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The All-Russian Central Executive Committee
All-Russian Central Executive Committee
(Russian: Всероссийский Центральный Исполнительный Комитет, tr. Vserossiysky Centralny Ispolnitelny Komitet (VTsIK)), was the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) from 1917 until 1937. Although the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
had supreme authority, in periods between its sessions its powers were passed to VTsIK.

Contents

1 Organization 2 Provisions 3 History 4 Chairmans of the Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR 5 See also 6 References

Organization[edit] The 1918 Russian Constitution required that the VTsIK convene the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
no fewer than two times a year (Statute 26 of Article III).[1] Additional Congresses could be called by the VTsIK or on the request of local Soviets. The VTsIK was elected by a full Congress, with no more than 200 individuals. It was completely subordinate to the Congress. The functions of the Collegiate or the Presidium were not declared in the Constitution, but presumably they were supposed to be purely supervisory or revisionary bodies. Provisions[edit] VTsIK gave a general direction for the policies of the Worker-Peasant government and all bodies of the Soviet power in the country. It united and coordinated activities for legislation and administration as well as supervised the endorsement of the Soviet Constitution, declarations of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
and central bodies of the Soviet power. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee reviewed and adopted the projects of decrees and other propositions introduced by the Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars
and separate departments as well as issued its own decrees and instructions. VTsIK summoned the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
to which it presented the reports on its activity, general policy, and other inquiries. The All-Russian Central Executive Committee
All-Russian Central Executive Committee
formed the Council of People's Commissars
Council of People's Commissars
for general administrative affairs of the republic and departments (called People's Commissariats) for the management of separate branches of administration. Members of VTsIK worked in the departments or executed special assignments of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. The state budget was defined by VTsIK and All-Russian Congress of Soviets together, in addition to defining the budgets of different regions. History[edit] The All-Russian Central Executive Committee
All-Russian Central Executive Committee
was first elected at the very first All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
in Petrograd, June 3–24, 1917. The first Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets was not a governing body and its chairman Nikolai Chkheidze was not the head of Russian state. This changed at the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
during the October Revolution. The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
met in, and elected the second Central Executive Committee. This then became the executive body of the RSFSR. It was composed of

62 Bolsheviks 29 Left SRs 10 Mensheviks
Mensheviks
and Right SRs[2]

The first chairman of the VTsIK was Lev Kamenev, who directed the day-to-day work of the Committee. He only cast a vote if there was an even split in the committee.[3] The full name at one time was All-Russian Central Executive Committee of Workers', Peasants', Red Army, and Cossack Deputies (Всероссийский Центральный Исполнительный Комитет Советов рабочих, крестьянских, красноармейских и казачьих депутатов). From the formation of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1922, it downgraded from the highest level (federal) to the second level (federal-republic) of a governing body. Following the adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution, this organ was replaced with the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the Russian SFSR. Chairmans of the Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR[edit]

Lev Kamenev
Lev Kamenev
(November 9–21, 1917) Yakov Sverdlov
Yakov Sverdlov
(November 21, 1917 - March 16, 1919) (died in office) Mikhail Vladimirsky
Mikhail Vladimirsky
(acting, March 16–30, 1919) Mikhail Kalinin
Mikhail Kalinin
(March 30, 1919 - July 15, 1938)

On December 30, 1922 the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was formed. It comprised the Russian SFSR and other communist-controlled Soviet republics. Mikhail Kalinin retained his position as Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
and became Chairman of the newly formed Central Executive Committee of the USSR
Central Executive Committee of the USSR
as well. Both positions were mostly ceremonial, increasingly so in later years. See also[edit]

Supreme Soviet

References[edit]

^ 1918 Constitution of the R.S.F.S.R., Article III ^ Encyclopedia of Marxism: Glossary of Organisations, marxists.org, accessed 1 March 2018 ^ Encyclopedia of Marxism: Glossary of Organisations, marxists.org, acce

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