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A unicycle is a vehicle that touches the ground with only one wheel. The most common variation has a frame with a saddle, and has a pedal-driven direct drive. A two speed hub is commercially available for faster uncycling. Unicycling is practiced professionally in circuses, by street performers, in festivals, and as a hobby. Unicycles have also been used to create new sports such as unicycle hockey. In recent years, unicycles have also been used in mountain unicycling, an activity similar to mountain biking or trials.

A Torker
Torker
unicycle

Contents

1 History 2 Unicycles compared to other pedal powered vehicles 3 Construction 4 Types of unicycles

4.1 Freestyle unicycles 4.2 Trials unicycles 4.3 Mountain unicycles ("Munis") 4.4 Touring/Commuter unicycles 4.5 Other variations

5 Training aids 6 Riding styles 7 Unicycle
Unicycle
team sports

7.1 Unicycle
Unicycle
basketball 7.2 Unicycle
Unicycle
hockey 7.3 Unicycle
Unicycle
handball

8 Notable unicyclists

8.1 Known as unicyclists

8.1.1 Individuals 8.1.2 Groups

8.2 Known in other fields

9 UNICON and regional championships 10 Races 11 Manufacturers 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit]

"If I only had a Continental bicycle tire." Advertising poster for Continental tires showing a hobo on a unicycle with his dog running beside (c. 1900).

US patents for single-wheeled 'velocipedes' were published in 1869 by Frederick Myers[1] and in 1881 by Battista Scuri.[2] Unicycle
Unicycle
design has developed since the Penny Farthing and later the advent of the first unicycle into many variations including: the seatless unicycle ("ultimate wheel") and the tall ("giraffe") unicycle. During the late 1980s some extreme sportsmen took an interest in the unicycle and modified unicycles to enable them to engage in off-road or mountain unicycling, trials unicycling and street unicycling. Unicycles compared to other pedal powered vehicles[edit] Bicycles, tricycles and quadracycles share (with minor variations) several basic parts including wheels, pedals, cranks, forks, and the saddle with unicycles. Without a rider, unicycles lack stability – however, a proficient unicyclist is usually more stable than a similarly proficient rider on a bicycle as the wheel is not constrained by the linear axis of a frame. Unicycles usually, but not always, lack brakes, gears, and the ability to freewheel. Construction[edit]

A unicycle hub

Unicycles have a few key parts:

The wheel (which includes the tire, tube, rim, spokes, hub and axle) The cranks (which attach the pedals to the wheel hub) The hub (connects the spokes to a central point and also transfers pedaling power to the wheel) Pedals Fork-style frame Seatpost Saddle
Saddle
(the seat of the unicycle)

The wheel is usually similar to a bicycle wheel with a special hub designed so the axle is a fixed part of the hub. This means the rotation of the cranks directly controls the rotation of the wheel (called direct drive). The frame sits on top of the axle bearings, while the cranks attach to the ends of the axle, and the seatpost slides into the frame to allow the saddle to be height adjusted. Types of unicycles[edit]

Off-road unicycles.

Trial unicycle

Types of unicycle include:

Freestyle unicycles Trials unicycles Mountain unicycles (also called Munis) Giraffe unicycles Commuter unicycles Street unicycles Cruiser unicycles Road unicycles

Each type has various combinations of frame strength, wheel diameter, and crank length. Freestyle unicycles[edit] Generally used for flatland skills and freestyle routines, freestyle unicycles typically have a relatively high seatpost, a narrow saddle, and a squared fork (used for one-footed tricks). These unicycles are used similarly to flatland bicycles. Wheel
Wheel
size is usually 20 inches (510 mm), but smaller riders may use 16-or-12-inch (410 or 300 mm) unicycles. Some people prefer 24-inch (610 mm) wheels. Trials unicycles[edit] Designed for unicycle trials, these unicycles are stronger than standard unicycles in order to withstand the stresses caused by jumping, dropping, and supporting the weight of the unicycle and rider on components such as the pedals and cranks. Many trials unicycles also have wide, 19- or 20-inch (510 mm) knobby tires to absorb some of the impact on drops. Mountain unicycles ("Munis")[edit]

Muni with disk brake

Mountain unicycling
Mountain unicycling
(abbreviated to muni) consists of riding specialized unicycles on mountain bike trails or otherwise off-roading. Mountain unicycles have thicker, wider tires for shock absorption. Many riders choose to use long cranks to increase power when riding up hills and over rough terrain. A disk brake is sometimes used for descents, the brake handle is attached to the underside of the handle on the front of the saddle Touring/Commuter unicycles[edit]

36" unicycle with Schlumpf-gear

Used for long distances, these unicycles are specially made to cover distances. They have a large wheel diameter, between 26 and 36 in., so more distance is covered in less pedal rotation. A 36" unicycle made by the Coker Tire company started the big wheel trend.[3] Some variations on the traditional touring unicycle include the Schlumpf "GUni" (geared unicycle), which uses a two-speed internal fixed-geared hub. Larger direct-drive wheels tend to have shorter cranks to allow for easier cadence and more speed. Geared wheels, with an effective diameter larger than the wheel itself, tend to use longer cranks to increase torque as they are not required to achieve such high cadences as direct-drive wheels, but demand greater force per pedal stroke. A 36" Commuter unicycle was used by Bob Mueller to complete a cross-country unicycle trek from Cape Elizabeth, ME to Westport, WA on August 8, 2011.[4] Other variations[edit]

Giraffe unicycle

Multi-wheeled unicycle

Giraffe, a chain-driven unicycle. use of a chain or multiple wheels in a gear-like configuration can make the unicycle much taller than standard unicycles (note that multi-wheel unicycles can be described as giraffes).[5] Standard unicycles don't have a chain, which limits the seat height based on how long the rider's legs are, because there the crank is attached directly to the wheel axle. Giraffe unicycles can range in heights from 3 feet to over 10 feet high. Geared unicycle , or GUni, a unicycle whose wheel rotates faster than the pedal cadence. They are used for distance riding and racing.[6] Multi-wheeled unicycle, a unicycle with more than one wheel, stacked on top of each other so that only one wheel touches the ground (nicknamed stacks). The wheels are linked together by chains or direct contact with each other.[7] These unicycles can also be called Giraffes. Kangaroo
Kangaroo
unicycle, a unicycle that has both the cranks facing in the same direction. They are so named due to the hopping motion of the rider's legs, supposedly resembling the jumping of a kangaroo. Eccentric unicycle, a unicycle that has the hub off-center in the wheel. Putting an eccentric wheel on a kangaroo unicycle can make riding easier, and the rider's motion appear more kangaroo-like. Ultimate wheel, a unicycle with no frame or seat, just a wheel and pedals. Impossible wheel, or BC wheel, a wheel with pegs or metal plates connected to the axle for the rider to stand on. These wheels are for coasting and jumping. A purist form of unicycle, without cranks. Monocycle, or monowheel, a large wheel inside which the rider sits (as in a hamster wheel), either motorized or pedal-powered. The greater gyroscopic properties and lower center of mass make it easier to balance than a normal unicycle but less maneuverable. Self-balancing unicycle, a computer-controlled, motor-driven, self-balancing unicycle.[8] Freewheeling unicycle, a unicycle in which the hub has a freewheel mechanism, allowing the rider, to coast or move forward without pedaling, as a common bicycle does. These unicycles almost always have brakes because they cannot stop the way traditional unicycles do. The brake lever is generally mounted in the bottom of the saddle. These unicycles also cannot go backwards.

Other variations include:

Tandem[9] Recumbent[10] Hydraulic giraffe[9] Snibike[clarification needed] Suicycle, a unicycle with no seat, the rider standing on the pedals which are located at the end of the vertical shaft

Training aids[edit] Training aids are sometimes used to make it easier to become comfortable with riding a unicycle. One method for training is using a spotter to make riding easier. Another method is finding a narrow hallway that can be used to help alleviate left and right balancing while allowing a beginner to focus on forward and backward balance. Equally, riding back and forth between two chairs, faced back to back, whilst holding on to the chair backs allows the user to gauge how to appropriately position oneself before setting off. Using props such as sticks or ski poles is generally discouraged as they hinder balance and create dependence. A fall onto props could also cause serious injury.[11]

Freestyle

Riding styles[edit]

Jess Riegel grinds a rail, a street unicycling skill

Commuting-style riding on a 36er at the Five Boro Bike Tour

Traditionally, unicycling has been seen as a circus skill which has been performed at events to entertain the public in the circus or during parades, carnivals or street festivals. Recent developments in the strength and durability of bicycle (and consequently unicycle) parts have given rise to many new activities including trials unicycling and mountain unicycling. Unicycling is arguably now as much a competitive sport and recreational pursuit as an entertainment activity. The principal types of unicycling are:

Freestyle Perhaps the oldest form of unicycling, traditional freestyle riding is based on performance. Freestyle tricks and moves are derived from different ways of riding the unicycle, and linking these moves together into one long flowing line that is aesthetically pleasing. Competitions look very similar to figure skating

Comedy Along with freestyle it is a performance style of unicycling. Often employed by clowns and other circus skills performers. Comedy unicycling exaggerates the perceived difficulty of riding a unicycle to create a comedic performance.

Trials unicycling Trials unicycling
Trials unicycling
is specifically aimed at negotiating obstacles. Analogous to trials bike riding.

Street unicycling Street unicycling as a style involves riders using a combination of objects found in urbanized settings (such as ledges, handrails, and stairs) to perform a wide variety of tricks. Many tricks are similar to those performed in other extreme sports, such as BMX
BMX
and skateboarding.

Off-road or mountain unicycling (abbreviated to 'MUni') Muni is riding on rough terrain and has developed as a form of unicycling in recent years.

Touring or commuting This style concentrates on distance riding. With a 29-or-36-inch (740 or 910 mm) wheel cruising speeds of 10 to 15 mph (24 km/h) or more can easily be reached.

Flatland As of 2009[update] This style of unicycling is similar to freestyle in that various tricks and movements are performed on flat ground. Flatland, however, does not have the performance element of freestyle, but instead has tricks that are similar to those in BMX
BMX
and skateboarding.

Unicycle
Unicycle
team sports[edit] Unicycling is also performed as a team sport. Unicycle
Unicycle
basketball[edit] Main article: Unicycle
Unicycle
basketball Unicycle basketball
Unicycle basketball
uses a regulation basketball on a regular basketball court with the same rules, e.g., one must dribble the ball while riding. There are a number of rules that are particular to unicycle basketball as well, e.g., a player must be mounted on the unicycle when in-bounding the ball. Unicycle basketball
Unicycle basketball
is usually played using 24 inches (610 mm) or smaller unicycles, and using plastic pedals, both to preserve the court and the players' shins. In North America, regular unicycle basketball games are organized in Berkeley, San Luis Obispo, Detroit, Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Toronto. Switzerland, France, Germany and Puerto Rico are all field teams. The Puerto Rico All Star Unicycling Basketball Team has been one of the dominant teams and has won several world championships. Unicycle
Unicycle
hockey[edit] Main article: Unicycle
Unicycle
hockey

Unicycle
Unicycle
Hockey

Unicycle hockey
Unicycle hockey
follows rules basically similar to ice hockey or inline hockey, using a tennis ball and ice-hockey sticks. Play is mostly non-contact. The sport has active leagues in Germany, Switzerland and the UK and international tournaments held at least bi-annually. Tournaments in the UK are held by various teams across the country usually in sports halls, but occasionally outside. Each tournament lasts a day and around 8 teams normally compete in a round-robin league with the winner being whoever has the most points. If two teams have the same number of points the winner can be decided by goal difference or a penalty shoot-out. Unicycle
Unicycle
handball[edit] Main article: Unicycle
Unicycle
handball Unicycle
Unicycle
handball uses a handball-sized ball. The teams aim to throw it into a vertical hoop placed about 6 feet (1.8 m) above the ground. It has been played in the Polish village of Chrzelice
Chrzelice
since the late 1970s[12][13] Notable unicyclists[edit] Known as unicyclists[edit] Individuals[edit]

Kris Holm and George Peck, pioneers in mountain unicycling Rudy Horn, a German juggler Ernest Montego, a German juggler Jiang Yan Jing, Chinese acrobat Lucky Diamond Rich, a tattooed performance artist Michael Goudeau, an American juggler Amy Shields, an American freestyle unicyclist Edward Pratt, A British unicycler attempting to be the first to circumnavigate the earth by unicycle[14][15]

Groups[edit]

King Charles Unicycle
Unicycle
Troupe[16][17][18][19]

Known in other fields[edit]

Adam Carolla, American comedian and actor[20] Rupert Grint, actor who played Ronald Weasley
Ronald Weasley
in the Harry Potter films[21] Mika Häkkinen, Formula One
Formula One
racing driver[22] Lewis Hamilton, Formula One
Formula One
racing driver[23] Eddie Izzard, comedian and actor[24] Leslie Mann, American actress who performed on The Ellen DeGeneres Show[25] Chris Martin, lead singer of Coldplay[26] Demetri Martin, American comedian and actor[27] Ulrich Mühe, late German actor, best known for his role in The Lives of Others[28] Michael Nesmith, former guitarist of The Monkees[29] Miles Plumlee, American professional basketball player[30] Nico Rosberg, Formula One
Formula One
racing driver[23] Donald Rumsfeld, former United States Secretary of Defense[31] Claude Shannon, founder of information theory[32] Take That
Take That
members Mark Owen, Jason Orange, and Howard Donald
Howard Donald
unicycled for the circus-based video for their song "Said It All"[33] Andrew Tosh, son of Peter and also a Jamaican reggae musician[34] Peter Tosh: Jamaican reggae musician from The Wailers (1963-1974 band)[34][35] Steve Young, former National Football League
National Football League
quarterback[36] Ilya Zhitomirskiy: Russian-American software developer and entrepreneur[37]

UNICON and regional championships[edit]

Start of the 100 km race at the UNICON 16 in Brixen 2012

UNICON, Eurocycle
Eurocycle
and APUC are regular international unicycling conventions. The biennial UNICON (International Unicycling Convention), sanctioned by the International Unicycling Federation, comprises all major unicycling disciplines and is a major event on the international unicycling calendar. Events include: artistic (group, pairs, individual, standard skill, open-X), track racing (100 metres, 400 metres, 800 metres, 30 metres walk the wheel, 50 metres one-foot), 10 kilometres, marathon (42.195 km), muni (cross-country, uphill, downhill, North Shore downhill), trials, basketball and hockey.[38] The Eurocycle
Eurocycle
(EUROpean uniCYCLE meeting) is a similar convention but based in Europe. APUC, the Asia Pacific Unicycling Championships, are held biannually, alternately with Unicon. The first APUC, in 2007, was in Singapore. Subsequently, the event has been held in Hong Kong (2009), Seoul (2011), Canberra (2013), and Singapore (2015). Races[edit]

Play media

Unicycle
Unicycle
Race 2013

The world's first multi-stage unicycle race, Ride the Lobster, took place in Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
in June 2008. Some 35 teams from 14 countries competed over a total distance of 800 km.[39] Each team consisted of a maximum of 3 riders and 1 support person. Unicross, or unicycle cyclocross is an emerging race format in which unicycles race over a cyclocross course. Manufacturers[edit] Unicycle
Unicycle
makers include:

Coker Kris Holm Unicycles Miyata Torker Schwinn Nimbus

See also[edit]

Bicycle
Bicycle
and motorcycle dynamics Monowheel Self-balancing unicycle Uniracers

References[edit]

^ "US 87355 A". March 2, 1869. Retrieved 2015-03-29.  ^ "US 242161 A". May 31, 1881. Retrieved 2015-03-29.  ^ ""To Coker" is a verb with one wheel and tire on it!". Retrieved 2008-05-13.  ^ "Oakland man completes cross-country unicycle trek". Kennebec Journal & Morning Sentinel. 2011-08-20. Retrieved 2017-11-06.  ^ Foss, John. "Multi Wheeled Unicycles". Retrieved 2012-06-26.  ^ Holm, Kris; Schlumpf. "Schlumpf Geared Unicycle
Unicycle
Hub". Retrieved 2012-06-26.  ^ http://www.unicycling.com/garage/multi.htm ^ http://www.gizmag.com/go/2350/ ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-06-03.  ^ http://www.unicycling.com/garage/recumben.htm ^ Wiley, Jack (1973). The unicycle book. Pennsylvania: Stackpole Books. ISBN 0-8117-0416-5.  ^ How it started in Chrzelice
Chrzelice
(Polish) ^ Pictures of handball played by former and current members of Chrzelice
Chrzelice
unicycle team ^ Pratt, Edward. "World Unicycle
Unicycle
Tour, About". World Unicycle
Unicycle
Tour. Retrieved 19 March 2018.  ^ Cable, Simon. "British teenager bids to become first person to travel around world on a UNICYCLE". Daily Mail. Retrieved 19 March 2018.  ^ "Wendy's Shameless Surprise Stunt: The King Charles Unicycle Troupe". The Wendy Williams Show. November 11, 2011.  ^ "Built to Amaze: King Charles Troupe". Ringling Brothers & Barnes & Bailey. Retrieved 29 September 2013.  ^ "King Charles Troupe: Unicycle
Unicycle
Basketball Troupe". Blue Moon Talen. Retrieved 29 September 2013.  ^ "April 26 "Lisa Tolliver Show" features Ray Aydelott, Joe Franklin and David Reid". Lisa Tolliver Show. April 24, 2006.  ^ 'Dancing With The Stars Eliminates Adam Carolla' ^ ohne Autor (15 July 2009): 9 Fun Facts about Rupert Grint! Extra TV (retrieved 16 November 2015) ^ ' Mika Häkkinen
Mika Häkkinen
bio' ^ a b Lewis Hamilton
Lewis Hamilton
relishing reunion with old unicycle rival Nico Rosberg, Guardian, 15 March 2013 ^ 'Eddie Izzard' ^ Stephanie Palumbo (September 2012). How Leslie Mann
Leslie Mann
Lives Her Best Life. The star of the new animated film ParaNorman talks about her love of unicycles, her kids, and all things supernatural. O, The Oprah Magazine (retrieved 17 November 2014) ^ ' Chris Martin
Chris Martin
Rides Unicycles' ^ Eric Spitznagel (7 April 2011). Demetri Martin
Demetri Martin
on Twitter Battles, Kurt Vonnegut Asterisks, and Unicycle
Unicycle
Regret. Vanity Fair online (retrieved 16 November 2014) ^ [1] ^ Paul Cambra (7 February 2013). Jess Riegel makes documentary about Unicycle
Unicycle
World Championships. 'Unicon 16 Brixen' available at three Auburn bike shops. Auburn Journal (retrieved 16 November 2014) ^ ' Miles Plumlee
Miles Plumlee
Rides a Unicycle
Unicycle
at Duke basketball game' ^ ' Donald Rumsfeld
Donald Rumsfeld
On A Unicycle' ^ ' Claude Shannon
Claude Shannon
obituary' Archived 2012-10-22 at the Wayback Machine. ^ ' Take That
Take That
Unicycle
Unicycle
(BBC)' on YouTube ^ a b Babylon By Bike Don Snowden (7 April 1988). Andrew Tosh Shoulders Reggae Legacy. Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
(retrieved 16 November 2014) ^ 'Hope You Like Jamming Too (Review of Peter Tosh
Peter Tosh
biography) ^ 'Quarterback always called right plays' ^ Paul Vitello (15 November 2011). Ilya Zhitomirskiy
Ilya Zhitomirskiy
Dies at 22; Co-Founded Social Network. New York Times
New York Times
(retrieved 16 November 2014) ^ International Unicycling Federation ^ Ride the Lobster
Ride the Lobster
Archived 2008-07-26 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Unicycle

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Unicycles.

International Unicycling Federation

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