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Upper Burma
Burma
(Burmese: အထက်မြန်မာပြည်, also called Real Myanmar) refers to a geographic region of Burma
Burma
(Myanmar), traditionally encompassing Mandalay
Mandalay
and its periphery (modern Mandalay, Sagaing, Magway Regions), or more broadly speaking, Kachin and Shan States. In the Burmese language, people originating from Upper Burma
Burma
are typically called a-nya tha (အညာသား), whereas those from Lower Burma
Lower Burma
are called auk tha (အောက်သား). The term was first used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar
Myanmar
(Burma). After the Second Anglo-Burmese War of 1852, Lower Burma
Lower Burma
was annexed by the British Empire, while Upper Burma
Burma
remained independent under the Kingdom of Burma
Burma
until the Third Anglo-Burmese War
Third Anglo-Burmese War
of 1885. Upper Burma
Burma
was also known as Burma
Burma
proper and the Kingdom of Ava. Historically, Upper Burma
Burma
was predominantly Bamar
Bamar
(whereas Lower Burma was historically Mon-speaking until the early 19th century), while the Frontier Areas, as designated by the colonial administration, included ethnic minority areas, such as the Shan States
Shan States
and modern Kachin State. This distinction between Upper and Lower Burma
Lower Burma
is also found in some government departments (for instance, the Ministry of Education has departments assigned to Upper or Lower Burma), while some newspapers make a distinction between the two bodies. The Burmese language edition of The Myanmar
Myanmar
Times is an example; the newspaper devotes a section to news from Upper Burma.[1] In terms of linguistic differences, there are minute differences between the variants of Burmese spoken by Upper Burmese, especially in vocabulary choice (such as kinship terms that differentiate the maternal and paternal sides of a family, which is not made in Lower Burmese speech). However, there is remarkable uniformity in the Burmese spoken throughout the Irrawaddy River valley, which also includes the delta-lying and coastal region of Lower Burma. See also[edit]

Lower Burma

References[edit]

^ "အထက်မြန်မာပြည်သတင်းများ ကဏ္ဍ". မြန်မာတိုင်း(မ်). pp. c. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 

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Myanmar
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