The United Church of
Canada (French: Église unie du Canada) is a
Reformed denomination and the largest
denomination in Canada, and the largest Canadian Christian
denomination after the Catholic Church. In 2011, Statistics Canada
reported approximately 2 million people identifying as adherents.
The United Church was founded in 1925 as a merger of four Protestant
denominations with a total combined membership of about 600,000
members: the Methodist Church, Canada, the
Congregational Union of
Ontario and Quebec, two-thirds of the congregations of the
Presbyterian Church in Canada, and the Association of Local Union
Churches, a movement predominantly of the Canadian Prairie provinces.
The Canadian Conference of the Evangelical United Brethren Church
joined the United Church of
Canada on January 1, 1968.
Membership peaked in 1964 at 1.1 million, and has declined since
that time. From 1991 to 2001, the number of people claiming an
affiliation with the United Church decreased by 8%, the third largest
decrease in mainstream Christian denominations in Canada. Church
statistics for the end of 2014 showed 413,717 members in 327,847
households under pastoral care. As of December 31, 2016, 132,459
people attend services in 2,141 pastoral charges representing 2,834
congregations on a regular basis.
The United Church has a "council-based" structure, where each council
(congregational, regional, or denominational) have specific
responsibilities. In some areas, each of these councils have sole
authority, while in others, approval of other councils is required
before action is taken. (For example, a congregation requires
Presbytery approval before a minister can be called or appointed to
the congregation.) The policies of the church are inclusive and
liberal: there are no restrictions of gender, sexual orientation or
marital status for a person considering entering the ministry;
interfaith marriages are recognized; communion is offered to all
Christian adults and children, regardless of denomination or age.
1 Governance and structure
1.2 Four courts of governance
1.2.1 Pastoral charge (congregation)
1.2.4 General Council
1.3 Change to three-council model
3 Beliefs and practices
3.5 Interfaith relations
4.1 Benefits of membership
4.2 Transfer of membership and removal from rolls
7 Public positions and policies
7.1 Indigenous people
8 Criticism from outside the church
10 Further reading
11 External links
Governance and structure
The rules for governance are set out in The Manual, first written in
1925, and updated on a regular basis.
Main article: Moderator of the United Church of Canada
The voice and face of the church is the Moderator, who is elected to a
three-year term at each General Council. The duties of the Moderator
giving leadership to the church, "quickening in the hearts of the
people a sense of God as revealed in Christ, and heartening and
strengthening the whole United Church".
visiting pastoral charges across the country, "giving sympathetic
guidance and counsel in all its affairs".
being the primary spokesperson for the United Church
presiding at the meetings of the General Council, its Executive, and
Currently, Jordan Cantwell, an ordained minister from Saskatchewan,
holds the position after her election August 13, 2015 at the 42nd
Four courts of governance
For the first 90 years of its existence, administration in the United
Church was divided into four levels of governance, or "courts":
Pastoral charge (congregation)
The basic unit of the United Church is the pastoral charge, consisting
of one or more congregations under the spiritual leadership of a
minister or ministry team. A pastoral charge that has two or more
congregations is described as a "two-point charge", "three-point
The pastoral charge is responsible for their day-to-day operations,
including raising all of the money needed for staff, building
maintenance and operation, worship, committee work and projects. This
is generally done by taking up a collection from the congregation, but
fundraising from the wider community is also allowed, as long as it
does not involve games of chance such as raffles, lotteries, or bingo.
The pastoral charge is also responsible for searching out and hiring
church staff, including ministers, musicians and lay staff;
maintenance and upkeep of their property and buildings; deciding when
they worship, and how often; policies on candidacy for baptism and
marriage (including, but not limited to whether the congregation will
allow same-sex marriages to be performed in their building); Christian
development and education within the congregation (Sunday School,
youth and adult confirmation classes, Bible study, etc.); outreach
projects to the community and wider world; and other day-to-day
Policy decisions at this level are usually made by a congregational
Board or Council, which can take one of the several forms listed in
The Manual. However, budgets and finances, election of Board members
and changes to ministry-pastoral relations (either increasing or
reducing ministerial hours, firing a minister, constituting a search
committee to find a new minister, or issuing a call to bring a new
minister to the congregation) must be approved at a meeting of the
Main article: Presbyteries of the United Church of Canada
There are 85 presbyteries within the United Church, each being a
collection of about 20–60 pastoral charges. All members of the Order
of Ministry, active and retired, Recognized Designated Lay Ministers
under appointment as well as several other classifications of lay
members are members of the presbytery—"presbyters"—rather than
members of their pastoral charge. Each pastoral charge may also send
delegates from the congregation to assist in decision-making. The
presbytery is responsible for care and oversight of the pastoral
charges within it. When a pastoral charge is seeking a new minister,
the presbytery provides presbyters who help to assess the
congregation's ministerial needs as well as taking part in the search
Presbyteries are gathered up into one of 13 conferences. The
conference is responsible for the training and education of candidates
for ministry, for overall church mission strategy, and for electing
commissioners to attend general councils.
This is the church's highest legislative court. Every three years,
ministers and lay commissioners who have been elected by the
Conferences meet to set church policy and choose a new Moderator. An
Executive and Sub-Executive govern between meetings of the council.
Change to three-council model
At the 42nd General Council in 2015, delegates voted in favour of a
new three-council model: communities of faith, regional councils, and
a denominational council, which would roughly correspond to the former
Pastoral Charge, Conference and General Council. Since this was a
denomination-changing proposal, it had to be approved by a majority of
pastoral charges and a majority of presbyteries. On July 6, 2017,
the general secretary of the church announced that this proposal had
been approved by the wider church.
Clergy of The United Church of Canada
The clergy of the United Church are called "ministers". There are two
"streams", ordered ministry and lay ministry. Ordered ministry
includes ordained ministers and diaconal ministers. Lay ministry
refers to licensed lay ministers, designated lay ministers (DLM) and
congregational designated ministers (CDM). There are no restrictions
on gender, sexual orientation, age, or marital status for any branches
Beliefs and practices
The United Church believes that the Bible is central to the Christian
faith and was written by people who were inspired by God. The church
also believes that the circumstances under which the books of the
Bible were written were of a particular place and time, and some
things cannot be reconciled with our lives today, such as slavery. The
United Church of
Canada uses the historical-critical method of
interpreting the bible.
The two sacraments of the United Church are Communion and Baptism.
Communion is the ritual sharing of the elements of bread and wine (or,
more commonly, grape juice) as a remembrance of the
Last Supper that
Jesus shared with his followers. It is usually celebrated at a table
at the front of the sanctuary, where the minister blesses the elements
before they are distributed to the congregation. There is no
restriction regarding age or United Church membership—Communion is
open to young children as well as Christians from other
denominations. The actual distribution can take several forms,
including passing a tray of bread cubes and another tray of small
juice glasses from person to person, and then eating the bread and
drinking the juice in unison; and "intinction", where each person
takes a piece of bread, dips it into a cup of juice and then eats the
There is no guideline for frequency. Some pastoral charges celebrate
communion once a month, others on a quarterly basis.
The belief of the United Church is that baptism is not a requirement
for God's love; it is not considered a passport to heaven, nor does
the church believe that those who die unbaptised are condemned or
damned for eternity. Rather, the church believes that baptism is the
first step in church membership, where the parents make a profession
of faith on behalf of the infant in the hope that their child will
later confirm that profession at or around the age of 13.
The United Church practices infant baptism, but in cases where a
person was not baptised as an infant, baptism can be performed at any
age. In the case of infant baptism, the parents of the infant,
before the congregation, agree to a series of statements about the
beliefs of the United Church on behalf of their child. They also
promise to encourage the child to seek full membership at an
appropriate time. The members of the congregation also promise the
parents that they will help to raise the child in a Christian
community. The minister then places water on the candidate's head
three times (expressing the
Trinity of Father, Son and Holy Spirit)
and traces a cross on the person's forehead with water.
immersion is also an option for adults who request it.
In the 1970s, the United Church reached an ecumenical agreement with
the Presbyterian, Lutheran, Catholic, and Anglican churches in Canada
that baptisms within these churches are mutually recognized as valid.
Further to that, the United Church recognizes the validity of any
baptism by another denomination that was performed with water and in
the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit.
Remembering that Jesus was reported to have welcomed tax collectors,
prostitutes and other "undesirables" to his table, the church attempts
to welcome everyone, regardless of age, race, class, gender, sexual
orientation, or physical ability. In the same manner, there is
also no restriction on those interested in entering ministry.
Believing that marriage is a celebration of God's love, the church
recognizes and celebrates all legal marriages, including same-sex
couples, previously divorced people, and couples of different
religions. The actual policy of whom to marry is left up to the church
council of each pastoral charge. For instance, one congregation might
not allow same-sex marriages to be performed in their building, while
another allows all marriages regardless of sexual orientation.
The church believes that there are many paths to God. The United
Church's path is through Jesus Christ, but the church also recognizes
that Christians' understanding of this is limited by an incomplete
comprehension of God; their belief is that the Holy Spirit of God is
also at work through other non-Christian faiths.
The church supports the right of women to have access to safe
abortions that are covered by provincial health care, but also
supports better access to contraception, sexual education, and
counselling that might eventually make abortion unnecessary.
A full member is one who has been baptised, either as infant, child,
youth or adult, and has made a public profession of faith before the
congregation. Membership is not required in order to worship at a
United Church, and many who regularly attend worship are adherents
rather than members. 
In order to become a full member, a person goes through a process
called "confirmation". This is offered to adults (starting at around
age 13) and usually involves a series of classes about the beliefs of
the United Church. Following this, the candidate makes a public
profession of faith before the congregation, thereby "confirming" the
statements made by his or her parents during baptism. If the person is
unbaptised, the minister baptises the person before the profession of
faith. The new member's name is then entered on the official Roll of
Members for that congregation.
Benefits of membership
Only members can be a part of a pastoral charge's board or council. In
addition, a member can vote on spiritual matters at congregational
meetings—usually whether to issue a "call" to a new minister to join
the congregation. (On temporal matters—those that deal with
finances, property, etc.—a motion is usually made at the start of a
congregational meeting to allow all who are present, rather than just
members, the right to vote.)
Transfer of membership and removal from rolls
Although confirmation takes place at the congregational level, the
person is a member of the entire United Church of Canada, not just one
congregation; therefore membership can be transferred freely from
congregation to congregation.
A congregation may remove members from its roll for non-attendance.
(The Manual suggests an absence of three years, but the congregation
is free to set its own period of time)
In the early 20th century, the main Evangelical Protestant
Canada were the Presbyterian, Methodist and
Congregational churches. Many small towns and villages across Canada
had all three, with the town's population divided among them.
Especially on the prairies, it was difficult to find clergy to serve
all these charges, and there were several instances where one minister
would serve his congregation, but would also perform pastoral care for
the other congregations that lacked a minister. On the prairies, a
movement to unite all three major
Protestant denominations began,
resulting in the Association of Local Union Churches.
Facing a de facto union in the western provinces, the three
denominations began a slow process of union talks that eventually
produced a Basis for Union.
However, not all elements of the churches involved were happy with the
idea of uniting under one roof; a substantial minority of
Presbyterians remained unconvinced of the virtues of church union.
Their threat to the entire project was resolved by giving individual
Presbyterian congregations the right to vote on whether to enter or
remain outside the United Church. In the end, 302 out of 4,509
congregations of the
Presbyterian Church (211 from southern
Ontario) chose to reconstitute themselves as a "continuing"
Presbyterian Church in Canada.
Inauguration of United Church at Mutual Street Arena, Toronto, on June
The United Church of
Canada is an amalgamation of the Union of
Congregational churches. 
With the three denominations now in agreement about uniting, the
church leaders approached the government of
Canada to pass legislation
concerning transfer of property rights. The legislation passed, June
27, 1924 and was effective June 10, 1925.
The United Church of
Canada was inaugurated at a large worship service
Mutual Street Arena
Mutual Street Arena on June 10, 1925. Participants were
handed 38-page order of service containing the full text of the
liturgy, prayers, hymns, and music. Hymns from all three churches
were sung: All people that on earth do dwell from the Scottish
Presbyterian psalm tradition; the Methodist favourite O for a thousand
tongues to sing by Charles Wesley; the Congregationalist O God of
When I survey the wondrous cross by the British
Nonconformist, Isaac Watts.
The ecumenical tone of the new church was set at this first General
Council. The former Methodist General Superintendent
S. D. Chown
S. D. Chown was
considered the leading candidate to become the first Moderator because
the Methodist Church made up the largest segment of the new United
Church. However, in a surprise move, Dr. Chown graciously stepped
aside in favour of George C. Pidgeon, the moderator of the
Presbyterian Church and principal spokesperson for the uniting
Presbyterians, in the hopes that this would strengthen the resolve of
the Presbyterians who had chosen to join the new Church. Dr. S.D.
Chown, United Church was featured on an 8 cent stamp issued by Canada
Post on May 30, 1975. 
The crest that was designed for the new church is a vesica piscis, an
early Christian symbol that evoked an upended fish (the initials of
the phrase "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour" in Greek spell
ιχθύς, icthyos, meaning "fish"). The central saltire is also the
Greek letter Chi, first letter of Χριστός, Greek for "Christ".
Within three of the four quadrants are the symbols of the founding
churches: Presbyterianism (the burning bush),
Methodism (the dove) and
Congregationalism (the open Bible). In the bottom quadrant, the alpha
and omega represents the ever-living God (Revelation 1:8). The motto
Ut omnes unum sint recalls John 17:21: "That all may be one". The
crest resembles the emblem of the Church of Scotland.
In 2012, the Mohawk phrase "Akwe Nia'tetewá:neren" ("All my
relations") was added to the perimeter ribbon, and the background
colours of the four quadrants of the crest were changed to reflect the
traditional colours of the
First Nations medicine wheel.
In 1930, just as mergers of the congregations, colleges and
administrative offices of the various denominations were completed and
the United Church Hymnary was published,
Canada was hit by the Great
Depression. Although membership remained stable, attendance and
givings fell. In the face of overwhelming unemployment, some in
the church, both clergy and laity, called for a radical Christian
socialist alternative such as the Fellowship for a Christian Social
Order. Other more conservative members felt drawn to the message
Oxford Group that focussed on the wealthier members of
society. The great majority of members between these two extremes
simply sought to help the unemployed.
In the United States, Methodists had been ordaining women from
1880, but it was still a contentious issue in Canada, and it was
not until 1936 that the Reverend Lydia Emelie Gruchy of Saskatchewan
Conference became the first woman in the United Church to be
ordained and, in 1953, she became the first Canadian woman to
receive an honorary Doctor of Divinity degree.
The Second World War was also a divisive issue. Some who had declared
themselves pacifist before the war now struggled to reconcile their
philosophy with the reality around them. Others remained
pacifist—some 65 clergy signed A Witness Against War in 1939.
But the church as a whole, although it did not support conscription,
supported the overall war effort, both on the home front and by
providing chaplains for the armed forces.
Although the forced relocation of Japanese Canadians away from the
West Coast was supported by most members across Canada, church leaders
and missionaries in B.C. spoke out against it, and the churches on the
West Coast set up an Emergency Japanese Committee to help fight for
the rights of the dislocated people.
In 1943, the Anglican Church invited other denominations to union
talks, and the United Church responded enthusiastically; by 1946, the
two churches had issued a statement on mutual ministry. In a
similar ecumenical vein, the United Church was one of the founding
bodies of the
Canadian Council of Churches
Canadian Council of Churches in 1944 and the World
Council of Churches in 1946.
In 1925, The United Church had inherited responsibility for some
native residential schools that were designed to assimilate native
children into Canadian culture. By the 1940s, thinking had begun to
change about the underlying assumptions, and in 1949, the church began
to close the schools in its care.
The United Church continued to espouse causes that were not
politically popular, issuing statements supporting universal health
care and the
People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China at their 15th General Council
at a time when these were considered radical concepts in North
Membership and givings increased dramatically as post-war parents
started to bring their young families—the Baby Boomers—to church.
Talks with the Anglican Church had not made significant headway during
the decade, but in 1958, the two churches decided to continue the
In 1962, two women's auxiliary organizations, Woman's Association and
Woman's Missionary Society, join together to form the United Church
Women (UCW). That same year, the United and Anglican Churches jointly
published Growth in Understanding, a study guide on union, and on June
1, 1965 the Principles of Union between the United Church and the
Anglican Church. The spirit of ecumenism with other denominations
stayed strong throughout the decade, culminating in 1968 when the
Canada Conference of The
Evangelical United Brethren Church
Evangelical United Brethren Church joined the
The high tide mark of membership was reached in 1965 when the church
recorded 1,064,000 members. However, there were already rumblings
of discontent in the church: that same year,
Pierre Berton wrote The
Comfortable Pew, a bestseller that was highly critical of Canadian
churches, and a United Church Commission on Ministry in the 20th
Century was appointed in response to growing frustration from
congregations, presbyteries, and ministers about the role of
ministry. The church lost 2,027 members in 1966, a decline of only
two-tenths of a percent, but significantly it marked the first time
since amalgamation that membership had fallen.
Vietnam War brought new controversies to the church when in 1968,
the secretary of the national Evangelism and Social Service Committee,
the Reverend Ray Hord, offered emergency aid to American Vietnam draft
dodgers; the General Council Executive disassociated itself from the
decision but within two years it became church policy.
In 1971, the ecumenical movement reached its height as a joint
commission the United and Anglican Churches and the Disciples of
Christ approved a Plan of Union, and The Hymn Book, a joint
publication of the United and Anglican Churches was published. The
tide quickly turned though, and in 1975, the Anglican House of Bishops
and National Executive Council declared that the Plan of Union was
unacceptable. However, the Anglican, Lutheran, Presbyterian, Catholic,
and United churches did agree to recognize the validity of Christian
baptisms performed in any of these denominations.
Membership continued to decline slowly throughout the decade, despite
a report that lay ministry was on the increase.
In 1980, at the 29th General Council, the commissioning of diaconal
ministers as a part of ordered ministry was approved.
On August 16, 1980, the 28th General Council elected the first female
Moderator, the Reverend Lois Wilson.
On August 17, 1980, a United Church of
Canada task force released In
God's Image, its report on sexual ethics which recommended the
admission of homosexuals into the ministry and tolerance of premarital
sex. Although the report accepted abortion under qualified
circumstances, it rejected abortion on demand.
With union talks with the Anglicans already at end, talks with the
Disciples of Christ
Disciples of Christ also ended in 1985.
In 1986, the 31st General Council elected a female Moderator, Anne M.
In 1988, the 32nd General Council chose to end investment in South
Africa, apologize to
First Nations congregations for past denials of
native spirituality by the church, and elected the first Moderator of
Asian descent, Sang Chul Lee. However, those events were largely
overshadowed when the commissioners passed a statement called
Membership, Ministry and Human Sexuality that stated "all persons,
regardless of sexual orientation, who profess their faith in Jesus
Christ are welcome to be or become members of The United Church of
Canada" and that "all members of the United Church are eligible to be
considered for ordered ministry." Taken together, these two
statements opened the door for openly gay men and women to join the
Main article: Homosexuality and the United Church of Canada
Many members opposed this, and over the next four years, membership
fell by 78,184. In some cases, entire congregations split, with a
sizeable faction—sometimes led by the minister—leaving to form an
independent church. Some of those opposed to the gay ordination
issue chose to stay in the church, and formed the Community of
Concern, a voice of conservatism within the church.
In the 1990s, the United Church faced the legacy of cultural
assimilation and child abuse in the residential schools that it had
once helped to operate.
On May 24, 1992,
Tim Stevenson was the first openly gay minister
ordained by the United Church of Canada.
On August 17, 1992, the first Native Canadian Moderator, the Reverend
Stan McKay, a Cree man, was elected at the 34th General Council.
Two years later, the church established a "Healing Fund". This was
followed in 1998 by an apology made by the church to former students
of United Church Indian Residential Schools.
At the 35th General Council in 1994, commissioners voted to have
General Councils every three years rather than every two years.
This also increased the length of term of Moderators from two to three
The original General Council office of the church built in 1925
resided on increasingly valuable land on St. Clair Avenue in downtown
Toronto, Ontario. In 1995, facing increasing financial pressure from
falling donations, the church sold the building and moved out to the
suburb of Etobicoke.
In 1996, a new hymnary, Voices United, replaced the joint
United-Anglican The Hymn Book. Response from pastoral charges was
enthusiastic, and by 2010, over 300,000 copies had been printed.
In 1996, the Committee on Archives and History compiled the "Guide to
family history research in the archival repositories of the United
Church of Canada".
In 1997, the Reverend
Bill Phipps was elected Moderator at the 36th
General Council. Controversy again descended on the church when later
the same year, Phipps stated in an interview that 'I don't believe
Jesus was God' and that he did not believe that Jesus physically rose
from the dead.
In the new century, membership and givings both continued to drop, and
in 2001 the General Council offices were reorganized as a cost-cutting
In 2005, the church urged the Canadian Parliament to vote in favour of
same-sex marriage legislation; after the legislation had been passed,
the church urged the government not to reopen the issue.
The church continued to deal with the consequences of the Native
residential school issue. In 2005, the church welcomed the Agreement
in Principle announced by the Government of
Canada and the Assembly of
First Nations, which outlined a comprehensive resolution package for
former students of Indian Residential Schools; and the following year,
the church agreed to sign the Indian Residential Schools Settlement
In 2006, the 39th General Council approved the use of a generous
bequest to start up "Emerging Spirit", a promotional campaign aimed at
drawing 30- to 40-year-olds into a conversation about faith. As part
of this campaign, "Emerging Spirit" used controversial magazine
advertisements featuring, among other images, a bobble-head Jesus, a
marriage cake with two grooms holding hands, Jesus sitting on Santa's
chair in a mall, and a can of whipped cream with the caption "How much
fun can sex be before it's a sin?".
In 2012, the 41st General Council elected
Gary Paterson as the first
openly gay Moderator. The commissioners also voted to invite First
Nations peoples to become signatories to the Basis of Union. (In 1925,
several aboriginal congregations of the original founding churches
were automatically made part of the new United Church although the
congregations had not been asked to participate in church Union
negotiations, and had not been asked to sign the Basis of Union
document.) In addition, the original church crest (adopted in 1944
with French added in 1980) was modified by changing the background
colours of the four quadrants of the crest, as well as adding the
Mohawk phrase "Akwe Nia'Tetewá:neren" ("All my relations") to the
After much debate, Commissioners also voted to adopt the
recommendations of the Report of the Working Group on Israel/Palestine
Policy, which included a boycott of products from Israeli settlements
and a campaign of "encouraging members of the United Church to avoid
any and all products produced in the settlements." This was the
church's first boycott since an anti-apartheid boycott against South
Africa in the 1980s. According to the report, the authors
consulted with Canadian-based Palestinian organizations, as well as
"Jewish rabbis, individuals and organizations"  amongst others.
Still it incited controversy, with several groups campaigning against
the decision, including protests of the decision by several
Canadian Jewish groups.
In 2015, at the 42nd General Council, delegates voted in favour of
several "denomination-changing" proposals, including a reorganization
from a four-court structure to a three-council structure; elimination
of "settlement", the practice of telling newly ordained ministers
where they would first serve; reorganization of the process of finding
and training ministers; and a new funding model. (Since these were
all considered to be denomination-changing decisions, approval was
also required by a majority of the church's presbyteries and pastoral
charges; in July 2017, the church's executive secretary announced that
all four changes had been approved.)
In 2016, a debate emerged regarding whether or not an atheist minister
can continue to serve within a congregational context. Leading
progressives support the inclusion of non-theists while more
conservative leaders are opposed. Currently, a review is underway for
one particular non-theist pastor.
The United Church has issued four hymn books:
The Hymn Book (jointly with the Anglican Church of Canada) in 1972
Voices United (1996) is the current hymnal, with over 300,000 copies
in print. A supplement, More Voices was published in 2006
Nos voix unies (2005), the United Church's first French-language
Public positions and policies
Until 1969, the United Church of
Canada was involved with and
supported the Canadian Indian residential school system, which
resulted in a painful legacy for many Aboriginal people and their
communities. While the United Church's level of involvement was
perhaps less egregious than its sister churches the Anglican Church of
Canada and assorted Catholic orders, its contribution was
significant. Of approximately 80,000 students alive today, about 10
percent attended United Church run schools.
Criticism from outside the church
A. C. Forrest, the editor of the United Church Observer in the 1960s
and 1970s (and by extension the United Church itself) came under
strong attack from the Canadian Jewish community for frequent
editorial espousal of Palestinian rights in Israel, on the West Bank
and in Gaza; many within the United Church were also uncomfortable
with Forrest's position, though ultimately the church adjudged a
plurality of opinion on this (and other matters) as consistent with
United Church open-mindedness.
National Post has published several articles critical of the
United Church of Canada. (August 19, 2009: "United Church is blind to
true suffering"; August 14, 2009: "United Church's uncertain
future") An article by Charles Lewis, published on May 14, 2011,
set out what Lewis sees as the issues that beset the United Church:
the church's "big tent" approach to believers, accepting even atheists
as members; and lack of doctrinal orthodoxy.
^ "Two-thirds of the population declare Christian as their religion".
statcan.gc.ca. Statistics Canada. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
^ www.united-church.ca. United Church of Canada
Retrieved April 2, 2018. Missing or empty title= (help)
^ a b c
^ "Appendix B: Classification of Protestant
Denominationsdate=2015-05-12". Pew Research Center's Religion &
Public Life Project. Retrieved 2016-05-24.
^ Religions in Canada, 2001 Census
^ a b c Lewis, Charles (May 14, 2011). "The split in the United
Church". National Post. Toronto. Archived from the original on
2012-07-13. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
^ Don Schweitzer United Church of Canada: a history, Wilfrid Laurier
University Press, 2011
^ "Religions in Canada". Statscan. Retrieved November 19, 2009.
"The largest decline occurred among Presbyterians, whose numbers fell
36% to about 409,800. Pentecostals recorded the second largest
decline, their numbers falling 15% to almost 369,500. The number of
United Church adherents declined 8% to over 2.8 million; the number of
Anglicans fell 7% to about 2.0 million; and the number reporting
Lutheran dropped 5% to 606,600."
^ "Statistics". United Church of Canada. Archived from the original on
April 18, 2009. Retrieved November 19, 2009.
^ Kevin N. Flett, After evangelism: the sixties and the United Church
of Canada, McGill- University Press, 2011
^ a b c d e f g h i "The Manual" (PDF). United Church of Canada. 2010.
Archived from the original (pdf) on November 29, 2010. Retrieved
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