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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
(UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot
Palais de Chaillot
in Paris, France. Of the then 58 members of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor, none against, eight abstained, and two did not vote. The Declaration consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights which, although not legally binding in themselves, have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, economic transfers, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions, and other laws. The Declaration was the first step in the process of formulating the International Bill of Human Rights, which was completed in 1966, and came into force in 1976, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified them. Some legal scholars have argued that because countries have constantly invoked the Declaration for more than 50 years, it has become binding as a part of customary international law.[1][2] However, in the United States, the Supreme Court in Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain
Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain
(2004), concluded that the Declaration "does not of its own force impose obligations as a matter of international law."[3] Courts of other countries have also concluded that the Declaration is not in and of itself part of domestic law.

Contents

1 Structure and content 2 History

2.1 Background 2.2 Creation and drafting 2.3 Adoption

3 International Human Rights
Rights
Day 4 Significance and legal effect

4.1 Significance 4.2 Legal effect

5 Reaction

5.1 Praise 5.2 Criticism

5.2.1 Islamic countries 5.2.2 "The Right to Refuse to Kill" 5.2.3 American Anthropological Association 5.2.4 Bangkok Declaration

6 Organizations promoting the UDHR

6.1 International Federation for Human Rights 6.2 Amnesty International 6.3 Unitarian Universalist Service Committee 6.4 Quaker United Nations
United Nations
Office and American Friends Service Committee 6.5 American Library Association 6.6 Youth for Human Rights
Rights
International

7 See also 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Sources

9 Further reading 10 External links

10.1 Audiovisual materials

Structure and content The underlying structure of the Universal Declaration was introduced in its second draft, which was prepared by René Cassin. Cassin worked from a first draft, which was prepared by John Peters Humphrey. The structure was influenced by the Code Napoléon, including a preamble and introductory general principles.[4] Cassin compared the Declaration to the portico of a Greek temple, with a foundation, steps, four columns, and a pediment.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Declaration consists of a preamble and thirty articles:

The preamble sets out the historical and social causes that led to the necessity of drafting the Declaration. Articles 1—2 established the basic concepts of dignity, liberty, equality, and brotherhood. Articles 3—11 established other individual rights, such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery. Articles 6—11 refer to the fundamental legality of human rights with specific remedies cited for their defence when violated. Articles 12–17 established the rights of the individual towards the community (including such things as freedom of movement). Articles 18–21 sanctioned the so-called "constitutional liberties", and with spiritual, public, and political freedoms, such as freedom of thought, opinion, religion and conscience, word, and peaceful association of the individual. Articles 22–27 sanctioned an individual's economic, social and cultural rights, including healthcare. Article 25 states: "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services." It also makes additional accommodations for security in case of physical debilitation or disability, and makes special mention of care given to those in motherhood or childhood.[5] Articles 28—30 established the general ways of using these rights, the areas in which these rights of the individual can not be applied, and that they can not be overcome against the individual.

These articles are concerned with the duty of the individual to society and the prohibition of use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the United Nations
United Nations
Organisation.[6] History Background

State of the Union (Four Freedoms) (6 January 1941)

Franklin Delano Roosevelt's 6 January 1941 State of the Union address introducing the theme of the Four Freedoms
Four Freedoms
(starting at 32:02)

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Main article: History of human rights During World War II, the Allies adopted the Four Freedoms—freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from fear, and freedom from want—as their basic war aims.[citation needed] The United Nations Charter "reaffirmed faith in fundamental human rights, and dignity and worth of the human person" and committed all member states to promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion".[7] When the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
became fully apparent after World War II, the consensus within the world community was that the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
did not sufficiently define the rights to which it referred.[8][9] A universal declaration that specified the rights of individuals was necessary to give effect to the Charter's provisions on human rights.[10] Creation and drafting Main article: Drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights In June 1946, the UN Economic and Social Council
UN Economic and Social Council
established the Commission on Human Rights, comprising 18 members from various nationalities and political backgrounds. The Commission, a standing body of the United Nations, was constituted to undertake the work of preparing what was initially conceived as an International Bill of Rights.[11] The Commission established a special Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
Drafting Committee, chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, to write the articles of the Declaration. The Committee met in two sessions over the course of two years. Canadian John Peters Humphrey, Director of the Division of Human Rights
Rights
within the United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat, was called upon by the United Nations
United Nations
Secretary-General to work on the project and became the Declaration's principal drafter.[12] At the time, Humphrey was newly appointed as Director of the Division of Human Rights
Rights
within the United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat.[13] Other well-known members of the drafting committee included René Cassin of France, Charles Malik
Charles Malik
of Lebanon, and P. C. Chang of the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan).[14] Humphrey provided the initial draft which became the working text of the Commission. According to Allan Carlson, the Declaration's pro-family phrases were the result of the Christian Democratic movement's influence on Cassin and Malik.[15] Once the Committee finished its work in May 1948, the draft was further discussed by the Commission on Human Rights, the Economic and Social Council, the Third Committee of the General Assembly before being put to vote in December 1948. During these discussions many amendments and propositions were made by UN Member States.[16] British representatives were extremely frustrated that the proposal had moral but no legal obligation.[17] (It was not until 1976 that the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
came into force, giving a legal status to most of the Declaration.) Adoption The Universal Declaration was adopted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 on 10 December 1948. Of the then 58 members[18] of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor, none against, eight abstained[19][20] and Honduras
Honduras
and Yemen
Yemen
failed to vote or abstain.[21]

In miniature book.

The meeting record[22] provides firsthand insight into the debate. South Africa's position can be seen as an attempt to protect its system of apartheid, which clearly violated several articles in the Declaration.[19] The Saudi Arabian delegation's abstention was prompted primarily by two of the Declaration's articles: Article 18, which states that everyone has the right "to change his religion or belief"; and Article 16, on equal marriage rights.[19] The six communist countries abstentions centred around the view that the Declaration did not go far enough in condemning fascism and Nazism.[23] Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
attributed the abstention of Soviet bloc countries to Article 13, which provided the right of citizens to leave their countries.[24] The 48 countries which voted in favour of the Declaration are:[25]

Voters and abstainers in the Plenary session. In green countries that voted in favour, in orange those who abstained. In black, countries which failed to abstain or vote. In grey, countries which were not part of the UN at the time of voting

Afghanistan Argentina  Australia  Belgium Bolivia Brazil Burma  Canada[a] Chile  China Colombia Costa Rica  Cuba  Denmark Dominican Republic  Ecuador  Egypt El Salvador  Ethiopia  France  Greece Guatemala Haiti  Iceland  India  Iran  Iraq  Lebanon Liberia  Luxembourg  Mexico  Netherlands  New Zealand Nicaragua  Norway Pakistan  Panama Paraguay  Peru Philippines Thailand  Sweden  Syria Turkey  United Kingdom  United States  Uruguay  Venezuela

a. ^ Despite the central role played by the Canadian John Peters Humphrey, the Canadian Government at first abstained from voting on the Declaration's draft, but later voted in favor of the final draft in the General Assembly.[26]

8 countries abstained:[25]

 Byelorussian SSR (Byelorussia)  Czechoslovakia  Poland  Saudi Arabia  Soviet Union  Ukrainian SSR (Ukraine)  Union of South Africa  Yugoslavia

Other countries only gained sovereignty and joined the United Nations later,[27] which explains the relatively small number of states entitled to the historical vote, and in no way reflects opposition to the universal principles. International Human Rights
Rights
Day Main article: Human Rights
Rights
Day The Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
Day is commemorated every year on December 10, the anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration, and is known as Human Rights
Rights
Day or International Human Rights
Rights
Day. The commemoration is observed by individuals, community and religious groups, human rights organizations, parliaments, governments, and the United Nations. Decadal commemorations are often accompanied by campaigns to promote awareness of the Declaration and human rights. 2008 marked the 60th anniversary of the Declaration, and was accompanied by year-long activities around the theme "Dignity and justice for all of us".[28] Significance and legal effect Significance In 1948, the UN Resolution A/RES/217(III)[A] adopted the Declaration on a bilingual document in English and French, and official translations in Chinese, Russian and Spanish.[29] In 2009, the Guinness Book of Records
Guinness Book of Records
described the Declaration as the world's "Most Translated Document" (370 different languages and dialects).[30][31] The Unicode
Unicode
Consortium stores 431[32] of the 503[33] official translations available at the OHCHR
OHCHR
(as of June 2017[update]). In its preamble, governments commit themselves and their people to progressive measures which secure the universal and effective recognition and observance of the human rights set out in the Declaration. Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
supported the adoption of the Declaration as a declaration rather than as a treaty because she believed that it would have the same kind of influence on global society as the United States
United States
Declaration of Independence had within the United States.[citation needed] In this, she proved to be correct. Even though it is not legally binding, the Declaration has been adopted in or has influenced most national constitutions since 1948. It has also served as the foundation for a growing number of national laws, international laws, and treaties, as well as for a growing number of regional, sub national, and national institutions protecting and promoting human rights. For the first time in international law, the term “the rule of law” was used in the preamble of the Declaration. The third paragraph of the preamble of the Declaration reads as follows: "Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law."[34] Legal effect While not a treaty itself, the Declaration was explicitly adopted for the purpose of defining the meaning of the words "fundamental freedoms" and "human rights" appearing in the United Nations
United Nations
Charter, which is binding on all member states. For this reason, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
is a fundamental constitutive document of the United Nations. In addition, many international lawyers[35][36][37][38] believe that the Declaration forms part of customary international law[39] and is a powerful tool in applying diplomatic and moral pressure to governments that violate any of its articles. The 1968 United Nations
United Nations
International Conference on Human Rights
Rights
advised that the Declaration "constitutes an obligation for the members of the international community" to all persons. The Declaration has served as the foundation for two binding UN human rights covenants: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. The principles of the Declaration are elaborated in international treaties such as the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the International Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, the United Nations
United Nations
Convention on the Rights
Rights
of the Child, the United Nations Convention Against Torture, and many more. The Declaration continues to be widely cited by governments, academics, advocates, and constitutional courts, and by individuals who appeal to its principles for the protection of their recognised human rights. Reaction Praise The Universal Declaration has received praise from a number of notable people. The Lebanese philosopher and diplomat Charles Malik
Charles Malik
called it "an international document of the first order of importance",[40] while Eleanor Roosevelt—first chairwoman of the Commission on Human Rights
Rights
(CHR) that drafted the Declaration—stated that it "may well become the international Magna Carta
Magna Carta
of all men everywhere."[41] In a speech on 5 October 1995, Pope John Paul II
John Paul II
called the Declaration "one of the highest expressions of the human conscience of our time" but the Vatican never adopted the Declaration.[42] In a statement on 10 December 2003 on behalf of the European Union, Marcello Spatafora said that the Declaration "placed human rights at the centre of the framework of principles and obligations shaping relations within the international community."[43] Criticism Islamic countries Turkey— which was a secular state with an overwhelmingly Muslim population—signed the Declaration in 1948.[44] However, the same year, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
abstained from the ratification vote on the Declaration, claiming that it violated Sharia
Sharia
law.[45] Pakistan—which had signed the declaration—disagreed and critiqued the Saudi position.[46] Pakistani minister Muhammad Zafarullah Khan strongly argued in favor of including freedom of religion.[47] In 1982, the Iranian representative to the United Nations, Said Rajaie-Khorassani, said that the Declaration was "a secular understanding of the Judeo-Christian tradition" which could not be implemented by Muslims without conflict with Sharia.[48] On 30 June 2000, members of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) officially resolved to support the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights
Rights
in Islam,[49] an alternative document that says people have "freedom and right to a dignified life in accordance with the Islamic Shari'ah", without any discrimination on grounds of "race, colour, language, sex, religious belief, political affiliation, social status or other considerations". Some Muslim
Muslim
diplomats would go on later to help draft other UN human rights treaties. For example, Iraqi diplomat Bedia Afnan's insistence on wording that recognized gender equality resulted in Article 3 within the ICCPR
ICCPR
and ICESCR. Pakistani diplomat Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah also spoke in favor of recognizing women's rights.[47] A number of scholars in different fields have expressed concerns with the Declaration's alleged Western bias. These include Irene Oh, Abdulaziz Sachedina, Riffat Hassan, and Faisal Kutty. Hassan has argued:

What needs to be pointed out to those who uphold the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
to be the highest, or sole, model, of a charter of equality and liberty for all human beings, is that given the Western origin and orientation of this Declaration, the "universality" of the assumptions on which it is based is – at the very least – problematic and subject to questioning. Furthermore, the alleged incompatibility between the concept of human rights and religion in general, or particular religions such as Islam, needs to be examined in an unbiased way.[50]

Irene Oh argues that one solution is to approach the issue from the perspective of comparative (descriptive) ethics.[51] Kutty writes: "A strong argument can be made that the current formulation of international human rights constitutes a cultural structure in which western society finds itself easily at home ... It is important to acknowledge and appreciate that other societies may have equally valid alternative conceptions of human rights."[52] Ironically, a number of Islamic countries that as of 2014[update] are among the most resistant to UN intervention in domestic affairs, played an invaluable role in the creation of the Declaration, with countries such as Syria and Egypt having been strong proponents of the universality of human rights and the right of countries to self-determination.[53] "The Right to Refuse to Kill" Groups such as Amnesty International[54] and War Resisters International[55] have advocated for "The Right to Refuse to Kill" to be added to the Universal Declaration. War Resisters International
War Resisters International
has stated that the right to conscientious objection to military service is primarily derived from—but not yet explicit in—Article 18 of the UDHR: the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.[55] Steps have been taken within the United Nations
United Nations
to make this right more explicit, but—to date (2017)—[update]those steps have been limited to less significant United Nations
United Nations
documents. Sean MacBride—Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations
United Nations
and Nobel Peace Prize laureate—has said: "To the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
one more might, with relevance, be added. It is 'The Right to Refuse to Kill'."[56] American Anthropological Association The American Anthropological Association
American Anthropological Association
criticized the UDHR while it was in its drafting process. The AAA warned that the document would be defining universal rights from a Western paradigm which would be unfair to countries outside of that scope. They further argued that the West's history of colonialism and evangelism made them a problematic moral representative for the rest of the world. They proposed three notes for consideration with underlying themes of cultural relativism: "1. The individual realizes his personality through his culture, hence respect for individual differences entails a respect for cultural differences", "2. Respect for differences between cultures is validated by the scientific fact that no technique of qualitatively evaluating cultures has been discovered", and "3. Standards and values are relative to the culture from which they derive so that any attempt to formulate postulates that grow out of the beliefs or moral codes of one culture must to that extent detract from the applicability of any Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
to mankind as a whole."[57] Bangkok Declaration During the lead up to the World Conference on Human Rights
Rights
held in 1993, ministers from Asian states adopted the Bangkok Declaration, reaffirming their governments' commitment to the principles of the United Nations Charter
United Nations Charter
and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They stated their view of the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights and stressed the need for universality, objectivity, and non-selectivity of human rights. However, at the same time, they emphasized the principles of sovereignty and non-interference, calling for greater emphasis on economic, social, and cultural rights—in particular, the right to economic development over civil and political rights. The Bangkok Declaration is considered to be a landmark expression of the Asian values perspective, which offers an extended critique of human rights universalism.[58] Organizations promoting the UDHR

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International Federation for Human Rights The International Federation for Human Rights
Rights
(FIDH) is nonpartisan, nonsectarian, and independent of any government, and its core mandate is to promote respect for all the rights set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.[59][60] Amnesty International In 1988, director Stephen R. Johnson
Stephen R. Johnson
and 41 international animators, musicians, and producers created a 20-minute video for Amnesty International to celebrate the 40th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration. The video was to bring to life the Declaration's 30 articles.[61] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
celebrated Human Rights
Rights
Day and the 60th anniversary of the Universal Declaration all over the world by organizing the "Fire Up!" event.[62] Unitarian Universalist Service Committee The Unitarian Universalist Service Committee (UUSC) is a non-profit, nonsectarian organization whose work around the world is guided by the values of Unitarian Universalism and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It works to provide disaster relief and promote human rights and social justice around the world. Quaker United Nations
United Nations
Office and American Friends Service Committee The Quaker United Nations
United Nations
Office and the American Friends Service Committee work on many human rights issues, including improving education on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They have developed a Curriculum to help introduce High School students to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[63][64] American Library Association In 1997, the council of the American Library Association
American Library Association
(ALA) endorsed Article 19 from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[65] Along with Article 19, Article 18 and 20 are also fundamentally tied to the ALA Universal Right to Free Expression and the Library Bill of Rights.[66] Censorship, the invasion of privacy, and interference of opinions are human rights violations according to the ALA. In response to violations of human rights, the ALA asserts the following principles:

“ The American Library Association
American Library Association
opposes any use of governmental prerogative that leads to intimidation of individuals that prevents them from exercising their rights to hold opinions without interference, and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas. We urge libraries and librarians everywhere to resist such abuse of governmental power, and to support those against whom such governmental power has been employed. The American Library Association
American Library Association
condemns any governmental effort to involve libraries and librarians in restrictions on the right of any individual to hold opinions without interference, and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas. Such restrictions, whether enforced by statutes or regulations, contractual stipulations, or voluntary agreements, pervert the function of the library and violate the professional responsibilities of librarians. The American Library Association
American Library Association
rejects censorship in any form. Any action that denies the inalienable human rights of individuals only damages the will to resist oppression, strengthens the hand of the oppressor, and undermines the cause of justice. The American Library Association
American Library Association
will not abrogate these principles. We believe that censorship corrupts the cause of justice, and contributes to the demise of freedom.

[67] Youth for Human Rights
Rights
International Youth for Human Rights
Rights
International (YHRI) is a non-profit organization founded in 2001 by Mary Shuttleworth, an educator born and raised in apartheid South Africa, where she witnessed firsthand the devastating effects of discrimination and the lack of basic human rights. The purpose of YHRI is to teach youth about human rights, specifically the United Nations
United Nations
Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and inspire them to become advocates for tolerance and peace. YHRI has now grown into a global movement, including hundreds of groups, clubs and chapters around the world.[68] See also

Human rights
Human rights
portal United Nations
United Nations
portal Freedom of speech
Freedom of speech
portal

Human rights

History of human rights

Timeline of young people's rights in the United Kingdom in the United States in France

Non-binding agreements

Cairo Declaration on Human Rights
Rights
in Islam (1990) Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action (1993) United Nations
United Nations
Millennium Declaration (2000)

International human rights law

Fourth Geneva Convention
Fourth Geneva Convention
(1949) European Convention on Human Rights
Rights
(1952) Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
(1954) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1969) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Rights
(1976) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Rights
(1976) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1981) Convention on the Rights
Rights
of the Child (1990) Charter of Fundamental Rights
Rights
of the European Union
European Union
(2000) Convention on the Rights
Rights
of Persons with Disabilities (2007)

Thinkers influencing the Declaration

Charles Malik Jacques Maritain John Peters Humphrey Tommy Douglas John Sankey, 1st Viscount Sankey Wu Teh Yao Peng Chun Chang

Other

Slavery
Slavery
in the United States in Russia

Slavery
Slavery
in international law Slave Trade Acts Human rights
Human rights
in China (PRC) Command responsibility Moral universalism Declaration on Great Apes, an as-yet unsuccessful effort to extend some human rights to other great apes. "Consent of the governed" Racial equality proposal (1919) The Farewell Sermon
The Farewell Sermon
(632 CE) Youth for Human Rights
Rights
International List of literary works by number of translations

References

^ Included John Peters Humphrey
John Peters Humphrey
(Canada), René Cassin
René Cassin
(France), P. C. Chang (Republic of China), Charles Malik
Charles Malik
(Lebanon), Hansa Mehta (India) and Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
(United States); see Creation and drafting section above.

Citations

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Rights
in Context: Law, Politics, Morals, (2nd ed), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000. ^ Hurst Hannum, The UDHR in National and International Law, p.145 ^ Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, 542 U.S. 692, 734 (2004). ^ Glendon 2002, pp. 62–64. ^ Universal Declaration of Human Rights, United Nations, 1948  ^ Glendon 2002, Chapter 10. ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Charter, preamble and article 55". United Nations. Retrieved 2013-04-20.  ^ Cataclysm and World Response in Drafting and Adoption : The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, udhr.org. ^ "UDHR50: Didn't Nazi tyranny end all hope for protecting human rights in the modern world?". Udhr.org. 1998-08-28. Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ "UDHR – History of human rights". Universalrights.net. Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ Morsink 1999, p. 4 ^ Morsink 1999, p. 5 ^ Morsink 1999, p. 133 ^ The Declaration was drafted during the Chinese Civil War. P.C. Chang was appointed as a representative by the Republic of China, then the recognised government of China, but which was driven from mainland China and now administers only Taiwan
Taiwan
and nearby islands (history.com). ^ Carlson, Allan: Globalizing Family Values, 12 January 2004. ^ "Drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights". Research Guides. United Nations. Dag Hammarskjöld Library. Retrieved 2015-04-17.  ^ Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Final authorized text. The British Library. September 1952. Retrieved 16 August 2015.  ^ "Growth in United Nations
United Nations
membership, 1945-present". www.un.org. Retrieved 2018-02-01.  ^ a b c CCNMTL. "default". Center for New Media Teaching and Learning (CCNMTL). Columbia University. Retrieved 2013-07-12.  ^ UNAC. "Questions and answers about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights". United Nations
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Association in Canada
Canada
(UNAC). p. "Who are the signatories of the Declaration?". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.  ^ Jost Müller-Neuhof (2008-12-10). "Menschenrechte: Die mächtigste Idee der Welt". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Retrieved 2013-07-12.  ^ United Nations. "default". Retrieved 2017-08-30.  ^ Peter Danchin. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Drafting History - 10. Plenary Session of the Third General Assembly Session". Retrieved 2015-02-25.  ^ Glendon 2002, pp. 169–70 ^ a b "Yearbook of the United Nations
United Nations
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Canada
and the Adoption of Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (PDF). McGill Law Journal. 43: 403.  ^ " OHCHR
OHCHR
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Rights
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United Nations
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Unicode
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Rights
and World Public Order: A Framework for Policy-Oriented Inquiry". Faculty Scholarship Series. Yale Law School. pp. 273–274, 325–327. Retrieved 2018-03-21.  ^ Anthony A. D'Amato (1987). International law: process and prospect. Transnational Publishers. pp. 123–147. ISBN 978-0-941320-35-1.  ^ Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. "Digital record of the UDHR". United Nations.  ^ "Statement by Charles Malik
Charles Malik
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Lebanon
to the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Universal Declaration". 6 November 1948. Archived from the original on 28 September 2008.  ^ Michael E. Eidenmuller (1948-12-09). "Eleanor Roosevelt: Address to the United Nations
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Group, Syria calls for greater UN intervention in domestic human rights situations.... ^ Out of the margins: the right to conscientious objection to military service in Europe: An announcement of Amnesty International's forthcoming campaign and briefing for the UN Commission on Human Rights, 31 March 1997. Amnesty International. ^ a b A Conscientious Objector's Guide to the UN Human Rights
Rights
System, Parts 1, 2 & 3, Background Information on International Law for COs, Standards which recognise the right to conscientious objection, War Resisters' International. ^ Sean MacBride, The Imperatives of Survival, Nobel Lecture, 12 December 1974, The Nobel Foundation – Official website of the Nobel Foundation. (English index page; hyperlink to Swedish site.) From Nobel Lectures in Peace 1971–1980. ^ "Statement on Human Rights" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-10-30.  ^ "Final Declaration Of The Regional Meeting For Asia Of The World Conference On Human Rights". Law.hku.hk. Retrieved 2012-07-07.  ^ Contribution to the EU Multi-stakeholder Forum on CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility), 10 February 2009; accessed on 9 November 2009 ^ Information Partners, web site of the UNHCR, last updated 25 February 2010, 16:08 GMT (web retrieval 25 February 2010, 18:11 GMT) ^ "UDHR film". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2013-07-19.  ^ "Fire Up!". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2013-07-19.  ^ " UNHCR
UNHCR
Partners". UNHCR. Retrieved 11 November 2014.  ^ "AFSC Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
web page". American Friends Service Committee. Retrieved 11 November 2014.  ^ "Resolution on IFLA, Human Rights
Rights
and Freedom of Expression". ala.org.  ^ "The Universal Right to Free Expression:". ala.org.  ^ "The Universal Right to Free Expression". American Library Association. Retrieved 1 April 2018.  ^ "Youth for Human Rights". Youth for Human Rights. Retrieved 13 November 2016. 

Sources

Brown, Gordon (2016). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
in the 21st Century: A Living Document in a Changing World. Open Book Publishers. ISBN 978-1-783-74218-9.  Glendon, Mary Ann (2002). A world made new: Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Random House. ISBN 978-0-375-76046-4.  Hashmi, Sohail H. (2002). Islamic political ethics: civil society, pluralism, and conflict. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-11310-4.  Morsink, Johannes (1999). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: origins, drafting, and intent. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-1747-6.  Price, Daniel E. (1999). Islamic political culture, democracy, and human rights: a comparative study. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-96187-9.  Williams, Paul (1981). The International bill of human rights. United Nations General Assembly. Entwhistle Books. ISBN 978-0-934558-07-5. 

Further reading

Feldman, Jean-Philippe. "Hayek's Critique Of The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights". Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, Volume 9, Issue 4 (December 1999): 1145-6396. Nurser, John. "For All Peoples and All Nations. Christian Churches and Human Rights.". (Geneva: WCC Publications, 2005). Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
pages at Columbia University (Centre for the Study of Human Rights), including article by article commentary, video interviews, discussion of meaning, drafting and history. Introductory note by Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade
Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade
and procedural history on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
in the Historic Archives of the United Nations
United Nations
Audiovisual Library of International Law

External links

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UN Member States Text of the UDHR Official translations of the UDHR Resource Guide on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
at the UN Library, Geneva. Drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
- documents and meetings records — United Nations
United Nations
Dag Hammarskjöld Library Questions and answers about the Universal Declaration Text, Audio, and Video excerpt of Eleanor Roosevelt's Address to the United Nations
United Nations
on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR – Education UDHR in Unicode Revista Envío – A Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
For the 21st Century Introductory note by Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade
Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade
and procedural history note on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
in the Historic Archives of the United Nations
United Nations
Audiovisual Library of International Law DHpedia: Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Laws of Burgos: 500 Years of Human Rights
Rights
from the Law Library of Congress blog.

Audiovisual materials

UDHR Audio/Video Project (recordings in 500+ languages by native speakers) Librivox: Human-read audio recordings in several Languages Text, Audio, and Video excerpt of Eleanor Roosevelt's Address to the United Nations
United Nations
on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Animated presentation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
by Amnesty International
Amnesty International
on YouTube (in English duration 20 minutes and 23 seconds). Audio: Statement by Charles Malik
Charles Malik
as Representative of Lebanon
Lebanon
to the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly on the Universal Declaration, 6 November 1948 UN Department of Public Information introduction to the drafters of the Declaration Audiovisual material on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
in the Historic Archives of the United Nations
United Nations
Audiovisual Library of International Law

v t e

Human rights

Human's Children's Intersex Women's

Fundamental concepts and philosophies

Natural law Positive law Sovereignty Universal jurisdiction

Distinctions

Claim rights and liberty rights Individual and group rights Natural and legal rights Negative and positive rights

Aspects

Corporal punishment

Organizations

List of human rights organisations of national human rights institutions

By continent

Africa

Asia Europe North America Oceania South America

Category:Rights Portal:Human rights

v t e

International human rights instruments

Declarations, Manifestos and Resolutions

Brazilian Resolution Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples Cairo Declaration of Human Rights Declaration of Montreal Declaration of the Rights
Rights
of the Child Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Declaration on the Rights
Rights
of Indigenous Peoples UN declaration on sexual orientation and gender identity Universal Declaration of Human Rights American Declaration of the Rights
Rights
and Duties of Man Paris
Paris
Principles Yogyakarta Principles

International law

United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
Resolution 1514 (XV) Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples UN Convention Against Torture Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination Convention on the Political Rights
Rights
of Women Convention on the Rights
Rights
of Persons with Disabilities Convention on the Rights
Rights
of the Child United Nations
United Nations
Convention on the Protection of the Rights
Rights
of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

Regional law

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights European

Convention on Human Rights Convention for the Prevention of Torture European Convention on Nationality Convention for the Protection of National Minorities Social Charter

American Convention on Human Rights Inter-American Convention

to Prevent and Punish Torture on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Persons with Disabilities

International humanitarian law

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide Convention relating to the Status of Refugees Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness Geneva Conventions Hague Conventions Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

v t e

Eleanor Roosevelt

Chairwoman, Presidential Commission on the Status of Women (1961–1962) 34th First Lady of the United States
United States
(1933–1945)

United Nations

United States
United States
delegate, United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
(1946–1952) United Nations
United Nations
Commission on Human Rights
Rights
(1947–1953, Chairperson 1946–1951) Universal Declaration of Human Rights Human Rights
Rights
Day

First Lady of the United States

"My Day" daily newspaper column, 1935–1962 Co-Chair, Office of Civilian Defense Marian Anderson
Marian Anderson
Lincoln Memorial Concert Tuskegee Airmen flight Arthurdale and Eleanor, West Virginia American Youth Congress

National Youth Administration

Black Cabinet 1940 Democratic National Convention speech Women in Defense Freedom House

Other events

First Lady of New York Presidential Commission on the Status of Women

National Organization for Women

Encampment for Citizenship

Life and homes

Val-Kill National Historic Site

Val-Kill Industries

Campobello home

Franklin D. Roosevelt's paralytic illness

Hyde Park home and gravesite

Legacy

Roosevelt Institute

Roosevelt Institute
Roosevelt Institute
Campus Network

Roosevelt Study Center Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
Monument Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
Award for Human Rights Statue at the Franklin Roosevelt Memorial Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
College Marian Anderson: the Lincoln Memorial Concert (1939 film) Sunrise at Campobello
Sunrise at Campobello
(1958 play, 1960 film) The Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
Story (1965 film) Eleanor and Franklin (1976 film) Eleanor and Franklin: The White House Years (1977 film) The Roosevelts (2014 documentary)

Related

United Nations
United Nations
Prize in the Field of Human Rights International Bill of Human Rights

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Morgenthau Plan

Roosevelt family

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(husband presidency) Anna Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
(daughter) James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
II (son) Elliott Roosevelt
Elliott Roosevelt
(son) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Jr. (son) John Roosevelt II (son) Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
Seagraves (granddaughter) Curtis Roosevelt
Curtis Roosevelt
(grandson) Sara Delano Roosevelt (granddaughter) Franklin Delano Roosevelt III
Franklin Delano Roosevelt III
(grandson) John Roosevelt Boettiger
John Roosevelt Boettiger
(grandson) James Roosevelt
James Roosevelt
III (grandson) Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt
Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt
(father) Anna Hall Roosevelt
Anna Hall Roosevelt
(mother) Hall Roosevelt (brother) Theodore Roosevelt Sr.
Theodore Roosevelt Sr.
(grandfather) Martha Stewart Bulloch (grandmother) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(uncle presidency) Bamie Roosevelt (aunt) Fala (family dog)

v t e

 United Nations

António Guterres, Secretary-General Amina J. Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General Miroslav Lajčák, General Assembly President

United Nations
United Nations
System

United Nations
United Nations
Charter

Preamble

Principal organs

General Assembly

President

Security Council

Members

Economic and Social Council Secretariat

Secretary-General Deputy Secretary-General Under-Secretary-General

International Court of Justice

statute

Trusteeship Council

Secretariat Offices and Departments

Headquarters Envoy on Youth Spokesperson for the Secretary-General Geneva Palace of Nations Nairobi Vienna Economic and Social Affairs Political Affairs Public Information

Dag Hammarskjöld Library

Safety and Security Palestinian Rights Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations Internal Oversight Legal Affairs Developing Countries Sport for Development and Peace Disarmament Affairs Outer Space Affairs Partnerships Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UN organizations by location United Nations
United Nations
Office for Developing Countries Sexual Violence in Conflict

Programmes and specialized agencies

FAO ICAO IFAD ILO IMO ITC IPCC IAEA MINURSO UNIDO ITU UNAIDS SCSL UNCTAD UNCITRAL UNCDF UNDG UNDP UNDPI UNDPKO

peacekeeping

UNEP

OzonAction UNEP/GRID-Arendal UNEP-WCMC

UNESCO UNFIP UNFPA UN-HABITAT OHCHR UNHCR UNHRC UNICEF UNICRI UNIDIR UNITAR UN-Oceans UNODC UNOPS UNOSAT UNRISD UNRWA UNSSC UNU

UNU-OP UNU-CRIS

UNV UN Women UNWTO UPU WFP WHO WIPO WMO

Members / observers

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UNSC Permanent members

Observers

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History

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Peacekeeping
missions

history timeline

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66th 67th

Security Council

Cyprus Iran Iraq Israel Lebanon Nagorno-Karabakh North Korea Palestine Syria Western Sahara

Elections

Secretary-General (2006 2016) International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
2011 General Assembly President (2012 2016) Security Council (2015 2016)

Related

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Honour Flag

Four Nations Initiative Genocide Convention UN Global Compact ICC International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World International Years UN laissez-passer Military Staff Committee Official languages Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Peacekeeping Treaty Series UN Day Universal Declaration of Human Rights Millennium Declaration

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Security Council reform

UN Art Collection UN Memorial Cemetery Korea

Other

Outline UN television film series (1964–1966) In popular culture

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 183452328 LCCN: n81139937 GND: 4225431-0 SUDOC: 144630036 NDL: 00570

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