HOME
The Info List - Van Diemen's Land


--- Advertisement ---



Flag

1828 map

Government Self-governing colony

Monarch

 •  1825–1837 William IV

 •  1837–1856 Victoria

Lieutenant-Governor

 •  1825–1836 Sir George Arthur first

 •  1855–1856 Henry Young
Henry Young
last

History

 •  independence from the Colony of New South Wales 3 December 1825

 •  Name changed to Tasmania 1856

Today part of  Australia

Van Diemen's Land

1852 map of Van Diemen's Land.

Geography

Location Southern Ocean

Coordinates 42°00′S 147°00′E / 42.000°S 147.000°E / -42.000; 147.000

Area 68,401 km2 (26,410 sq mi)

Highest elevation 1,614 m (5,295 ft)

Highest point Mount Ossa

Administration

Australia

Largest settlement Hobart
Hobart
Town

Demographics

Population 40,000 (1855)

Pop. density 0.59 /km2 (1.53 /sq mi)

Ethnic groups European Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians

Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
to Tasmania
Tasmania
in 1856.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Exploration 1.2 Early colonisation 1.3 Penal colony

2 Name 3 Popular culture

3.1 Film 3.2 Music 3.3 Literature

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Exploration[edit] The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman
Abel Tasman
was the first European to land on the shores of Tasmania
Tasmania
in 1642. Landing at Blackman's Bay
Blackman's Bay
and later having the Dutch flag flown at North Bay, Tasman named the island Anthoonij van Diemenslandt, in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor-General
Governor-General
of the Dutch East Indies, who had sent Tasman on his voyage of discovery. Between 1772 and 1798, only the southeastern portion of the island was visited. Tasmania
Tasmania
was not known to be an island until Matthew Flinders
Matthew Flinders
and George Bass
George Bass
circumnavigated it in the Norfolk in 1798–99. Around 1784–85, Henri Peyroux de la Coudrenière, an army officer serving in Spanish Louisiana, wrote a "memoir on the advantages to be gained for the Spanish crown by the settlement of Van Dieman's Land".[1] After receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as "Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient d'une colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen".[2] In January 1793, a French expedition under the command of Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni d'Entrecasteaux anchored in Recherche Bay
Recherche Bay
and a period of five weeks was spent in that area, carrying out explorations into both natural history and geography. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin
Nicolas Baudin
explored D'Entrecasteaux Channel
D'Entrecasteaux Channel
and Maria Island
Maria Island
and carried out charting of Bass Strait
Bass Strait
(Baudin had been associated, like Peyroux, with the resettlement of the Acadians
Acadians
from France to Louisiana). Early colonisation[edit]

1663 map of Van Diemen's Land, showing the parts discovered by Tasman, including Storm Bay, Maria Island, and Schouten Island.

Sealers and whalers based themselves on Tasmania's islands from 1798 and in August 1803, New South Wales
New South Wales
Governor Philip King sent Lieutenant John Bowen to establish a small military outpost on the eastern shore of the Derwent River to forestall any claims to the island arising from the activities of the French explorers. Major-General Ralph Darling
Ralph Darling
was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, and in the same year he visited Hobart
Hobart
Town, and on 3 December proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he became governor for three days.[3] The demonym for Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
was "Van Diemonian", though contemporaries used the spelling Vandemonian.[4] In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its representative parliament, and the name of the island and colony was officially changed to Tasmania
Tasmania
on 1 January 1856.[5][6] Penal colony[edit]

Main articles: Port Arthur, Tasmania, Convicts on the West Coast of Tasmania

From the 1800s to the 1853 abolition of penal transportation (known simply as "transportation"), Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
was the primary penal colony in Australia. Following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land. In total, some 75,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemen's Land, or about 40% of all convicts sent to Australia.[citation needed] Male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts (mostly re-offenders) were sent to the Tasman Peninsula prison known as Port Arthur. Female convicts were assigned as servants in free settler households or sent to a female factory (women's workhouse prison). There were five female factories in Van Diemen's Land. Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave often promptly left Van Diemen's Land. Many settled in the new free colony of Victoria, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as Melbourne. On 6 August 1829, the brig Cyprus, a government-owned vessel used to transport goods, people, and convicts, set sail from Hobart
Hobart
Town for Macquarie Harbour Penal Station on a routine voyage carrying supplies and convicts. While the ship was becalmed in Recherche Bay, convicts allowed on deck attacked their guards and took control of the brig. The mutineers marooned officers, soldiers, and convicts who did not join the mutiny without supplies. The convicts then sailed the Cyprus to Canton, China, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus
Cyprus
visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so. Tensions sometimes ran high between the settlers and the "Vandemonians" as they were termed, particularly during the Victorian gold rush when a flood of settlers from Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
rushed to the Victorian goldfields. Complaints from Victorians about recently released convicts from Van Diemen's Land re-offending in Victoria was one of the contributing reasons for the eventual abolition of transportation to Van Diemen's Land in 1853.[7] Name[edit] Anthony Trollope
Anthony Trollope
used the term Vandemonian: "They are (the Vandemonians) united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin."[8] In 1856, Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
was renamed Tasmania, meaning that it technically still exists but under a different name. This removed the unsavoury criminal connotations with the name Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
(and the "demon" connotation), while honouring Abel Tasman, the first European to find the island. The last penal settlement in Tasmania
Tasmania
at Port Arthur closed in 1877.[9] Popular culture[edit] Film[edit]

The critically acclaimed award-winning film The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce
Alexander Pearce
tells the true story of Alexander Pearce
Alexander Pearce
through his final confession to fellow Irishman and colonial priest Philip Conolly. The film was nominated for a Rose d'Or, an Irish Film and Television Award, an Australian Film Institute Award
Australian Film Institute Award
and won an IF Award in 2009. The ABC telemovie The Outlaw Michael Howe is set in Van Diemen's Land and tells the story of bushranger Michael Howe's convict-led rebellion.

Music[edit]

U2's 1988 album Rattle and Hum
Rattle and Hum
has a song called "Van Diemen's Land" with lead vocals sung by The Edge. Tom Russell sets Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
as the ship's destination in his song "Isaac Lewis" on the album "Modern Art". In the traditional Irish folk song The Black Velvet Band, the protagonist is found guilty of stealing a watch and is sent to Van Diemens Land as punishment. The song "Van Diemen's Land" in the album titled "Parcel of Rogues" with vocals by Barbara Dickson is about an Irish man caught for poaching and transported to Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
and the hardships he has living there.

Literature[edit] Australian winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature Patrick White's novel 'A Fringe of Leaves' places much of the novel's beginnings in Van Diemen's Land.

Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
is the setting for Richard Flanagan's novel Wanting (2008). Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
is the setting of Gould's Book of Fish: A Novel in Twelve Fish by Richard Flanagan
Richard Flanagan
(published 2002), which tells the story of a man who is transported to the island, and runs afoul of the local (and rather insane) authorities. Brendan Whiting's book Victims of Tyranny, gives an account of the lives of the Irish rebels, the Fitzgerald convict brothers who were sent to help open up the north of Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
in 1805, under the leadership of the explorer Colonel William Paterson. In Cormac McCarthy's novel Blood Meridian, one of the characters in the Glanton Gang of scalpers in 1850s Mexico
Mexico
is a "Vandiemenlander" named Bathcat. Born in Wales
Wales
he later went to Australia to hunt aborigines, and eventually came to Mexico, where he used those skills on the Apaches. From The Potato Factory by Bryce Courtenay (1995), "... subtracting till my fingers dropped; into Van Diemen's Land." This is a quote from Emily Dickinson's Poem "If You Were Coming in the Fall". Two of the main characters in Cortenay's novel are transported Van Diemen's Land as convicts and another travels there, where around half of the novel takes place. In the novel The Convicts by Iain Lawrence, young Tom Tin is sent to Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
on charges of murder. In the novel The Terror by Dan Simmons (2007). In this novel about the ill-fated exploration by HMS Erebus and HMS Terror to discover the Northwest Passage. The ships left England in May 1846 and were never heard from again, although since then much has been discovered about the fate of the 129 officers and crew. References are made to Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
during the chapters devoted to Francis Crozier. Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
is the setting of the novel English Passengers
English Passengers
by Matthew Kneale (2000), which tells the story of three eccentric Englishmen who in 1857 set sail for the island in search of the Garden of Eden. The story runs parallel with the narrative of a young Tasmanian who tells the struggle of the indigenous population and the desperate battle against the invading British colonists. Christopher Koch's novel Out of Ireland describes life as a convict in Van Diemen's Land. Richard Butler's novel The Men That God Forgot (1977) is based on the historical events of ten convicts who escaped from Van Diemen's Land to Valdivia, Chile
Valdivia, Chile
in 1833. Marcus Clarke used historical events as the basis for his fictional For the Term of his Natural Life
For the Term of his Natural Life
(1870), the story of a gentleman, falsely convicted of murder, who is transported to Van Diemen's Land. Julian Stockwin's nautical fiction series, The Kydd Series, includes the book Command (2006) in which Thomas Kydd takes a ship to Van Diemen's Land, at the behest of then governor of New South Wales, Philip Gidley King, for the purpose of preventing French explorers from establishing a French settlement on the island. Kevin G Dyer's novel Dark Night in Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
tells the story of a young couple transported to the Port Arthur penal settlement. J.W. Clennett's 2015 graphic novel, The Diemenois, is set during an alternate history in which Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
fakes his death and flees to West Van Diemen, an area of Tasmania
Tasmania
colonised by France. The story takes place in the fictional city of Baudin (where modern-day Stanley is located), named after French cartographer Nicolas Baudin.

See also[edit]

Cape Grim massacre Cyprus
Cyprus
mutiny Colony of Tasmania Governors of Tasmania Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land
Company Apostolic Vicariate of New Holland and Van Diemen's Land
Apostolic Vicariate of New Holland and Van Diemen's Land
(Catholic missionary jurisdiction)

Notes[edit]

^ Ernest R. Liljegren, "Jacobinism in Spanish Louisiana, 1792–1797", Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 22, 1939, pp. 47–97, p.85. ^ Paul Roussier, "Un projet de colonie française dans le Pacifique à la fin du XVIII siecle", La Revue du Pacifique, Année 6, No.1, 15 Janvier 1927, pp.726–733.[1]; Robert J. King, "Henri Peyroux de la Coudrenière and his plan for a colony in Van Diemen's Land", Map Matters, Issue 31, June 2017, pp.2–6.[2] ^ "150th Anniversary of Australia". The Mercury. Hobart, Tasmania. 26 January 1938. p. 6. Retrieved 26 January 2012 – via National Library of Australia.  ^ "Vandemonian – definition of Vandemonian by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 7 February 2013.  ^ Newman, Terry Becoming Tasmania. Companion Web Site (Parliament of Tasmania) ^ VanDiemensLand.com. About Van Diemen's Land ^ Fletcher, B. H. (1994). 1770–1850. In S. Bambrick (Ed.), The Cambridge encyclopedia of Australia (pp. 86–94). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ^ quoted by Patsy Adam Smith p.248 of Smith, Patsy Adam and Woodberry, Joan (1977) Historic Tasmania
Tasmania
Sketchbook Rigby ISBN 0-7270-0286-4 ^ Australian Government, National Heritage site. Port Arthur Historic Site

References[edit]

Alexandra, Rieck (editor) (2005) The Companion to Tasmanian History Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart. ISBN 1-86295-223-X. Boyce, James (2008), Van Diemen's Land. Black Inc., Melbourne. ISBN 978-1-86395-413-6. Robson, L.L. (1983) A history of Tasmania. Volume 1. Van Diemen's Land from the earliest times to 1855 Melbourne, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554364-5. Robson, L.L. (1991) A history of Tasmania. Volume II. Colony and state from 1856 to the 1980s Melbourne, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553031-4.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Van Diemen's Land.

Constitution Act 1855, establishing an elected parliament in the colony VanDiemensLand.com, About Van Diemen's Land

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6. League of Nations mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

8 League of Nations mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands).

v t e

Young Ireland

General

Repeal Association The Nation Irish nationalism Irish republicanism Irish Confederation Great Hunger Revolutions of 1848 A Nation Once Again Irish tricolour Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 Penal transportation Van Diemen's Land Irish Republican Brotherhood

Personalities

Joseph Blake Joseph Brenan Robert Cane Thomas Davis John Blake Dillon Michael Doheny Charles Gavan Duffy Philip Gray John Kenyon James Fintan Lalor Maurice Leyne Thomas D'Arcy McGee Terence MacManus John Martin Thomas Francis Meagher John Mitchel William Smith O'Brien Kevin Izod O'Doherty Patrick O'Donoghue Richard O'Gorman John O'Leary John O'Mahony Thomas Devin Reilly John Savage Patrick James Smyth James Stephens Jane Wilde

British laws

Crime and Outrage Bill (Ireland) 1847 Treason Felony Act 1848

Ireland portal Cat

.