisphere down to 30 degrees from North (resolution 1-2 km)

N/A

Vega 1 Flyby and Lander December 15, 1984 June 11, 1985 N/A Part of the Vega program. The vessel was en route to Halley's Comet. During entry into atmosphere, the surface instruments began work early, and the lander failed. See Vega 1.

07°05′N 177°07′E / 7.083°N 177.117°E / 7.083; 177.117

Vega 2 Flyby and Lander December 21, 1984 June 15, 1985 56 Part of the Vega program. The vessel was en route to Halley's Comet. See Vega 2.

08°05′S 177°07′E / 8.083°S 177.117°E / -8.083; 177.117

See also[edit]

Astron (spacecraft)
Astron (spacecraft)
– a space observatory derived from the Venera bus Pioneer Venus
Venus
project Venera-D
Venera-D
– First post-Soviet Venus
Venus
probe (to be launched in 2024)

References[edit]

^ Wade, Mark. " Venera
Venera
1VA". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2010.  ^ NSSDC Chronology of Venus
Venus
Exploration (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), see also NSSDC Tentatively Identified (Soviet) Missions and Launch Failures (NASA Goddard Space Center), accessed August 9, 2010 ^ Ultimax Group's Venus
Venus
Exploration Atlas page (accessed Aug 18 2010) ^ Basilevsky, A. T.; Pronin, A. A.; Ronca, L. B.; Kryuchkov, V. P.; Sukhanov, A. L.; Markov, M. S. (1986). "Styles of tectonic deformations of Venus
Venus
- Analysis of Venera 15
Venera 15
and 16 data (abstract only)". Journal of Geophysical Research. Journal of Geophysical Research March 30, 1986, p. D399-D411. 91: 399. Bibcode:1986JGR....91..399B. doi:10.1029/JB091iB04p0D399. ISSN 0148-0227.  ^ Huntress et all p. 49-266 op. cit.

External links[edit]

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9, 10, 13, and 14 images of the surface of Venus The Soviets and Venus
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