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The Vallahades
Vallahades
(Greek: Βαλαχάδες) or Valaades (Βαλαάδες) were a Greek-speaking, Muslim
Muslim
population who lived along the River Haliacmon
Haliacmon
in southwest Greek Macedonia, in and around Anaselitsa (modern Neapoli) and Grevena. They numbered about 17,000 in the early 20th century.[1] They are a frequently referred-to community of late- Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
converts to Islam, because unlike most other such communities of Greek Muslims
Greek Muslims
in Ottoman Macedonia the Vallahades retained many aspects of their Greek culture and continued to speak Greek for both private and public purposes. Most other Greek converts to Islam
Islam
from Ottoman Macedonia, Thrace, and Epirus
Epirus
generally adopted the Turkish language
Turkish language
and culture and thereby assimilated into mainstream Ottoman society.[2]

"Young Greeks at the Mosque" (Jean-Léon Gérôme, oil on canvas, 1865); this oil painting portrays Greek Muslim
Muslim
recruits into the Ottoman Janissary
Janissary
corps at prayer in a mosque

Contents

1 Name 2 History and culture 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Name[edit] The name Vallaades comes from the Turkish-language Islamic expression vallah ("by God!"). Even their call to prayer was said to be un-canonical and in Greek.[not in citation given][3] Though some Western travellers speculated that 'Vallaades' is connected to the ethnonym Vlach,[4] this is improbable, as the Vallahades
Vallahades
were always Greek-speaking with no detectable Vlach
Vlach
influences.[5] History and culture[edit]

Ethnographic map of Macedonia (1892). Those defined as Greek Muslims are shown in yellow

The Vallahades
Vallahades
were descendants of Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians from southwestern Greek Macedonia
Greek Macedonia
who probably converted to Islam
Islam
gradually and in several stages between the 16th and 19th centuries.[6] The Vallahades
Vallahades
themselves attributed their conversion to the activities of two Greek Janissary
Janissary
sergeants (Ottoman Turkish: çavuş) in the late 17th century who were originally recruited from the same part of southwestern Macedonia and then sent back to the area by the sultan to proselytize among the Greek Christians living there.[7] However, historians believe it more likely that the Vallahades
Vallahades
adopted Islam
Islam
during periods of Ottoman pressures on landowners in western Macedonia following a succession of historical events that influenced Ottoman government policy towards Greek community leaders in the area. These events ranged from the Russo-Turkish War
Russo-Turkish War
of 1768–74, and especially the repercussions of the Orlov Revolt
Orlov Revolt
in the Peloponnese, the period of Albanian dominance[unbalanced opinion?][further explanation needed] in Macedonia called by Greeks the 'Albanokratia',[vague][further explanation needed] and the policies[specify] of Ali Pasha of Ioannina, who governed areas of western Greek Macedonia
Greek Macedonia
and Thessaly
Thessaly
as well as most of Epirus
Epirus
in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.[8] The culture of the Vallahades
Vallahades
did not differ much from that of the local Christian Orthodox Greek Macedonians, with whom they shared the same Greek Macedonian dialect, surnames, and even knowledge of common relatives.[6] De Jong has shown how the frequent Vallahades self-reference to their identity as Turks was simply used as a synonym for Muslims. However, De Jong questioned whether they were of pure Greek origin, suggesting that they were probably of mixed Greek, Vlach, Slav, and Albanian origin but had come to speak Greek as their first language because that was the main language used by most people of Christian Orthodox origin in southwestern Macedonia and was also the language later promoted for official use by Ali Pasha.[9] However, most historians are in agreement with Hasluck, Vakalopoulos, and other modern historians that the Vallahades
Vallahades
were indeed of mainly Greek origin. As evidence these scholars cite the fact that as well as the absence of significant Slavic, Vlach, or Albanian elements in the Greek dialect the Vallahades
Vallahades
spoke and the surnames they bore, the Christian traditions they preserved reflected Greek rather than Slavic, Albanian, or Vlach
Vlach
characteristics, while the names for geographical features like mountains and streams in the locality of the Vallahades' villages were also overwhelmingly in the Greek rather than Slavic, Vlach, or Albanian languages.[10] Scholars who accept the evidence for the Greek ethnic origin of the Vallahades
Vallahades
also point out that Ottoman-era Muslims converts of even part Albanian origin will very quickly have been absorbed into the wider Albanian Muslim
Muslim
community, the most significant in western Macedonia and neighboring Epirus
Epirus
being the Cham Albanians, while the descendants of Muslim
Muslim
converts of Bulgarian speech and origin had other groups with which they naturally identified, such as the Pomaks, Torbesh, and Poturs.[11] In any event, Hasluk and other travelers to southwestern Greek Macedonia before the 1923 Population exchange between Greece and Turkey often noted the many religious and cultural differences between local Muslims of Greek origin on the one hand and those of Turkish origin on the other, generally characterizing the Greek Vallahades' outlook, way of life, attitude to women, and even house design as more "European", "open", and "inviting", while those of the Turks of Anatolian origin were considered as more "Asiatic", "closed", and "uninviting", adjectives that clearly reflected 18th and 19th century European tastes and biases.[12] According to Bulgarian geographer Vasil Kanchov's statistics there was 14,373 Greeks Muslims in southwestern Macedonia at the end of the 19th century.[13] According to Greek statistics from 1904, however, there were at least 16,070 Vallahades
Vallahades
in the kazas of Anaselitsa (Lyapchishta) and Grevena. The disparity and unreliability of such statistics is partly due to the fact that most Greek Muslims
Greek Muslims
of Macedonia will simply have been defined as Turks, since Greek identity was (and still is) seen as inseparable from membership of the Greek Orthodox church and therefore becoming Turkish sufficient in-itself to entail a forfeiture of Greek-ness.[2] The fact that the Vallahades
Vallahades
had retained their Greek language
Greek language
and identity set them apart from other Greek Muslims
Greek Muslims
as something of an anomaly and so made them of particular interest to foreign travelers, academics, and officials.[14]

Muslims from western Greek Macedonia, c. 1900.

By the early 20th century the Vallahades
Vallahades
had lost much of the status and wealth they had enjoyed in the earlier Ottoman period, with the hereditary Ottoman title of Bey their village leaders traditionally bore now carried by "simple" peasants.[6] Nevertheless, the Vallahades were still considered to be relatively wealthy and industrious peasants for their part of Macedonia, which is why their prospective inclusion in the population exchange between Greece and Turkey was opposed by the governor of Kozani. In addition to continuing to speak Greek as their first language, the Vallahades
Vallahades
also continued to respect their Greek and Orthodox Christian heritage and churches. This also partly explains why most Vallahades
Vallahades
probably belonged to the Bektashi
Bektashi
dervish order, considered heretical by mainstream Sunni Muslims owing to its libertine and heterogeneous nature, combining extremist Shi'ite, pre-Islamic Turkish, and Greek/Balkan Christian elements, and so particularly favoured by Ottoman Muslim
Muslim
converts of southern Albanian and northern Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
origin. The Vallahades' preservation of their Greek language
Greek language
and culture and adherence to forms of Islam
Islam
that lay on the fringes of mainstream Ottoman Sunni Islam
Islam
explains other traits they became noted for, such as the use of an un-canonical call to prayer (adhan or ezan) in their village mosques that was itself actually in Greek rather than Arabic, their worship in mosques which did not have minarets and doubled as Bektashi
Bektashi
lodges or tekkes (leading some visitors to southwestern Macedonia to jump to the mistaken conclusion that the Vallahades
Vallahades
had no mosques at all), and their relative ignorance of even the fundamental practices and beliefs of their Muslim
Muslim
religion.[6] Despite their relative ignorance of Islam
Islam
and Turkish, the Vallahades were still considered by Christian Orthodox Greeks to have become Turkish just like the descendants of Greek converts in other parts of Greek Macedonia, who in contrast had adopted the Turkish language
Turkish language
and identity. Consequently, pressure from the local military, the press, and the incoming Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox
refugees from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
and northeastern Anatolia
Anatolia
meant the Vallahades
Vallahades
were not exempted from the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
Population exchange between Greece and Turkey
of 1922–23.[15] The Vallahades
Vallahades
were resettled in western Asia Minor, in such towns as Kumburgaz, Büyükçekmece, and Çatalca
Çatalca
or in villages like Honaz near Denizli.[16] Many Vallahades
Vallahades
still continue to speak the Greek language, which they call Romeïka[16] and have become completely assimilated into the Turkish Muslim
Muslim
mainstream as Turks.[17][18] In contrast to the Vallahades, many Pontic Greeks
Pontic Greeks
and Caucasus Greeks who settled in Greek Macedonia
Greek Macedonia
following the population exchanges were generally fluent in Turkish, which they had used as their second language for hundreds of years. However, unlike the Vallahades, these Greek communities from northeastern Anatolia
Anatolia
and the former Russian South Caucasus
South Caucasus
had generally either remained Christian Orthodox throughout the centuries of Ottoman rule or had reverted to Christian Orthodoxy in the mid-1800, after having superficially adopted Islam
Islam
in the 1500s whilst remaining Crypto-Christians. Even after their deportation, the Vallahades
Vallahades
continued to celebrate New Year's Day
New Year's Day
with a Vasilopita, generally considered to be a Christian custom associated with Saint Basil, but they have renamed it a cabbage/greens/leek cake and do not leave a piece for the saint.[19] See also[edit]

Cretan Muslims Greek Muslims Pontic Greeks Caucasus Greeks Pomaks Western Thrace
Thrace
Turks Cham Albanians The 1923 Population Exchange

Notes[edit]

^ Haslett, 1927 ^ a b See Hasluck, 'Christianity and Islam
Islam
under the Sultans', Oxford, 1929. ^ See Vakalopoulos, 'A History of Macedonia', p. 356. ^ Gustav Weigand, Alan Wace, and Maurice Thompson ^ email from researcher Souli Tsetlaka to Stavros Macrakis, July 2, 2007 ^ a b c d See De Jong, 'The Greek-speaking Muslims of Macedonia'. ^ The story is given in full in Vakalopoulos, 'A History of Macedonia'. ^ See De Jong, 'The Greek-speaking Muslims of Macedonia', and Vakalopoulos, 'A History of Macedonia'. ^ De Jong, 'The Greek-speaking Muslims of Macedonia'. ^ See Hasluk, 'Christianity and Islam
Islam
under the Sultans' and Vakalopoulos, 'A History of Macedonia'. ^ On these groups see Hugh Poulton, 'The Balkans: minorities and states in conflict', Minority Rights Publications, 1991. ^ See Hasluk and Vakalopoulos for further observations and references to earlier European traveler accounts. ^ Васил Кънчов. Македония. Етнография и статистика, София 1900, с. 283-290 (Vasil Kanchov. "Macedonia. Ethnography and statistics. Sofia, 1900, p.283-290). ^ Κωνσταντίνος Σπανός. "Η απογραφή του Σαντζακίου των Σερβίων", in: "Ελιμειακά", 48-49, 2001. ^ Population Exchange in Greek Macedonia
Greek Macedonia
by Elisabeth Kontogiorgi. Published 2006. Oxford University Press; p.199 ^ a b Koukoudis, Asterios (2003). The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora. Zitros. p. 198. “In the mid-seventeenth century, the inhabitants of many of the villages in the upper Aliakmon valley-in the areas of Grevena, Anaselitsa or Voio, and Kastoria— gradually converted to Islam. Among them were a number of Kupatshari, who continued to speak Greek, however, and to observe many of their old Christian customs. The Islamicised Greek-speaking inhabitants of these areas came to be better known as “Valaades”. They were also called “Foutsides”, while to the Vlachs
Vlachs
of the Grevena
Grevena
area they were also known as “Vlăhútsi”. According to Greek statistics, in 1923 Anavrytia (Vrastino), Kastro, Kyrakali, and Pigadtisa were inhabited exclusively by Moslems (i.e Valaades), while Elatos (Dovrani), Doxaros (Boura), Kalamitsi, Felli, and Melissi (Plessia) were inhabited by Moslem Valaades and Christian Kupatshari. There were also Valaades living in Grevena, as also in other villages to the north and east of the town. It should be noted that the term “Valaades” refers to Greek-speaking Moslems not only of the Grevena
Grevena
area but also of Anaselitsa. In 1924, despite even their own objections, the last of the Valaades being Moslems, were forced to leave Greece under the terms of the compulsory exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey. Until then they had been almost entirely Greek-speakers. Many of the descendants of the Valaades of Anaseltisa, now scattered through Turkey and particularly Eastern Thrace
Thrace
(in such towns as Kumburgaz, Büyükçekmece, and Çatalca), still speak Greek dialect of Western Macedonia, which, significantly, they themselves call Romeïka “the language of the Romii”. It is worth noting the recent research carried out by Kemal Yalçin, which puts a human face on the fate of 120 or so families from Anavryta and Kastro, who were involved in the exchange of populations. They set sail from Thessaloniki for Izmir, and from there settled en bloc in the village of Honaz
Honaz
near Denizli.” ^ Kappler, Matthias (1996). "Fra religione e lingua/grafia nei Balcani: i musulmani grecofoni (XVIII-XIX sec.) e un dizionario rimato ottomano-greco di Creta." Oriente Moderno. 15. (76): 86. “Accenni alla loro religiosità popolare mistiforme “completano” questo quadro, ridotto, sulla trasmissione culturale di un popolo illetterato ormai scornparso: emigrati in Asia minore dalla fine del secolo scorso, e ancora soggetti allo scambio delle popolazioni del 1923, i “Vallahades”, o meglio i loro discendenti, sono ormai pienamente assimilati agli ambienti turchi di Turchia.” ^ Andrews, 1989, p. 103; Friedman ^ Hasluck, 1927

References[edit]

Peter Alford Andrews, Rüdiger Benninghaus, eds. Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey Wiesbaden: Reichert, 1989. (cited by Friedman, not seen) Frederick de Jong, "The Greek Speaking Muslims of Macedonia: Reflections on Conversion and Ethnicity", pp. 141–148 in Hendrik Boeschoten, ed., De Turcicis Aliisque Rebus: Commentarii Henry Hofman dedicati Utrecht: Institut voor Oosterse Talen en Culturen, 1992. (cited by Friedman, not seen) Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization", pp. 26–50 in Juhani Nuoluoto, Martti Leiwo, Jussi Halla-aho, eds., University of Chicago Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies (Slavica Helsingiensa 21). Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. full text Margaret M. Hasluck, "The Basil-Cake of the Greek New Year", Folklore 38:2:143 (June 30, 1927) JSTOR F. W. Hasluck, 'Christianity and Islam
Islam
under the Sultans', Oxford, 1929. Speros Vryonis, 'Religious Changes and Patterns in the Balkans, 14th-16th Centuries', in Aspects of the Balkans: Continuity and Change (The Hague: 1972).

External links[edit]

Apostolos Vakalopulos. The Vallahades
Vallahades
of Western Macedonia, in: History of Macedonia 1354-1833, Thessaloniki 1973

v t e

European Muslims

Majority

Indo-European

Albanians Bosniaks Gorani Kurds

Kurds in Germany Kurds in France Kurds in the Netherlands

Muslimani Pomaks Talysh Tats

Turkic

Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Crimean Tatars Karachays Kazakhs Kumyks Lipka Tatars Nogais Volga Tatars Turks

Meskhetian Turks Turks in Germany Other

Caucasian

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Kists

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Arabs
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Berbers
in France Berbers
Berbers
in Belgium Berbers
Berbers
in the Netherlands

Dönmeh Laz

Minority

Abkhazians Bulgarian Croats Georgians

* Adjarians

Greek

Vallahades Cretan Muslims

Macedonian Megleno-Romanians Ossetians Romani

Ashkali and Balkan Egyptians

.