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The Varangians
Varangians
(/vəˈrændʒiənz/; Old Norse: Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people
Rus' people
and Ruthenians to Vikings,[1][2][3][4] who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine
Byzantine
Varangian Guard.[5][6] According to the 12th century Kievan Primary Chronicle, a group of Varangians known as the Rus'[7] settled in Novgorod
Novgorod
in 862 under the leadership of Rurik. Before Rurik, the Rus' might have ruled an earlier hypothetical polity. Rurik's relative Oleg conquered Kiev
Kiev
in 882 and established the state of Kievan Rus', which was later ruled by Rurik's descendants.[8][9] Engaging in trade, piracy, and mercenary activities, Varangians
Varangians
roamed the river systems and portages of Gardariki, as the areas north of the Black Sea
Black Sea
were known in the Norse sagas. They controlled the Volga trade route (between the Varangians
Varangians
and the Arabs), connecting the Baltic to the Caspian Sea, and the Dnieper and Dniester trade route (between Varangians
Varangians
and the Greeks) leading to the Black Sea
Black Sea
and Constantinople.[10] Those were the critically important trade links at that time, connecting Medieval
Medieval
Europe with wealthy and developed Arab Caliphates and the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire;[11] Most of the silver coinage in the West came from the East via those routes. Attracted by the riches of Constantinople, the Varangian Rus' initiated a number of Rus'- Byzantine
Byzantine
Wars, some of which resulted in advantageous trade treaties. At least from the early 10th century many Varangians
Varangians
served as mercenaries in the Byzantine
Byzantine
Army, constituting the elite Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
(the personal bodyguards of Byzantine Emperors). Eventually most of them, both in Byzantium and in Eastern Europe, were converted from paganism to Orthodox Christianity, culminating in the Christianization of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
in 988. Coinciding with the general decline of the Viking Age, the influx of Scandinavians to Rus' stopped, and Varangians
Varangians
were gradually assimilated by East Slavs
East Slavs
by the late 11th century.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Kievan Rus' 3 Islamic world 4 Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire

4.1 Varangian Guard

5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading

Etymology[edit] Medieval Greek
Medieval Greek
Βάραγγος Várangos and Old East Slavic Варягъ Varjagŭ ( Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
Варѧгъ Varęgŭ) are derived from Old Norse
Old Norse
væringi, originally a compound of vár 'pledge' or 'faith', and gengi 'companion', thus meaning 'sworn companion', 'confederate', extended to mean 'a foreigner who has taken service with a new lord by a treaty of fealty to him', or 'protégé'.[1][12] Some scholars seem to assume a derivation from vár with the common suffix -ing.[13] Yet, this suffix is inflected differently in Old Norse, and furthermore, the word is attested with -gangia and cognates in other Germanic languages
Germanic languages
in the Early Middle Ages, as in Old English
Old English
wærgenga, Old Frankish
Old Frankish
wargengus and Langobardic waregang.[14] The reduction of the second part of the word could be parallel to that seen in Old Norse
Old Norse
foringi 'leader', correspondent to Old English
Old English
foregenga and Gothic 𐍆𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌰𐌲𐌰𐌲𐌲𐌾𐌰 fauragaggja 'steward'.[15][16] Kievan Rus'[edit] Main articles: Rus' people, Rus' Khaganate, Kievan Rus', Trade route from the Varangians
Varangians
to the Greeks, and Volga
Volga
trade route

Nicholas Roerich: Guests from Overseas (1899)

The terms “Varangian” and “Rus” can sometimes be used interchangeably but there are slight differences between the two groups. Both refer to the peoples of Scandinavian descent who settled in the Dnieper- Volga
Volga
region during and after the 8th century. The Varangians
Varangians
are a more clearly definable group. They were Scandinavians in Eastern Europe who were often associated with Byzantium and the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor’s Varangian Guard. These mercenaries were almost entirely men who either returned to their Scandinavian homeland or married into the local Slavic culture. The term “Rus” is more difficult to define. The Rus were more inclined to settle in towns with their families. The term “Rus” is sometimes used in primary sources to describe Slavic peoples as well as Scandinavians. Its definition becomes clearer later in the period when it developed from the name of a people to the name of a political entity and area of land.[17] The confusion in the primary sources about the meaning of Rus' has led to arguments between scholars about whether Russia
Russia
was named after a Scandinavian people or a Slavic people. These are grouped into Normanist and anti-Normanist views (with the broader meaning of Norman, i.e. 'Norse-men'). Current scholarship supports the Normanist argument – that the Rus were a primarily Scandinavian people – but there have been heated debates in the last century between certain scholars fueled by nationalism. It is now generally accepted that the Rus' were of Scandinavian origin but adopted Slavic cultural characteristics fairly quickly.[18] Having settled Aldeigja
Aldeigja
(Ladoga) in the 750s, Scandinavian colonists played an important role in the early ethnogenesis of the Rus' people and in the formation of the Rus' Khaganate. The Varangians
Varangians
(Varyags in Old East Slavic) are first mentioned by the Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle
as having exacted tribute from the Slavic and Finnic tribes in 859. The Vikings
Vikings
were rapidly expanding in Northern Europe: England began to pay Danegeld
Danegeld
(gold and other tribute to the Danish) in 859, and the Curonians
Curonians
of Grobin
Grobin
(in modern Latvia) faced an invasion by the Swedes around the same period. Due largely to geographic considerations, it is often argued that most of the Varangians
Varangians
who traveled and settled in the eastern Baltic, Russia, and lands to the south came from the area of modern Sweden.[19] In the 9th century, the Rus' operated the Volga
Volga
trade route, which connected Northern Russia
Russia
(Gardariki) with the Middle East (Serkland). The Volga
Volga
route declined by the end of the century, and the Dnieper and Dniester routes rapidly overtook it in popularity. Apart from Ladoga and Novgorod, Gnyozdovo and Gotland
Gotland
were major centres for Varangian trade.[20]

Viktor Vasnetsov, The Invitation of the Varangians: Rurik
Rurik
and his brothers arrive in Staraya Ladoga.

According to the Primary Chronicle, in 862, the Finnic and Slavic tribes in the area of Novgorod
Novgorod
rebelled against their Varangian rulers, driving them overseas back to Scandinavia, but they soon started to conflict with each other. The disorder prompted the tribes to invite the Varangians
Varangians
back "to come and rule them" and bring peace to the region. Led by Rurik
Rurik
and his brothers Truvor and Sineus, the invited Varangians
Varangians
(called Rus') settled around the town of Holmgård (Novgorod). The Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle
twice names Rus' among the other Varangian peoples, including Swedes, Gutes, "Normans", and "Angles" ( Normans
Normans
was an Old Slavonic term for Norwegians
Norwegians
not the Normans, while Angles
Angles
may be interpreted as Danes, not Anglo-Saxons).[21] In some places, the chronicle mentions Slavs and Rus' as different groups, while in other instances it mixes them. In the study of the etymology of the word Rus' itself several possible origins are identified, but none are conclusive or very helpful in defining the Rus' people
Rus' people
themselves. The problem with confusion of names is most relevant to the earlier periods of Scandinavian colonization in the area. By the time the political entity of the Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
existed the Rus were considered to be a people of mixed Scandinavian/Slavic ethnicity but with a distinctly Slavic culture. Under the leadership of Rurik's relative Oleg, the Varangian Rus' expanded southwards by capturing Kiev
Kiev
from the Khazars, founding the medieval state of Rus'.[8] Attracted by the riches of Constantinople and the Arab
Arab
world, Varangians
Varangians
initiated a number of Rus'-Byzantine Wars, some of which resulted in advantageous trade treaties. Meanwhile, descendants of Rurik
Rurik
expanded the Rus' state and unified the local tribes. Contact with the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire increased, culminating in the Christianization of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
in 988, during the reign of Vladimir the Great.

Nicholas Roerich: Longships Are Built in the Land of the Slavs (1903)

As with the Norse influence in Normandy
Normandy
and the British Isles, Varangian culture did not survive in the East. Instead, the Varangian ruling classes of the two powerful city-states of Novgorod
Novgorod
and Kiev were gradually slavicised by the end of the 11th century.[22] However, the successor descendants of Rurik
Rurik
were the ruling dynasty of medieval Kievan Rus', the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia
Galicia-Volhynia
(after 1199), Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Russia.[23] The name of the Varangian Rus' became that of the land of Ruthenia
Ruthenia
and later modern Russia, and the ethnonym of its population.[24] Many historians tend to agree with the Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle
that the Varangians
Varangians
organized the native settlements into the political entity of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
in the 880s and gave their name to the land. The Varangians
Varangians
were assimilated by East Slavs
East Slavs
by the late 11th century. Historians minimize their role in the long-term development of the Kievan state because they left few traces of any permanent influence on Russia. Historian A.D. Stokes says:

Few significant traces of Varangian influence can be discovered in Russian law, political institutions, social organizations, religious beliefs, language, or literature.[25]

Islamic world[edit] Further information: Volga trade route
Volga trade route
and Caspian expeditions of the Rus'

Ship burial
Ship burial
of a Rus chieftain as described by the Arab
Arab
traveler Ahmad ibn Fadlan who visited Kievan Rus
Kievan Rus
in the 10th century, painted by Henryk Siemiradzki
Henryk Siemiradzki
(1883)

The Rus' initially appeared in Serkland
Serkland
in the 9th century, traveling as merchants along the Volga
Volga
trade route, selling furs, honey, and slaves, as well as luxury goods such as amber, Frankish swords, and walrus ivory.[26] These goods were mostly exchanged for Arabic silver coins, called dirhams. Hoards of 9th century Baghdad-minted silver coins have been found in Sweden, particularly in Gotland. Variations in the size of the coin hoards show that there were phases of increased importation of coins and sometime decades during which very few coins were imported.[27] The economic relationship between the Rus and the Islamic world developed quickly into a sprawling network of trading routes. Initially the Rus founded Staraya Ladoga
Staraya Ladoga
as the first node from the Baltic to the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and Black Sea. By the end of the 9th century Staraya Ladoga
Staraya Ladoga
was replaced as the most important center by Novgorod. From these centers the Rus were able to send their goods as far as Baghdad. Baghdad
Baghdad
was the political and cultural center of the Islamic world in the 9th and 10th centuries and the Rus merchants who went there to trade their goods for silver interacted with cultures and goods from the Islamic World, but also from China, India, and North Africa.[28] The trade between the Rus and the lands south of the Black and Caspian seas made it possible for cultural interactions to take place between the Rus and the Islamic World. The account written by Ibn Fadlan about his 921-922 travels from Baghdad
Baghdad
to the capital of the Bulghar kingdom gives details which can reveal the cultural interaction between the two groups. Ibn Fadlan gives a vivid description of the daily habits of the Rus, as well as the only known first-person account of the complicated ship-burning funeral ceremony. Certain details in his account, especially the dialogue of the ceremonies and his personal conversations with Rus individuals, show that the Rus and the Arabs were interested in and fairly knowledgeable about each other’s cultures.[29] The geography of the Volga
Volga
region and the relative lack of physical wealth available for stealing (compared to targets of Viking raids in the west) made raiding a less important aspect of the Rus/Varangian activities in the East. Some raiding, however, was necessary to gain initial control of the towns and regions that they developed into centers of economic activities.[30] The first small-scale raids took place in the late 9th and early 10th centuries. The Rus' undertook the first large-scale expedition in 913; having arrived on 500 ships, they pillaged Gorgan, in the territory of present-day Iran, and the adjacent areas, taking slaves and goods. On their return, the northern raiders were attacked and defeated by Khazar
Khazar
Muslims in the Volga Delta, and those who escaped were killed by the local tribes on the middle Volga. During their next expedition in 943, the Rus' captured Barda, the capital of Arran, in the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan. The Rus' stayed there for several months, killing many inhabitants of the city and amassing substantial plunder. It was only an outbreak of dysentery among the Rus' that forced them to depart with their spoils. Sviatoslav, prince of Kiev, commanded the next attack, which destroyed the Khazar
Khazar
state in 965. Sviatoslav's campaign established Rus' control over the north-south trade routes, helping to alter the demographics of the region. Raids continued through the time period with the last Scandinavian attempt to reestablish the route to the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
led by Ingvar the Far-Travelled
Ingvar the Far-Travelled
in 1041. While there, Varangians
Varangians
took part in the Georgian- Byzantine
Byzantine
Battle of Sasireti in Georgia (1042). Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire[edit]

Varangian Guardsmen, an illumination from the 11th century chronicle of John Skylitzes.

The earliest Byzantine
Byzantine
record of the Rus' may have been written prior to 842. It is preserved in the Greek Life of St. George of Amastris, which speaks of a raid that had extended into Paphlagonia. Contemporary Byzantine
Byzantine
presence of the Rus' is mentioned in the Frankish Annals of St. Bertin. These relate that a delegation from the court of the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor visited Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at his court in Ingelheim
Ingelheim
in 839. In this delegation were two men who called themselves Rhos (Rhos vocari dicebant). Louis enquired about their origins and learnt that they were Swedes. Fearing that they were spies for their brothers, the Danes, he incarcerated them. In 860, the Rus' under Askold and Dir
Askold and Dir
launched their first attack on Constantinople
Constantinople
from Kiev. The result of this attack is disputed, but the Varangians
Varangians
continued their efforts as they regularly sailed on their monoxyla down the Dnieper into the Black Sea. The Rus' raids into the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
were recorded by Arab
Arab
authors in the 870s and in 910, 912, 913, 943, and later. Although the Rus' had predominantly peaceful trading relations with the Byzantines, the rulers of Kiev launched the relatively successful naval expedition of 907 and the abortive campaign of 941 against Constantinople, as well as the large-scale invasion of the Balkans
Balkans
by Sviatoslav I
Sviatoslav I
in 968–971. These raids were successful in forcing the Byzantines to re-arrange their trading arrangements; militarily, the Varangians
Varangians
were usually defeated by the superior Byzantine
Byzantine
forces, especially in the sea due to Byzantine
Byzantine
use of Greek fire. Varangian Guard[edit] Main article: Varangian Guard

Another illumination of a scene from the Skylitzes Chronicle, depicting a Thracesian woman killing a Varangian who tried to rape her, whereupon his comrades praised her and gave her his possessions.[31]

The Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
(Greek: Τάγμα των Βαράγγων, Tágma tōn Varángōn) were a part of Byzantine
Byzantine
Army and personal bodyguards of the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors from the 10th to the 14th centuries. Initially the guard was composed of Varangians
Varangians
who came from Kievan Rus'. The guard was first formed under Emperor Basil II
Basil II
after 988, following the Christianization of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and union with Vladimir I of Kiev, who sent 6,000 men to Basil as part of a military assistance agreement. Basil's distrust of the native Byzantine
Byzantine
guardsmen, whose loyalties often shifted with fatal consequences, as well as the proven loyalty of the Varangians, many of whom served in Byzantium even before, led the emperor to employ them as his personal guard. Over the years, new recruits from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway kept a predominantly Scandinavian cast to the organization until the late 11th century. So many Scandinavians left to enlist in the guard that a medieval Swedish law from Västergötland
Västergötland
stated that no one could inherit while staying in "Greece" — the then Scandinavian term for the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire.[32] In the eleventh century, there were also two other European courts that recruited Scandinavians:[33] Kievan Rus', c. 980–1060, and London, 1018–1066 (the Þingalið).[33] Composed primarily of Scandinavians for the first hundred years, the guard increasingly included Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
after the successful Norman Conquest of England. By the time of Emperor Alexios Komnenos in the late 11th century, the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
was largely recruited from Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and "others who had suffered at the hands of the Vikings and their cousins the Normans". The Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and other Germanic peoples shared with the Vikings
Vikings
a tradition of faithful, oath-bound service (to death if necessary), and after the Norman Conquest
Norman Conquest
of England there were many fighting men, who had lost their lands and former masters, looking for a living elsewhere. The Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
not only provided security for Byzantine
Byzantine
emperors but participated in many wars involving Byzantium and often played a crucial role, since it was usually employed at critical moments of battle. By the late 13th century, Varangians
Varangians
were mostly ethnically assimilated by Byzantines, though the guard operated until at least the mid-14th century, and in 1400 there were still some people identifying themselves as "Varangians" in Constantinople. In popular culture[edit]

Rosemary Sutcliff's 1976 historical novel Blood Feud depicts Basil II's formation of the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
from the point of view of a half-Saxon orphan who journeyed to Constantinople
Constantinople
via the Dnieper trade route. Henry Treece's Viking Trilogy recounts the adventures of Harald Sigurdson, including service in the Varangian Guard. Michael Ennis's Byzantium ISBN 978-0-330-31596-8, a fictionalised version of the life of Harald Hardrada, features time in the Varangian Guard. In The Bulpington of Blup
The Bulpington of Blup
(1933) by H.G. Wells, the father of the protagonist maintains for years the fiction that he is at work on "a History of the Varangians
Varangians
that was to outshine Doughty". The John Ringo
John Ringo
Paladin of Shadows series features a fictional, long-forgotten enclave of the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
in the mountains of Georgia. Turisas' second studio album The Varangian Way
The Varangian Way
is a concept album that tells the story of a group of Scandinavians travelling the river routes of medieval Russia, through Ladoga, Novgorod
Novgorod
and Kiev
Kiev
to the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. Their third album, Stand Up and Fight, describes the history of the Varangian Guard's service to the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. Bearded axe-wielding Easterlings known as "Variags" appear in Tolkien's fantasy novel The Return of the King. In the PC game series Mount & Blade, the name and location of the Vaegirs echos the Varangians. Their faction have a unique unit called a "Vaegir Guard". In the video games Medieval: Total War and Medieval
Medieval
II: Total War the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
is an axe-wielding elite infantry unit of the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire. Track 5 of Amon Amarth's seventh studio album Twilight of the Thunder God has the title "Varyags of Miklagaard". Track 2 of Grand Magus's eight studio album Sword Songs is titled "Varangian". Varangian soldiers are a common enemy in the video game Assassin's Creed: Revelations. Russian writer Dmitry Bykov's novel Living Souls (ЖД) involved a civil war between Varangians
Varangians
and Khazars
Khazars
over the control of Russia Varangians
Varangians
in Dark Souls II
Dark Souls II
were pirates pressed into service of the King of Drangleic. In the Warhammer 40K
Warhammer 40K
universe, there is a chapter of space marines known as the "Space Wolves" that also go by the "Vaerangian Guard" In the PC game Crusader Kings 2[34] the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
appear as a mercenary unit available exclusively to the Byzantine
Byzantine
emperor. The Walking Drum by Louis L'Amour[clarification needed]

See also[edit]

Ancient Germanic culture portal Middle Ages portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Varangians.

For the Scandinavians who travelled westward, see Vikings Byzantine
Byzantine
army Byzantine
Byzantine
bureaucracy and aristocracy Christianization of Kievan Rus' Komnenian army Kylfings Oeselians Piraeus Lion
Piraeus Lion
(inscription made by Varangians) Rulers of Kievan Rus'

References[edit]

^ a b "Varangian," Online Etymology Dictionary ^ "Oleg". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ "Varangian". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ "væringer". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ Milner-Gulland, R. R. Atlas of Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union. Phaidon. p. 36. ISBN 0-7148-2549-2.  ^ Schultze, Sydney (2000). Culture and Customs of Russia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 5. ISBN 0-313-31101-3.  ^ "Пушкинский Дом (ИРЛИ РАН) > Новости". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ a b Duczko, Wladyslaw (2004). Viking Rus. Brill Publishers. pp. 10–11. ISBN 90-04-13874-9. Retrieved 1 December 2009.  ^ " Rurik
Rurik
Dynasty". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 30 September 2015.  ^ Stephen Turnbull, The Walls of Constantinople, AD 324–1453, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-759-X. ^ Schofield, Tracey Ann Vikings, Lorenz Educational Press, p. 7, ISBN 978-1-5731-0356-5 ^ H.S. Falk & A. Torp, Norwegisch-Dänisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1911, pp. 1403–04; J. de Vries, Altnordisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1962, pp. 671–72; S. Blöndal & B. Benedikz, The Varangians
Varangians
of Byzantium, 1978, p. 4 ^ Hellquist 1922:1096, 1172; M. Vasmer, Russisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, 1953, vol. 1, p. 171. ^ Blöndal & Benedikz, p. 4; D. Parducci, "Gli stranieri nell’alto medioevo", Mirator 1 (2007)in Italian, English abstract ^ Falk & Torp, p. 1403; other words with the same second part are: Old Norse
Old Norse
erfingi 'heir', armingi or aumingi 'beggar", bandingi 'captive', hamingja 'luck', heiðingi 'wolf', lausingi or leysingi 'homeless'; cf. Falk & Torp, p. 34; Vries, p. 163. ^ Bugge, Sophus, Arkiv för nordisk filologi 2 (1885), p. 225 ^ Andrushchuk, Fjodor (2008). "The Vikings
Vikings
in the East". In Price, Neil S.; Brink, Stefan. The Viking World. London: Routledge. p. 533.  ^ Klejn, Leo S. (2013). "From Goths
Goths
to Varangians: Communication and cultural exchange between the Baltic and the Black Sea". In Lind, John; Bjerg, Line Maj-Britt Hojberg; Sindbaek, Soren M. The Russian Controversy over the Varangians. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. p. 29.  ^ Forte, Angelo; Oram, Richard; and Pedersen, Frederik. Viking Empires. Cambridge University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-521-82992-5. pp. 13–14. ^ A massive majority (40,000) of all Viking-Age Arabian coins found in Scandinavia were found in Gotland. In Skåne, Öland and Uppland together, about 12,000 coins were found. Other Scandinavian areas have only scattered finds: 1,000 from Denmark and some 500 from Norway. Byzantine
Byzantine
coins have been found almost exclusively in Gotland, some 400. See: Burenhult, Göran (1999). Arkeologi i Norden 2 [Archeology in the Nordic countries, part 2] (in Swedish). Stockholm: Natur & Kultur. ISBN 9789127134782.  See also: Gardell, Carl Johan (1987). Gotlands historia i fickformat [The pocket history of Gotland] (in Swedish). ISBN 91-7810-885-3.  ^ Duczko, Wladyslaw (2004). Viking Rus. BRILL. pp. 10–11. ISBN 90-04-13874-9.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Viking". Retrieved 19 August 2011.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. " Rurik
Rurik
dynasty". Retrieved 18 August 2011.  ^ "Russia" Online Etymology Dictionary ^ A.D. Stokes, "Kievan Russia," in Robert Auty, and Dimitri Obolensky, eds. Companion to Russian Studies: vol 1: An Introduction to Russian History (1981) p 53. ^ Batey, Colleen E.; Graham-Campbell, James (1994). Cultural Atlas of the Viking World. New York: Facts on File. p. 194.  ^ Batey, Colleen E.; Graham-Campbell, James (1994). Cultural Atlas of the Viking World. New York: Facts on File. p. 198.  ^ Batey, Colleen E.; Graham-Campbell, James (1994). Cultural Atlas of the Viking World. New York: Facts on File. p. 184.  ^ Montgomery, James E. (2000). "Ibn Fadlan and the Rusiyyah". Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies. 3.  ^ Noonan, Thomas S. (1997). "Scandinavians in Eastern Europe". In Sawyer, Peter S. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 135.  ^ Wortley, John, ed. (2010), John Skylitzes: A Synopsis of Byzantine History, 811–1057, Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, p. 372, ISBN 978-0-521-76705-7  ^ Jansson 1980:22 ^ a b Pritsak 1981:386 ^ "Mercenaries". Retrieved 30 September 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Primary sources

Russian Primary Chronicle Strategikon of Kekaumenos by Kekaumenos Alexiad
Alexiad
by Anna Komnena Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus by John Kinnamos Historia ecclesiastica by Ordericus Vitalis Chronicon universale anonymi Laudunensis Játvarðar Saga Heimskringla Laxdœla saga

Additional secondary sources

Buckler, Georgina. Anna Comnena: A Study. Oxford: University Press, 1929. Blondal, Sigfus. Varangians
Varangians
of Byzantium: An Aspect of Byzantine Military History. Trans. by Benedikt S. Benedikz, Cambridge: 1978. ISBN 0-521-21745-8. Davidson, H.R. Ellis. The Viking Road to Byzantium. London: 1976. ISBN 0-04-940049-5. Enoksen, Lars Magnar. (1998). Runor: historia, tydning, tolkning. Historiska Media, Falun. ISBN 91-88930-32-7. Jansson, Sven B. (1980). Runstenar. STF, Stockholm. ISBN 91-7156-015-7. English Refugees in the Byzantine
Byzantine
Armed Forces: The Varangian Guard and Anglo-Saxon Ethnic Consciousness by Nicholas C.J. Pappas for De Re Militari.org Raffaele D'Amato; Rava, Giuseppe (illustrator). The Varangian Guard 988–1453. "Men-at-Arms" series, Osprey, 2010. ISBN 978-1849081795. Illustrated reconstruction of arms and armor of Varangians.

v t e

Rus'– Byzantine
Byzantine
Wars

Paphlagonia (830s) Constantinople
Constantinople
(860) Constantinople
Constantinople
(907) Bosporus & Bithynia (941) Thrace & Bulgaria (970–971) Lemnos (1024) Constantinople
Constantinople
& Aegean Sea (1043)

v t e

Rus– Byzantine
Byzantine
Treaties

907 911 945

v t e

Garðaríki

Names in italics are settlements whose Norse names are not recorded

Volkhov- Volga
Volga
trade route

Lyubsha Aldeigja Álaborg Duboviki Hólmgarðr Sarskoe Timerevo Balymer

Dvina-Dnieper trade route

Pallteskja Gnezdovo Chernigov Kænugarðr

Other locations

Bjarmaland Khortitsa White Shores Miklagarðr Særkland

Varangians Kylfings Chudes Rus' Slavs Merya Bulgars Khazars Romanians

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Germanic peoples

Languages

Germanic parent language Proto-Germanic language North Germanic languages

Old Norse

West Germanic languages

Ingvaeonic languages South Germanic

Northwest Germanic East Germanic languages Germanic philology

Prehistory

Nordic Bronze Age Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe Jastorf culture Nordwestblock Przeworsk culture Wielbark culture Oksywie culture Chernyakhov culture

Roman Iron Age in northern Europe

Magna Germania Germanic Wars Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Germania Irminones Ingaevones Istvaeones Chatti Marcomanni Suebi

Migration Period

Germanic Iron Age Alemanni Anglo-Saxons

Angles Jutes Saxons

Burgundians Danes Franks Frisii Geats Gepids Goths

Visigoths Ostrogoths Vagoth Gothic War (376–382)

Gotlander Heruli Lombards Rugii Scirii Suebi Swedes Vandals Varangians Vikings Christianization Romanization

Society and culture

Mead hall Alliterative verse Migration Period
Migration Period
art Runes

Runic calendar

Sippe Ancient Germanic law

Lawspeaker Thing

Germanic calendar Germanic kingship Germanic name Numbers in Norse mythology Romano-Germanic culture

Religion

Odin Thor Nerthus Veleda Tuisto Mannus Sacred trees and groves Paganism

Anglo-Saxon Continental Germanic Frankish Gothic Norse

Christianity

Anglo-Saxon Gothic

Dress

Bracteates Fibula Suebian knot

Warfare

Gothic and Vandal warfare Anglo-Saxon warfare Viking Age
Viking Age
arms and armour Migration Period
Migration Period
spear Migration Period
Migration Period
sword

Burial practices

Tumulus Ship burial Norse funeral Alemannic grave fields Sutton Hoo Spong Hill

List of ancient Germanic peoples Portal:Ancien

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