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Twelver
Shi'ism

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Usulis (Arabic: الاصولية‎) are the majority Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a Muslim
Muslim
group. They differ from their now much smaller rival Akhbari group in favoring the use of ijtihad (i.e., reasoning) in the creation of new rules of fiqh; in assessing hadith to exclude traditions they believe unreliable; and in considering it obligatory to obey a mujtahid when seeking to determine Islamically correct behavior. Since the crushing of the Akhbaris in the late 18th century, it has been the dominant school of Twelver
Twelver
Shi'a
Shi'a
and now forms an overwhelming majority within the Twelver
Twelver
Shia denomination. The name Usuli
Usuli
derives from the term Uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of jurisprudence). In Usuli
Usuli
thought, there are four valid sources of law: the Quran, hadith, ijma' and 'aql. Ijma'
Ijma'
refers to a unanimous consensus. Aql, in Shia jurisprudence, is applied to four practical principles which are applied when other religious proofs are not applicable:[1]:284-5 bara'at (immunity), ihtiyat (recommended precautions), takhyir (selection), and istishab (the presumption of continuity in the previous state).

Contents

1 Background 2 Taqlid 3 History 4 See also 5 References

Background[edit] The Usuli
Usuli
believe that the Hadith
Hadith
collections contained traditions of varying degrees of reliability, and that critical analysis was necessary to assess their authority. In contrast the Akhbari
Akhbari
believe that the sole sources of law are the Qur'an
Qur'an
and the Hadith, in particular the Four Books accepted by the Shia: everything in these sources is in principle reliable, and outside them there was no authority competent to enact or deduce further legal rules. In addition to assessing the reliability of the Hadith, Usuli
Usuli
believe the task of the legal scholar is to establish intellectual principles of general application (Usul al-fiqh), from which particular rules may be derived by way of deduction. Accordingly, Usuli
Usuli
legal scholarship has the tools in principle for resolving new situations that are not already addressed in Quran
Quran
or Hadith
Hadith
(see Ijtihad). Taqlid[edit] See also: Marja' An important tenet of Usuli
Usuli
doctrine is Taqlid or "imitation", i.e. the acceptance of a religious ruling in matters of worship and personal affairs from someone regarded as a higher religious authority (e.g. an 'ālim) without necessarily asking for the technical proof. These higher religious authorities can be known as a "source of imitation" (Arabic marja taqlid مرجع تقليد, Persian marja) or less exaltedly as an "imitated one" (Arabic مقلَد muqallad). However, his verdicts are not to be taken as the only source of religious information and he can be always corrected by other muqalladeen (the plural of muqallad) which come after him. Obeying a deceased taqlid is forbidden in Usuli.[2]:225 Taqlid has been introduced by scholars who felt that Quranic verses and traditions were not enough and that ulama were needed not only to interpret the Quran
Quran
and Sunna but to make "new rulings to respond to new challenges and push the boundaries of Shia law in new directions."[3] History[edit] By their debates and books, Al-Mufid, Sayyid-al Murtada, and Shaykh al-Tusi in Iraq, were the first to introduce the Uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence) under the influence of the Shafe'i and Mu'tazili doctrines. Al-Kulayni, in Rey, and al-Sadduq, in Qom, were concerned with a traditionalist approach. The second wave of the Usuli
Usuli
was shaped in the Mongol period when al-Hilli introduced the term mujtahid, meaning an individual qualified to deduce ordinances on the basis of authentic religious arguments. By developing the theory of the usul, al-Hilli introduced more legal and logical norms which extended the meaning of the usul beyond the four principle sources. Amili was the first scholar to fully formulate the principles of ijtihad. These traditional principles of Shi'a
Shi'a
jurisprudence were challenged by the 17th-century Akhbari
Akhbari
school, led by Muhammad
Muhammad
Amin al-Astarabadi. A reaction against Akhbari
Akhbari
arguments was led in the last half of the 18th century by Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir Behbahani.[1]:284-285 He attacked the Akhbari
Akhbari
and their method was abandoned by Shia.[1]:230 The dominance of the Usuli
Usuli
over the Akhbari
Akhbari
came when Behbahani led the Usuli
Usuli
to dominance and "completely routed the Akhbaris at Karbala
Karbala
and Najaf," so that "only a handful of Shi'i ulama have remained Akhbari
Akhbari
to the present day."[2]:127

Usulis and Shia Islam

See also[edit]

Marja' List of marjas

References[edit]

^ a b c Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza; Dabashi, Hamid; Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1989). Expectation of the Millennium: Shi'ism in History. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0887068448.  ^ a b Momen, Moojan (1985). An introduction to Shi’i Islam : the history and doctrines of Twelver
Twelver
Shi’ism. Oxford: George Ronald. ISBN 0-85398-201-5.  ^ Nasr, Vali (2006). The Shia Revival: How Conflicts within Islam
Islam
will shape the Future. Norton. p. 69. ISBN 0-393-06211-2. 

Twelvers / Ithna Ashari Islamic Schools of Thought Newman, Andrew J. (1992). "The Nature of the Akhbārī/Uṣūlī Dispute in Late Ṣafawid Iran. Part 1: 'Abdallāh al-Samāhijī's "Munyat al-Mumārisīn". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. University of London. 55 (1): 22–51. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00002639. JSTOR 620475. 

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Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

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Gender of God
and gods

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Singular god theologies

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the Bahá'í Faith Buddhism Hinduism Jainism Sikhism Zoroastrianism

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God
as

the Devil Sustainer Time

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Trinity
of the Church Fathers Trinitarian Universalism

Eschatology

Afterlife Apocalypticism Buddhist Christian Heaven Hindu Islamic Jewish Taoist Zoroastrian

Feminist

Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Judaism Mormonism Goddesses

Other concepts

The All Aristotelian view Attributes of God
God
in Christianity / in Islam Binitarianism Demiurge Divine simplicity Divine presence Egotheism Exotheology Holocaust Godhead in Christianity

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Great Architect of the Universe Great Spirit Apophatic theology Olelbis Open theism Personal god Phenomenological definition Philo's view Process Tian Unmoved mover

Names of God
God
in

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By Faith

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Hindu

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Islamic

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Jewish

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Islam
Islam
topics

Outline of Islam

Beliefs

God
God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

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Five Pillars

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History Leaders

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Muslim
history Conquests Golden Age Historiography Sahaba Ahl al-Bayt Shi'a
Shi'a
Imams Caliphates

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medieval

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Hygiene

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Marriage Sex

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Other areas

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poetry

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Other religions

Christianity

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Hinduism Jainism Judaism Sikhism

Related topics

Apostasy Criticism of Islam Cultural Muslim Islamism

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Islamophobia

Incidents

Islamic terrorism Islamic view of miracles Domestic violence Nursing Persecution of Muslims Quran
Quran
and miracles Symbolism

Isla

.