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Uzair
Uzair
(Arabic: عزير‎, ‘Uzair) is a figure mentioned in the Quran, in the verse 9:30, which states that he was revered by the Jews as "the son of God". Uzair
Uzair
is most often identified with the biblical Ezra. Modern historians have described the reference as "enigmatic", since such views have not been found in Jewish sources.[1][2] Islamic scholars have interpreted the Qur'anic reference in different ways, with some explaining that it alluded to a specific group of Jews.[1] According to Ibn Kathir, Uzair
Uzair
lived between the times of King Solomon and the time of Zachariah, father of John the Baptist.[3] Some Quranic commentators viewed Uzayr as a learned scholar who sought to teach the people the forgotten laws of God.[4] He is sometimes identified as the protagonist in the Quranic story of the man who slept for a hundred years (2:259).[1] Some Islamic scholars held Uzayr to be one of the prophets.[5][3] However, Islamic tradition also reports that God expunged Uzayr from the list of prophets because he refused to believe in qadar (predestination).[4] Ibn Hazm, al-Samaw'al and other scholars put forth the view that Uzair
Uzair
(or one of his disciples) falsified the Torah, and this claim became a common theme in Islamic polemics against the Bible.[1] Many aspects of later Islamic narratives show similarity to Vision of Ezra, an apocryphal text which seems to have been partially known to Muslim
Muslim
readers.[1] Classical Muslim
Muslim
scholars who were aware of Jewish and Christian denials of belief in the sonship of Ezra, explained that it was only one Jew
Jew
or a small group of Jews who worshipped Uzayr, or that the verse refers to the extreme admiration of Jews for their doctors of law.[1] Authors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
viewed the Quranic reference as a "malevolent metaphor" for the reverence accorded to Ezra
Ezra
in Judaism.[6] Some modern historians have favored the theory that a Jewish sect in Arabia venerated Ezra
Ezra
to the extent of deifying him.[7] Gordon Darnell Newby has suggested that the Quranic expression may have reflected Ezra's possible designation as one of the Bene Elohim (lit. sons of God) by Jews of the Hejaz.[8] Other scholars proposed emendations of the received spelling of the name, leading to readings ‘Uzayl (‘Azazel), ‘Azīz, or Azariah (Abednego).[7][9]

Contents

1 Quranic context 2 Islamic tradition and literature

2.1 Alleged falsification of scripture

3 Jewish tradition and literature 4 Historical analysis

4.1 Alternative readings of the name

5 References

Quranic context[edit] The Quran
Quran
states that Jews exalted Ezra
Ezra
as a son of God:

The Jews call Ezra
Ezra
a son of God, and the Christians call the Christ a son of God. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. May Allah
Allah
destroy them: how they are deluded away from the Truth! (Quran 9:30)

This verse is situated in a context of theological disputes with the Jewish community of Medina.[4] The Quran
Quran
emphasizes the absolute divinity of God
God
and warns against associating any being with him (shirk).[4] It further condemns Jewish and Christian
Christian
leaders of the time for deceiving the masses into taking "their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of God".[4] In casting doubt on claims about the divine status of Uzayr and Christ, the Quran also instructs Muslims to reject such beliefs.[4] These arguments reflect the tensions between the new Muslim
Muslim
community and the more established Christian
Christian
and Jewish communities of Arabia.[4] Islamic tradition and literature[edit] In some Islamic texts, Ezra
Ezra
is identified as the person mentioned in Qur'an 2:259:[3]

Or (take) the similitude of one who passed by a hamlet, all in ruins to its roofs. He said: "Oh! how shall God
God
bring it (ever) to life, after (this) its death?" but God
God
caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: "How long didst thou tarry (thus)?" He said: (Perhaps) a day or part of a day." He said: "Nay, thou hast tarried thus a hundred years; but look at thy food and thy drink; they show no signs of age; and look at thy donkey: And that We may make of thee a sign unto the people, Look further at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh." When this was shown clearly to him, he said: "I know that God
God
hath power over all things." (Quran 2:259)

Jonah
Jonah
trying to hide his nakedness in the midst of bushes; Jeremiah
Jeremiah
in the wilderness (top left); Uzair
Uzair
awakened after the destruction of Jerusalem. Zubdat-al Tawarikh (see text for details).

The history text Zubdat-al Tawarikh, dedicated to Sultan Murad III
Murad III
in 1583, narrates a story of Uzair's grief for the destruction of Jerusalem. His grief is said to have been so great that God
God
took his soul and brought him back to life after Jerusalem was reconstructed. In the miniature accompanying the manuscript, the building on the lower right depicts the rebuilt city of Jerusalem in the form a typical sixteenth-century Ottoman building with a dome and an arched portico. The former ruins of Jerusalem are alluded to by the broken arches and columns on the left.[10] According to the classical Quranic exegete, Ibn Kathir, after Ezra questioned how the resurrection will take place on the Day of judgment, God
God
had him brought back to life many years after he died. He rode on his revived donkey and entered his native place. But the people did not recognize him, nor did his household, except the maid, who was now an old blind woman. He prayed to God
God
to cure her blindness and she could see again. He meets his son who recognized him by a mole between his shoulders and was older than he was. Ezra
Ezra
then led the people to locate the only surviving copy of Torah
Torah
as the remaining were burnt by Nebuchadnezzar. It was rotting and crumpled, so Ezra
Ezra
had a new copy of the Torah
Torah
made which he had previously memorised. He thus renovated the Torah
Torah
to the Children of Israel. Ibn Kathir mentions that the sign in the phrase "And that We may make of thee a sign unto the people" was that he was younger than his children. After this miracle, Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
writes that Jews began to claim that Ezra
Ezra
was the 'son of God'.[11] The modern Quranic exegesis of Abul Ala Maududi
Abul Ala Maududi
states:

Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra) lived during the period around 450 B.C. The Jews regarded him with great reverence as the revivalist of their Scriptures which had been lost during their captivity in Babylon
Babylon
after the death of Prophet Solomon. So much so that they had lost all the knowledge of their Law, their traditions and of Hebrew, their national language. Then it was Ezra
Ezra
who re-wrote the Old Testament
Old Testament
and revived the Law. That is why they used very exaggerated language in his reverence which misled some of the Jewish sects to make him 'the son of God'. The Qur'an, however, does not assert that all the Jews were unanimous in declaring Ezra
Ezra
as 'the son of God'. What it intends to say is that the perversion in the articles of faith of the Jews concerning Allah
Allah
had degenerated to such an extent that there were some amongst them who considered Ezra
Ezra
as the son of God.[12]

According to Maulana Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali's Quranic commentary, there indeed existed a group of Jews who venerated Ezra
Ezra
as the son of God. According to Ali, Qastallani held that in the Kitan al-Nikah, that there was a party of Jews who held this belief.[13] Alleged falsification of scripture[edit] Ibn Hazm, an Andalusian Muslim
Muslim
scholar, explicitly accused Ezra
Ezra
of being a liar and a heretic who falsified and added interpolations into the Biblical text. Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm
provided a polemical list of what he considered "chronological and geographical inaccuracies and contradictions; theological impossibilities (anthropomorphic expressions, stories of fornication and whoredom, and the attributing of sins to prophets), as well as lack of reliable transmission (tawatur) of the text", Hava Lazarus-Yafeh states.[14][15] In response to attacks on the personality of Ezra, the Byzantine Emperor Leo III defended Ezra
Ezra
as a pious, reliable person.[15] The Jewish convert to Islam
Islam
al-Samaw'al (d. 1175) accused Ezra
Ezra
of interpolating stories such as Gen. 19:30-8 in the Bible
Bible
in order to sully David’s origins and to prevent the rule of the Davidic dynasty during the second Temple.[14] The writings of Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm
and al-Samaw'al was adopted and updated only slightly by later Muslim
Muslim
authors up to contemporary times.[14][15] Jewish tradition and literature[edit] As in Islam, a fundamental tenet of Judaism
Judaism
is that God
God
is not bound by any limitations of time, matter, or space, and that the idea of any person being God, a part of God, or a mediator to God, is heresy.[16] The Book of Ezra, which Judaism
Judaism
accepts as a chronicle of the life of Ezra
Ezra
and which predates Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Qur'an by around 1000 years, gives Ezra's human lineage as being the son of Seraiah and a direct descendant of Aaron. Tractate Ta'anit of the Jerusalem Talmud, which predates Muhammad
Muhammad
by two to three hundred years, states that “if a man claims to be God, he is a liar.”[17] Exodus Rabba 29 says, "'I am the first and I am the last, and beside Me there is no God' I am the first, I have no father; I am the last, I have no brother. Beside Me there is no God; I have no son."[18] However the term 'sons of gods' occurs in Genesis.[19] The Encyclopedia of Judaism
Judaism
clarifies that the title of 'son of God' is attributed a person whose piety has placed him in a very near relationship to God
God
and "by no means carries the idea of physical descent from, and essential unity with, God".[20] The title of son of God
God
(servant of God
God
) is used by the Jews for any pious person as is evident according to Encyclopedia of Judaism
Judaism
which states that the title of son of God
God
is attributed by the Jews "to any one whose piety has placed him in a filial relation to God
God
(see Wisdom ii. 13, 16, 18; v. 5, where "the sons of God" are identical with "the saints"; comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] iv. 10). It is through such personal relations that the individual becomes conscious of God's fatherhood."[20] Jews consider Ezra
Ezra
among the pious. The Qur'anic verse on Ezra
Ezra
appears in one of Maimonides's discussions about the relationship between Judaism
Judaism
and Islam
Islam
where he says “…they [Muslims] lie about us [Jews], and falsely attribute to us the statement that God
God
has a son.”[21] Abraham
Abraham
Geiger, the founder of Reform Judaism, remarked the following concerning the claim that Jews believed Ezra
Ezra
to be the son of God: “According to the assertion of Muhammad
Muhammad
the Jews held Ezra
Ezra
to be the Son of God. This is certainly a mere misunderstanding which arose from the great esteem in which Ezra
Ezra
was undoubtedly held. This esteem is expressed in the following passage ‘ Ezra
Ezra
would have been worthy to have made known the law if Moses
Moses
had not come before him.’ Truly Muhammad
Muhammad
sought to cast suspicion on the Jews’ faith in the unity of God, and thought he had here found a good opportunity of so doing.”[22] Historical analysis[edit] The Quranic claim that Jews consider Ezra
Ezra
the "son of God" is unattested either in Jewish or other extra-Quranic sources.[2][23] According to the Encyclopedia Judaica:

"Muhammed claims (Sura 9:30) that in the opinion of the Jews, Uzayr (Ezra) is the son of God. These words are enigma because no such opinion is to be found among the Jews, even though Ezra
Ezra
was singled out for special appreciation (see Sanh. 21b; Yev. 86b)."[2]

In A History of the Jews of Arabia: From Ancient Times to Their Eclipse under Islam,[24] scholar Gordon Darnell Newby notes the following on the topic of Uzair, the angel Metatron and the Bene Elohim (lit. "Sons of God"):

...we can deduce that the inhabitants of Hijaz
Hijaz
during Muhammad's time knew portions, at least, of 3 Enoch in association with the Jews. The angels over which Metatron becomes chief are identified in the Enoch traditions as the sons of God, the Bene Elohim, the Watchers, the fallen ones as the causer of the flood. In 1 Enoch, and 4 Ezra, the term Son of God
God
can be applied to the Messiah, but most often it is applied to the righteous men, of whom Jewish tradition holds there to be no more righteous than the ones God
God
elected to translate to heaven alive. It is easy, then, to imagine that among the Jews of the Hijaz who were apparently involved in mystical speculations associated with the merkabah, Ezra, because of the traditions of his translation, because of his piety, and particularly because he was equated with Enoch as the Scribe of God, could be termed one of the Bene Elohim. And, of course, he would fit the description of religious leader (one of the ahbar of the Qur'an 9:31) whom the Jews had exalted.[8]

According to Reuven Firestone, there is evidence of groups of Jews venerating Ezra
Ezra
to an extent greater than mainstream Judaism, which fits with the interpretation that the verse merely speaks of a small group of Jews. The book 2 Esdras, a non-canonical book attributed to Babylonian captivity, associates a near-divine or angelic status to Ezra.[25] Mark Lidzbarski
Mark Lidzbarski
and Michael Lodahl have also hypothesized existence of an Arabian Jewish sect whose veneration of Ezra
Ezra
bordered on deification.[7] The 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
states:

"In the Koran (ix. 30) the Jews are charged with worshiping Ezra ("'Uzair") as the son of God—a malevolent metaphor for the great respect which was paid by the Jews to the memory of Ezra
Ezra
as the restorer of the Law, and from which the Ezra
Ezra
legends of apocryphal literature (II Esd. xxxiv. 37-49) originated (as to how they developed in Mohammedan legends see Damiri, "Ḥayat al-Ḥayawan," i. 304-305). It is hard to bring into harmony with this the fact, related by Jacob Saphir ("Eben Sappir," i. 99), that the Jews of South Arabia have a pronounced aversion for the memory of Ezra, and even exclude his name from their category of proper names."[6]

Alternative readings of the name[edit] Some scholars proposed emendations of the received spelling of the name, عزير.[7] Paul Casanova and Steven M. Wasserstrom read the name as ‘Uzayl (عزيل), a variant of Asael (Enoch 6:8) or ‘ Azazel
Azazel
(Leviticus 16:8), who is identified in the Jewish Haggada
Haggada
as the leader of the fallen angels called "sons of God" in Genesis 6:2.[7][26] J. Finkel instead reads the name as ‘Azīz (عزيز, potentate), connecting it to the phrase "thou art my son" in Psalms 2:7.[7] Viviane Comerro, Professeur in Islamic literature at INALCO, considers the possibility of Quranic Uzair
Uzair
not being Ezra
Ezra
but Azariah instead, relying on Ibn Qutaybah, and identifying a confusion committed by Muslim
Muslim
exegetes.[clarification needed] She declares : "There is, from muslim traditionalists, a confusion between two distinct characters, Ezra
Ezra
['Azrà] et Azariah ['Azarya(h)](...) Thus, it is possible that the quranic vocable Uzayr could find its origin in Azariah's one."[9] The deuterocanonical version of the book of Daniel confirms this hypothesis.[citation needed] The Theodotion's version, used by Catholics and Orthodox Christians contains the Prayer of Azariah, an apocryphal prayer added by Hellenistic rabbis in the Septuagint version of the book of Daniel, which curiously[original research?] mentions Abednego
Abednego
by his other name, Azariah, rather than Abednego[27] which is used in the whole chapter 3 of the Hebrew and Protestant version, without any mention of the name "Azariah" in this chapter.[28] This mention precedes the appearance of an angel qualified by Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
as having the form of the "son of god".[29][original research?] Legends from Jewish communities of Arabia which were using the Septuagint
Septuagint
version of the Book of Daniel made the confusion between the fourth character, the angel who is like the son of god, and Azariah himself, as confirmed by H. Schwarzbaum.[30] References[edit]

^ a b c d e f Lazarus Yafeh, Hava (2012). "ʿUzayr". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(2nd ed.). Brill. (Subscription required (help)). CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ a b c "Ezra". Encyclopaedia Judaica. 6. pp. 1106–1107. Muhammad
Muhammad
claims (sura 9:30) that in the opinion of the Jews, ' Uzair
Uzair
is the son of God. These words are an enigma because no such opinion is to be found among the Jews, even though Uzair
Uzair
was singled out for special appreciation.  ^ a b c Ibn Kathir. "`Uzair(Ezra)". Stories Of The Quran. Ali As-Sayed Al- Halawani (trans.). Islambasics.com. Retrieved 2007-11-21.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ a b c d e f g Abu-Rabiʿ, Ibrahim M. (2006). "Ezra". In Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. Brill. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Ashraf, Shahid (2005). "Prophets 'Uzair, Zakariya and Yahya (PBUT)". Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions (Google Books). Daryaganj, New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 199–200. ISBN 81-261-1940-3. Retrieved 2007-11-20.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ a b Kaufmann Kohler; Ignatz Goldziher (1906). "Islam". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  ^ a b c d e f Mun'im Sirry (2014). Scriptural Polemics: The Qur'an and Other Religions. Oxford University Press. p. 48.  ^ a b G. D. Newby, A History Of The Jews Of Arabia, 1988, University Of South Carolina Press, p. 59 (quoted in Was `Uzayr (Ezra) Called The Son Of God? by M S M Saifullah & Mustafa Ahmed ^ a b VIVIANE COMERRO. "ESDRAS EST-IL LE FILS DE DIEU, p. 8-9 (172-173)" (PDF). Arabica, Tome LII, 2, p. 172-173. Brill.  ^ G’nsel Renda (1978). "The Miniatures of the Zubdat Al- Tawarikh". Turkish Treasures Culture /Art / Tourism Magazine.  ^ Ibn Kathir, Stories of the Prophets, translated by Shaikh muhammed Mustafa Gemeiah, Office of the Grand Imam, Sheikh al-Azhar, El-Nour Publishing, Egypt, 1997, Ch.21, pp.322-4 ^ Maududi, Sayyid Abul Ala. "Surah At Taubah (The Repentance), Verse 31". Tafhim-ul-Quran. Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra) lived during the period around 450 B.C. The Jews regarded him with great reverence as the revivalist of their Scriptures which had beat lost during their captivity in Babylon after the death of Prophet Solomon. So much so that they had lost all the knowledge of their Law, their traditions and of Hebrew, their national language. Then it was Ezra
Ezra
who re-wrote the Old Testament
Old Testament
and revived the Law. That is why they used very exaggerated language in his reverence which misled some of the Jewish sects to make him 'the son of God'. The Qur'an, however, does not assert that all the Jews were unanimous in declaring Ezra
Ezra
as 'the son of God'. What it intends to say is that the perversion in the articles of faith of the Jews concerning Allah
Allah
had degenerated to such an extent that there were some amongst them who considered Ezra
Ezra
as the son of God.  ^ Ali, Maulana (2002). The Holy Quran
Quran
Arabic Text with English Translation, Commentary and comprehensive Introduction by Maulana Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement. pp. 404–405. ISBN 091332101X.  ^ a b c Encyclopedia of Islam, Uzair ^ a b c Hava Lazarus-Yafeh, Tahrif, Encyclopedia of Islam ^

Maimonedes, Mishneh Torah, Yesodei Hatorah, Chapter 1 Emunoth ve-Deoth, II:5 Exod. Rabba 29, “…I am the first, I have no father; I am the last, I have no brother; Beside Me there is no God; I have no son.”

^ Ta'anit (2:1) ^ http://www.sacred-texts.com/jud/tmm/tmm08.htm ^ The Bible, Genesis, Ch. 6, v. 2 ^ a b http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13912-son-of-god ^ Shapiro, Marc B. (Summer 1993). " Islam
Islam
and the halakhah". Judaism: A Quarterly Journal of Jewish Life & Thought. New York: American Jewish Congress. 42 (167). Retrieved 2007-11-15. The Ishmaelites are not at all idolaters; [idolatry] has long been severed from their mouths and hearts; and they attribute to God
God
a proper unity, a unity concerning which there is no doubt. And because they lie about us , and falsely attribute to us the statement that God
God
has a son…  ^ Abraham
Abraham
Geiger's book Judaism
Judaism
and Islam
Islam
chapter 2 part 4 ^ Kate Zebiri, Encyclopedia of the Qur'an, The Qur'an and Polemics ^ Gordon Darnell Newby, A History of the Jews of Arabia: From Ancient Times to Their Eclipse under Islam
Islam
(Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 1988; 2nd edn. 2009). ^ Firestone, Rabbi
Rabbi
Reuven (2001). Children of Abraham: An Introduction to Judaism
Judaism
for Muslims. American Jewish Committee. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0881257206.  ^ VIVIANE COMERRO. "ESDRAS EST-IL LE FILS DE DIEU, p. 8-9 (172-173)" (PDF). Arabica, Tome LII, 2, p. 170-171. Brill.  ^ "Daniel, chapter 3". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops.  ^ "Daniel 3 (King James Version)". http://www.biblegateway.com.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Daniel 3:25 (King James Version)". http://www.biblegateway.com.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ VIVIANE COMERRO. "ESDRAS EST-IL LE FILS DE DIEU, p. 9 (173)". Arabica, Tome LII, 2, p. 173. Brill. 

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians)

Non-related

Ḥimār (domesticated donkey or wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinn

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Jann Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil) Other Shayāṭīn (Demons)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron
Aaron
and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Tubba‘ (People of Tubba)

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl as-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār an-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Shaṭ’ (Shoot) Sūq (Stem) Zar‘ (Seed)

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah ‘Umrah al-Qaza Yawm ad-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or r

.