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The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (Украінська Народня Республіка, in modern orthography Ukrainian: Українська Народна Республіка, Ukrajinśka Narodna Respublika; abbreviated УНР, UNR), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine
Ukraine
declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution. It was initially part of the Russian Republic
Russian Republic
but proclaimed its independence on 25 January 1918.[1] During its short existence, the republic went through several political transformations from the socialist-leaning republic headed by the Central council with its general secretariat to the national republic led by the Directorate and by Symon Petlyura.[1] Between April and December 1918, the Ukrainian People's Republic
People's Republic
did not function, having been overthrown by the Ukrainian State
Ukrainian State
of Pavlo Skoropadsky.[1][2] From autumn 1919, the UNR operated as an ally of the Second Polish Republic,[1] but by then the state de facto no longer existed.[1] The 18 March 1921 Treaty of Riga
Treaty of Riga
between the Second Polish Republic, Soviet Russia
Russia
(acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine
Ukraine
sealed the fate of the Ukrainian People's Republic.[1] After the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Revolution of October/November 1917, many governments formed in Ukraine[1] – most notably the Ukrainian People's Republic
People's Republic
(based in Kiev) and the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets (1917–1918, based in Kharkiv) and its Soviet successors. These two sides, White Movement, Poland, Green armies
Green armies
and Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine
Ukraine
fought constantly with each other, which resulted in many casualties among Ukrainians fighting in a civil war as part of the wider Russian Civil War. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
would (after the 1921 Treaty of Riga) extend control over what would ultimately become the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and a founding member of the Soviet Union.[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Revolutionary wave 1.2 Timeline

1.2.1 Spring 1917 1.2.2 Summer 1917 1.2.3 Autumn 1917 1.2.4 Winter 1917–18 1.2.5 Spring 1918

1.3 Independence 1.4 Hetmanate 1.5 Timeline

1.5.1 Spring 1918 1.5.2 Summer 1918 1.5.3 Winter 1918

1.6 Directorate 1.7 Timeline

1.7.1 Winter 1918–19 1.7.2 Spring 1919 1.7.3 Summer 1919

1.8 Anti- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
and other uprisings

2 International recognition

2.1 Important diplomatic missions and results

3 Demographics 4 Administrative division 5 Armed forces

5.1 Main military formations (UPR) 5.2 Main military formations (WUPR)

6 Money and banking 7 Maps 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links

History[edit]

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Revolutionary wave[edit]

February 1918 article from The New York Times
The New York Times
showing a map of the Russian Imperial territories claimed by Ukraine
Ukraine
People's Republic
People's Republic
at the time, before the annexation of the Austro-Hungarian lands of the West Ukrainian People's Republic.

See also: Central Council of Ukraine, General Secretariat of Ukraine, Odessa Soviet Republic, and Ukraine
Ukraine
after the Russian Revolution On 10 June 1917, the Ukrainian Central Council declared its autonomy as part of the Russian Republic
Russian Republic
by its First Universal at the All-Ukrainian Military Congress. The highest governing body of the Ukrainian People's Republic
People's Republic
became the General Secretariat headed by Volodymyr Vynnychenko. The Prime Minister
Prime Minister
of Russia
Russia
Alexander Kerensky recognized the Secretariat, appointing it as the representative governing body of the Russian Provisional Government
Russian Provisional Government
and limiting its powers to five governorates: Volyn, Kiev, Podolie, Chernigov, and Poltova. At first Vynnychenko
Vynnychenko
protested and left his post as Secretariat leader, but eventually returned to reassemble the Secretariat after the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
accepted the Kerensky Instruktsiya and issued the Second Universal. After the October Revolution
October Revolution
the Kievan faction of the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Party instigated the uprising in Kiev
Kiev
on November 8, 1917 in order to establish Soviet power in the city. Kiev
Kiev
Military District forces attempted to stop it, but after the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
threw its support behind the Bolsheviks, the Russian forces were eliminated from Kiev. After expelling the government forces, the Rada announced a wider autonomy for the Ukrainian Republic, still maintaining ties to Russia, on November 22, 1917. The territory of the republic was proclaimed by the Third Universal November 20, 1917 (November 7 by Old Style)[3] of the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
encompassing the governorates: Volyn, Kiev, Podolie, Chernigov, Poltava, Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav, Kerson, Taurida (not including Crimea). It also stated that the people of the governorates: Voronezh, Kholm, and Kursk
Kursk
were welcome to join the republic through a referendum. Further the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
in its Universal stated that because there was no Government in the Russian Republic after the October Revolution
October Revolution
it proclaimed itself the Supreme governing body of the territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
until order in the Russian republic could be restored. The Central Rada
Central Rada
called all revolutionary activities such as the October Revolution
October Revolution
a civil war and expressed its hopes for the resolution of the chaos. After a brief truce, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
realized that the Rada had no intention of supporting the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Revolution. They re-organized into an All-Ukrainian Council of Soviets in December 1917 in an attempt to seize power. When that failed due to the Bolsheviks' relative lack of popularity in Kiev, they moved to Kharkiv. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
of Ukraine
Ukraine
declared the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic
People's Republic
outlawed and proclaimed the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets with capital in Kiev, claiming that the government of the People's Secretaries of Ukraine
Ukraine
was the only government in the country. The Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Red Army
Red Army
entered Ukraine
Ukraine
from the Russian SFSR in support of the local Soviet government. As the relationships between members within the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
soured, a series of regional Soviet republics on the territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
proclaimed their independence and allegiance to the Petrograd
Petrograd
sovnarkom (Odessa Soviet Republic (southern Ukraine), Donetsk-Krivoi Rog Soviet Republic (eastern Ukraine)). The Donetsk-Kryvoi Rog Republic was created by a direct decree of Lenin
Lenin
as part of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
with its capital in Kharkiv. That decree was successfully implemented by Fyodor Sergeyev who became the chairman of the local government as well as joining the Soviet government of Ukraine, simultaneously. Unlike Fyodor Sergeyev's Republic, the Odessa Republic was not recognized by any other Bolshevik
Bolshevik
governments and on its own initiative had entered a military conflict with Romania
Romania
for control over the Moldavian Democratic Republic, whose territory it was contesting.

1919 Ukraine
Ukraine
Peoples Republic Diplomatic passport issued for serving in Switzerland.

Timeline[edit] The following information is based on the exposition of the Museum of Soviet occupation in Kiev
Kiev
( Memorial (society)
Memorial (society)
in Kiev)[4] Spring 1917[edit]

March 8–12 – February Revolution
February Revolution
in the Russian Empire, victory of the democratic forces March 17 – establishment of the Ukrainian Central Council April 4 – recreation of Prosvita, establishment of the Ukrainian Cooperative Committee, and the Temporary Military Council, liberation of the people of Galicia, particularly Andrei Sheptytsky April 9 – Mykhailo Hrushevsky
Mykhailo Hrushevsky
returns from exile to head the Ukrainian Central Council April 10 – the Ukrainian Central Council supported the convocation of the Ukrainian National Congress April 11 – establishment of the Ukrainian Military Society of Hetman Polubotko headed by Mykola Mikhnovsky, organization of the 1st Ukrainian Volunteer Regiment of Bohdan Khmelnytsky April 13 – a big demonstration took place in Kiev
Kiev
with over 100,000 people, establishment of the Ukrainian National Council in Petrograd May 2–4 – the Ukrainian National Congress took place in Kiev, involving about 900 delegates, the Congress confirmed the composition of the Ukrainian Central Council of 150 members headed by Mykhailo Hrushevsky May 17 – the commander of the Southwestern Front General Brusilov permitted the organization of the Bohdan Khmelnytsky Regiment which drafted 3,574 volunteers May 18 – the 1st Ukrainian Military Congress took place in Kiev attended by over 700 delegates. The Congress elected the Ukrainian General Military Committee of 18 members headed by Symon Petlyura

Summer 1917[edit]

June 10–15 – the 1st All-Ukrainian Peasant Congress took place in Kiev
Kiev
in which 2,200 delegates participated June 11 – extraordinary congress of the council of Ukrainian Military Society of Doroshenko in Simferopol
Simferopol
decided to create a separate Ukrainian Regiment June 18–24 – ignoring the prohibition of the Russian Provisional Government, the 2nd Ukrainian Military Congress took place in Kiev. The congress accepted the declaration of a detailed plan of Ukrainization of the Russian Army, leaving Symon Petlyura
Symon Petlyura
as the head of the Ukrainian General Military Committee. The congress showed its support to the Ukrainian Central Council. The council of Kharkiv Governorate recognized the Ukrainian Central Council as a government authority in Ukraine June 24 – announcement of the 1st Universal (Declaration) of the Ukrainian Central Council at Sofiyivska Ploshcha (Sofia Square) June 28 – the Ukrainian Central Council elects the General Secretariat of Ukraine
Ukraine
as an authority of state power July 11 – a delegation of the Russian Provisional Government (Kerensky, Tereshchenko, and Tsereteli) arrived in Kiev July 14 – the Ukrainian Central Council adopted that Petty Council consisting of 40 representatives from Ukrainian and 18 from national minorities July 16 – the Petty Council adopted the 2nd Universal (Declaration) of the Ukrainian Central Council July 29 – the Petty Council adopted the Statute of the Highest Government of Ukraine August 8 – a terrorist attack took place at the railroad station "Post-Volynsky" (Kiev) where the newly formed Bohdan Khmelnytsky Regiment was attacked by the Moscow
Moscow
cuirassiers and Don cossacks August 17 – the Russian Provisional Government
Russian Provisional Government
issued a temporary instruction (Instruktsia) for the General Secretariat of Provisional Government in Ukraine
Ukraine
where it recognized the competency of the General Secretariat over five Governorates (Gubernias): Kiev, Volyn, Poltava, Chernihiv, and Podillia

Autumn 1917[edit]

September 22 – the Petty Council adopted the declaration about the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly. The representatives of national minorities in the Petty Council condemned the intentions of Ukraine
Ukraine
to separate from Russia September 27 – start of the State Democratic Convention in Petrograd October 13 – by the petition of the Kiev
Kiev
Court Chamber the Russian Provisional Government initiates investigation against the General Secretariat for the intention to convene the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly November 7 – October Revolution
October Revolution
in Petrograd. Petty Council created of the Regional Committee in Protection of Revolution in Ukraine. The committee announced the extension of its powers over the nine Ukrainian governorates November 8 – the Ukrainian Central Council adopted a resolution which condemned the revolution. In protest, the bolsheviks left the Regional Committee and the Ukrainian Central Council November 9 – the commander of the Kiev
Kiev
Military District General Kvetsinsky refused to recognize the Regional Committee which in turn was dissolved transferring all its powers to the General Secretariat November 11 – arrested bolsheviks of a revolutionary committee. The Ukrainian Central Council adopted a bill about elections to the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly handing to the Petty Council to finalize the law and conduct the elections November 14 – the Ukrainian Central Council and the General Secretary are recognized as state authorities. The General Secretary of Military Affairs Symon Petlyura
Symon Petlyura
subordinates the Kiev
Kiev
militia (law enforcement) to the Ukrainian government November 20 – after the announcement of the 3rd Universal (Declaration) the deputies of Russian Cadets V. Krupkov and Polish Kolo V. Rudnytsky surrendered their mandates of the Ukrainian Central Council November 21 – the General Secretary of Military Affairs Symon Petlyura appoints General Pavlo Skoropadsky
Pavlo Skoropadsky
a commander of the Right-bank Ukraine
Ukraine
armed forces November 22 – in the presence of the French, Italian, and Romanian diplomatic missions, the 3rd Universal (Declaration) was announced at Sofiyivska Ploshcha (Sofia Square) November 27 – the Ukrainian Central Council adopted a resolution regarding the Kholm Governorate protesting its annexation by Poland November 30 – General Secretariat announced that Sovnarkom
Sovnarkom
is not a legal authority of Russia. The Petty Council adopted the Law "About the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly" where it was established its composition of 301 members:

Kiev
Kiev
Governorate – 45 Volyn Governorate
Volyn Governorate
– 30 Podillya Governorate – 30 Yekaterinoslav Governorate
Yekaterinoslav Governorate
– 36 Poltava Governorate
Poltava Governorate
– 30 Kherson Governorate
Kherson Governorate
– 34 Kharkiv
Kharkiv
Governorate – 35 Tavria Governorate – 9 Chernihiv Governorate
Chernihiv Governorate
– 27 Ostrohozh district – 15

(Each deputy represents 100,000 of population, a right of vote have citizens of 20 years and older; established the Central Election Commission to the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly) Winter 1917–18[edit]

UPR postcard with national flag and anthem. November–December 1917.

UPR postage stamp

December 14–15 – the Petty Council adopted the Law about the General Court, the highest judicial institution of the Ukrainian People's Republic. International diplomatic missions transferred their offices from Mohyliv-Podilsky
Mohyliv-Podilsky
to Kiev. The government of France on December 18 announced its intention to have a diplomatic relationship with Ukraine, the same intention declared England December 19 – the 1st Congress of Soviets of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' deputies of Ukraine
Ukraine
expressed its complete trust to the Ukrainian Central Council and General Secretariat and condemned the Ultimatum of Lenin-Trotsky December 22 – the Petty Council adopted the Law on taxes and collections, with which all taxes and collections belonged to the State Treasury of Ukraine December 23 – the General Secretariat determined the composition of the Ukrainian delegation to the peace talks in Brest-Litovsk December 25 – the Peace Conference in Brest-Litovsk
Brest-Litovsk
sent in a telegram for Ukraine
Ukraine
to join the negotiations January 3 – General Georges Tabouis was appointed the Commissar of French Republic to the Government of Ukrainian People's Republic January 6 – start of the peace negotiations in Brest. The head of Ukrainian delegation Vsevolod Holubovych
Vsevolod Holubovych
requests recognition of Ukraine
Ukraine
as a sovereign state, adding of the Kholm Governorate, and conducting a plebiscite on the territory of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
where dominated the Ukrainian population to add that territory to Ukraine January 9 – 171 delegates were elected to the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly January 10–12 – the Central powers
Central powers
recognized the Ukrainian delegation at the talks in Brest as a separate and plenipotentiary to conduct negotiations on the behalf of Ukrainian People's Republic January 16 – the Petty Council adopted the law about creation of the Ukrainian National Army and its composition based on a militia principle January 22 – the Petty Council adopted the law about the National-Individual Autonomy. For the last text of the 4th Universal (Declaration) voted: "for" – 39 voices, "against" – 4 voices, "abstained" – 6 January 29 – Battle of Kruty February 9 – the Brest peace treaty was signed with Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria February 10 – Due to advance of the Russian Bolshevik
Bolshevik
forces the government of Ukraine
Ukraine
was evacuated to Zhytomyr
Zhytomyr
from Kiev February 21 – the Ukrainian delegation issued a declaration about reasons for the arrival of German forces in Ukraine February 27 – the Ukrainian Central Council adopted the law about the introduction in Ukraine
Ukraine
a new style of calendar according which a time moves 13 days ahead. The Petty Council adopted the law about the new monetary system. The monetary unit became hryvnia that had 8.712 units of pure gold. Adoption of the law about the coat of arms of the Ukrainian People's Republic
People's Republic
– Trident (Tryzub)

Spring 1918[edit]

March 2 – the Petty Council adopted the law about citizenship of Ukraine, the law about new administrative system. The Russian established gubernias were to be replaced by new administrative unit – zemlia (land) March 18 – several perished student-veterans of Kruty were reburied in Kiev April 11 – May 12, 1918 was designated as the first convocation of the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly April 13 – Adoption of the Ukrainian Central Council resolution condemning the annexation of Bessarabia
Bessarabia
by Romania April 23 – an economic treaty is signed between Ukraine
Ukraine
and Germany with Austria-Hungary April 25 – Adoption of the law about the Central Economic Council of Ukraine April 29 – Adopted a bill on the Constitution of Ukraine. The All-Ukrainian Agrarian Congress elects Pavlo Skoropadsky
Pavlo Skoropadsky
the Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine

Independence[edit]

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Brest-Litovsk
(February 9, 1918):   Ukrainian People's Republic   Claimed territories (striped)   German troops in autumn, 1917   Soviet Russia   Don regional government   Kuban regional government    Crimea
Crimea
regional government   Austria-Hungary   Polish council   Romania   Moldova   Serbia

Due to the aggression from Soviet Russia, on January 25, 1918, the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
issued its Fourth Universal (dated January 22, 1918), breaking ties with Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Russia
Russia
and proclaiming a sovereign Ukrainian state.[5] Less than a month later, on February 9, 1918, the Red Army
Red Army
seized Kiev. Besieged by the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and having lost much territory, the Rada was forced to seek foreign aid, and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on February 9, 1918 to obtain military help from the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires. Germany helped the Ukrainian Army force the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
out of Ukraine. On February 20, 1918 the council of the Kuban People's Republic
Kuban People's Republic
accepted the resolution for a federal union of Kuban with Ukraine
Ukraine
as Bolshevik
Bolshevik
forces pushed towards Yekaterinodar. It was agreed to forward the resolution for ratification to the Ukrainian government. After the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Ukraine
Ukraine
became a virtual protectorate of the German Empire
German Empire
which at that time seemed more favorable than being overrun by the Soviet forces that were spreading havoc in the country. Germany was anxious about losing the war and was trying to speed up the process of food extraction from Ukraine, so it decided to install its own administration in the person of Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
von Eichhorn who replaced the Colonel General Alexander von Linsingen. On April 6 the commander of the Army group Kijew issued an order in which he explained his intentions to execute the conditions of the treaty. That, of course, conflicted with the laws of the Ukrainian government, which annulled his order. The Germans
Germans
arrested and disbanded the Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
on April 29, 1918 to stop the social reforms that were taking place and retarding the process of food supply transfer to Germany and Austria-Hungary. The German authorities also arrested the Ukrainian Prime Minister, Vsevolod Holubovych, on terrorist charges, and thus disbanded the Council of People's Ministers. Prior to this, the Rada had approved the Constitution of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Concurrently with all these events and a few days prior to the change of powers in the country on April 24, 1918 the government of Belarus
Belarus
confirmed the Belarusian Chamber of Commerce in Kiev
Kiev
headed by Mitrofan Dovnar-Zapolsky on the initiative of the Belarusian secretary of finance Pyotr Krechevsky.[6] Hetmanate[edit] Main article: Ukrainian State

May–November, 1918:   Ukrainian State   Territories of Ukrainian Union (striped)   Crimean Regional Government   Kuban People's Republic    West Ukrainian People's Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic
(Oct 19)   Don Republic   Belarusian People's Republic   Lithuania   Poland   Austria-Hungary   Romania   Serbia   Soviet Russia

After the coup, the Rada was replaced by the conservative government of Hetman
Hetman
Pavlo Skoropadsky, the Hetmanate, and the Ukrainian People's Republic by a "Ukrainian State" (Ukrayinska derzhava). Skoropadsky, a former officer of the Russian Empire, established a regime favoring large landowners and concentrating power at the top. The government had little support from Ukrainian activists, but unlike the socialist Rada, it was able to establish an effective administrative organization, established diplomatic ties with many countries, and concluded a peace treaty with Soviet Russia. In a few months, the Hetmanate also printed millions of Ukrainian language
Ukrainian language
textbooks, established many Ukrainian schools, two universities, and the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. The Hetmanate government also supported the confiscation of previously-nationalized peasant lands by wealthy estate owners, often with the help of German troops. This led to unrest, the rise of a peasant partisan (guerrilla) movement, and a series of large-scale popular armed revolts. Negotiations were held to garner support from previous Rada members Petliura
Petliura
and Vynnychenko, but these activists worked to overthrow Skoropadsky. On July 30, a Russian Left Socialist-Revolutionary, Boris Mikhailovich Donskoy, with help from the local USRP succeeded in assassinating von Eichhorn, blowing him up in downtown Kiev
Kiev
at a broadlight. Due to the impending loss of World War I
World War I
by Germany and Austria-Hungary, Skoropadsky's sponsors, the Hetman
Hetman
formed a new cabinet of Russian Monarchists and committed to federation with a possible future non- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Russia. In response, the Ukrainian socialists announced a new revolutionary government, the Directorate, on November 14, 1918. Timeline[edit] Spring 1918[edit]

April 29 – All-Ukrainian Agrarian Congress elects Pavlo Skoropadsky as the Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine April 30 – Mykola Vasylenko
Mykola Vasylenko
was appointed the Chairman of Council of Ministers and tasked with the formation of government May 7 – the Council of Ministers confirmed its intentions to add Crimea
Crimea
to the Ukrainian State May 15 – Signing of a treaty between governments of Ukraine
Ukraine
from one side and Germany and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
from another to provide a loan in amount of 400 million karbovanets for acquiring the Ukrainian food May 18 – the Council of Ministers adopted the law about a creation of the State Guard May 23 – started peace negotiations between representatives of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia May 28 – to Kiev
Kiev
arrived the plenipotentiary delegation of the Regional Council of Kuban headed by Mykola Ryabovol with proposition of unification of Kuban with Ukraine May 30 – the Minister of Foreign Affairs Dmytro Doroshenko petitioned with a special letter to the Ambassador of Germany in Ukraine, baron Alfons Mumm von Schwarzenstein, to include Crimea
Crimea
to Ukraine

Summer 1918[edit]

June 12 – the Congress of Landowners and Agrarians of Tavria Governorate that took place in Simferopol
Simferopol
supported the proposition to include Tavria to Ukraine June 20 – the All-Ukrainian Church Council took place in Kiev July 1 – adopted the decision about a creation of the Ukrainian university in Kamianets-Podilsky July 2 – adoption of the law about citizenship of the Ukrainian State July 8 – creation of the State Senate of the Ukrainian State
Ukrainian State
as the supreme judicial institution July 9 – creation of the Commission in development of project of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences July 10 – Kiev
Kiev
Orthodox clergy lifted the anathema on Hetman
Hetman
Mazepa July 24 – Ukraine
Ukraine
and Germany ratified the Brest Peace Treaty, adoption of laws about the general military obligation, criminal responsibility for exceeding the maximum established prices and speculation, appointments to government service July 27 – due to the anti-Ukrainian policies of the Crimean government of Sulkevich the Ukrainian State
Ukrainian State
established an economical blockade of the peninsula August 1 – adoption of laws about supreme government and political position of military servicemen August 2 – adoption of the law about the creation of fund of the National Library of Ukrainian State August 6 – the All-Ukrainian Church Council called for the autocephaly of the Ukrainian Church August 10 – confirmed the statute of the Ukrainian State
Ukrainian State
Bank and its base and reserve capitals August 17 – adopted the law about a restriction on import of the Russian monetary units August 22 – in Vienna
Vienna
Turkey and Ukraine
Ukraine
exchanged documents that ratified the Brest Peace Treaty September 10 – signing of an economic agreement between Ukraine, Germany, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
for the 1918–1919 fiscal years September 18 – temporary stop of custom war with Crimea
Crimea
on the petition of the Sulkevich government October 5 – in Kiev
Kiev
started negotiations between Ukraine
Ukraine
and Crimea about the conditions of Crimea
Crimea
inclusion to Ukraine October 6 – Kiev
Kiev
State Ukrainian University is opened October 16 – Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine
Ukraine
issued declaration on the revival of cossackdom October 17 – adopted a declaration about organization of volunteer militia on upholding the order of law October 21 – Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine
Ukraine
met with the extraordinary mission of the Kuban regional government headed by Colonel V. Tkachov November 6 – the German authorities transferred the ships of the Black Sea fleet to the Ukrainian State November 13 – the Soviet Russia
Russia
annulled the Brest Peace Treaty and refused to recognize the independence of the Ukrainian State November 13–16 – signing of agreement about trade, consulate, and sea relationships, railway and financial treaties between the government of Ukraine
Ukraine
and the extraordinary mission of the Kuban regional government November 14 – anti- Hetman
Hetman
Uprising November 26 – the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences is created chaired by Vladimir Vernadsky

Winter 1918[edit]

December 5 – signing of agreement of cooperation between Ukraine
Ukraine
and Georgia December 14 – Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine
Ukraine
surrender his powers and emigrated to Germany

Directorate[edit] Main article: Directorate of Ukraine

The Government of UNR 1920 - Symon Petlura sitting in the centre.

Proposed borders presented by the Ukrainian delegation at the Paris Conference.

The Directorate gained massive popularity, and the support of some of Skoropadsky's military units including the Serdiuk Division. Their insurgent army encircled Kiev
Kiev
on November 21. After a three-week-long stalemate Skoropadsky abdicated in favor of the Council of Ministers who surrendered to the Revolutionary forces. On December 19, 1918, the Directorate took control of Kiev. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
invaded Ukraine
Ukraine
from Kursk
Kursk
in late December 1918 where the new Ukrainian Soviet government was reestablished earlier in November of the same year. On January 16, 1919 Ukraine
Ukraine
officially declared a war on Russia
Russia
while the Russian Soviet government continued to deny all claims of invasion. On January 22, 1919, the Directorate was officially united with the West Ukrainian People's Republic, although the latter entity de facto maintained its own army and government. In February 1919, the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
captured Kiev. Throughout 1919, Ukraine
Ukraine
experienced chaos as the armies of the Ukrainian Republic, the Bolsheviks, the Whites, the foreign powers of the Entente, and Poland, as well as anarchist forces such as that of Nestor Makhno
Nestor Makhno
tried to prevail. The subsequent Kiev
Kiev
Offensive, staged by the Polish army and allied Ukrainian forces, was unable to change the situation, and in March 1921, the Peace of Riga
Peace of Riga
sealed a shared control of the territory by Poland, the Russian SFSR, and the Ukrainian RSR. As the result, the lands of Galicia (Halychyna) as well as a large part of the Volhynian territory were incorporated into Poland, while the areas to the east and south became part of Soviet Ukraine. After its military and political defeat, the Directorate continued to maintain control over some of its military forces. Preempting a planned invasion by its rival Archduke Wilhelm of Austria,[7] in October 1921 the Ukrainian National Republic's government-in-exile launched a series of guerrilla raids into central Ukraine
Ukraine
that reached as far east as Kiev
Kiev
Oblast. On November 4, the Directorate's guerrillas captured Korosten
Korosten
and seized much military supplies. But on November 17, 1921, this force was surrounded by Bolshevik
Bolshevik
cavalry and destroyed. Timeline[edit] Winter 1918–19[edit]

December 14 – the Directorate of Ukraine
Directorate of Ukraine
received the state powers in Ukraine
Ukraine
after the Hetman
Hetman
of Ukraine
Ukraine
emigrated to Germany December 16 – the Directorate renewed the law about National-Individual Autonomy December 19 – the grand entry of Directorate to the capital of Ukraine. Military parade at Sofiyivska Ploshcha. Note of protest to the countries of Entente due to occupation of ports of the Southern Ukraine
Ukraine
(Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War) December 26 – Directorate published a basis of its economic-social policies and political system December 31 – Directorate issued a note of protest to the Soviet Russia
Russia
due to its invasion of Ukraine January 1 – Directorate adopted the law about the Supreme body of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Cathedral Church January 2 – order of the Chief Otaman Symon Petlyura
Symon Petlyura
to exile all enemies of Ukraine January 3–4 – repeated notes of protest to the Soviet Russia
Russia
due to its intervention January 4 – Directorate adopted the law about Ukrainian monetary unit, hryvnia January 8 – the government of Ukraine
Ukraine
adopted the Land Law, based on the principles of socialism January 16 – declaration of war with Moscow
Moscow
due to no results of peace negotiations January 22 – declaration of Unification between Ukraine
Ukraine
and West Ukraine
Ukraine
at Sofiyivska Ploshcha January 23 – session of Labor Congress initiated by Directorate was opened in Kiev. The congress attended over 400 delegates, out which 65 represented the West Ukraine. It expressed its trust in Directorate and adopted the law about the form of government in Ukraine February 2 – due to the advance of Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
Directorate moved from Kiev
Kiev
to Vinnytsia February 13 – Directorate changed the composition of the Council of National Ministers February 17 – Directorate petitioned to the governments of Entente and the US for help in fight with Bolsheviks February 27 – Chief Otaman met with Entente Commission in Khodoriv

Spring 1919[edit]

March 15 – the delegation of West Ukraine
Ukraine
headed by Yevhen Petrushevych met with Directory in Proskuriv
Proskuriv
to further discuss development of joint operations April 4 – plenipotentiary representative of Ukraine
Ukraine
at the Versailles Peace Conference H.Sydorenko expressed his protest to the Polish military attack onto the Ukrainian territory and its political and materiel support by Entente April 9 – Directory adopted the declaration on resignation of the Ostapenko government and appointing the new composition of the Council of National Ministers headed by Borys Martos April 15 – the government of Ukraine
Ukraine
appointed General Oleksandr Osetsky as the Otaman of the Army April 29 – Volodymyr Oskilko
Volodymyr Oskilko
Affairs May 9 – Symon Petlyura
Symon Petlyura
was elected the head of Directory in Radyvyliv May 20 – the peace negotiations of the diplomatic mission of Ukraine with the command of the Polish Army of Haller in Lublin
Lublin
showed no results

Summer 1919[edit]

June 12 – the government of Finland
Finland
reestablished its diplomatic relationships with Ukraine June 16 – the Cardinal Secretary of State
Cardinal Secretary of State
Pietro Gasparri
Pietro Gasparri
informed the Chairman of Directorate S. Petliura
Petliura
on the approval of Count Mykhailo Tyshkevych as the Ambassador of Ukraine
Ukraine
to the Holy See June 18 – the delegation of Ukraine
Ukraine
at the Versailles Peace Conference together with the representatives of Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Northern Caucasus expressed its protest against recognition of the Supreme Council of the Paris Peace conference the government of Admiral Kolchak
Admiral Kolchak
as the Supreme government of Russia June 20–21 – signing of a temporary agreement of Ukraine
Ukraine
with Poland
Poland
in Lviv
Lviv
and establishment of demarcation line (Delwig line)

Anti- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
and other uprisings[edit] The following is the list of numerous uprisings that took place during the formation of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Some of them were in opposition to the Petlyura's government (such as the Oskilko's Affair), some were against the establishment of the Soviet regime, some took place to eliminate the Entente forces. According to Cheka documentation, in Ukraine
Ukraine
took place 268 uprisings from 1917 through 1932, where in over 100 raions the mutinied peasants were killing chekists, communists, and prodotryads that were requisitioning food by force which more resembled expropriation.[8]

Free Territory
Free Territory
(Nestor Makhno) Otaman Grigoriev Otaman Oskilko Affair (Volodymyr Oskilko) Otaman Zelenyi Uprising Kholodnyi Yar (Cold Ravine) Otaman Kamenyuka Free Cossacks
Free Cossacks
(Semen Hryzlo) Zazymia Uprising[9] (Troyeshchyna) - Otaman Romashka and Otaman Anhel against Kiev
Kiev
and Chernihiv Cheka
Cheka
and Bashkir Cavalry Brigade Anti- Red Army
Red Army
ambush near Uman
Uman
in 1920[10]

International recognition[edit] See also: Treaty of Warsaw (1920)
Treaty of Warsaw (1920)
and Międzymorze The Ukrainian People's Republic
People's Republic
was recognized de jure in February 1918 by the Central Powers
Central Powers
of World War I
World War I
(Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Bulgaria)[11] and by Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Russia, the Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania), Georgia, Azerbaijan, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and the Holy See. De facto recognition was granted by Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, and Persia.[12] Later in 1918 Russia
Russia
chose to withdraw its recognition of independent Ukraine, representing the protocols of the Versailles Treaty
Versailles Treaty
as justification for its action. In 1920 Symon Petliura
Petliura
and Józef Piłsudski signed the Warsaw Treaty in which both countries established their borders along the Zbruch River.[13][14][15] Important diplomatic missions and results[edit]

Treaty of Breast-Litovsk, February 9, 1918 (Central Powers: ratification of Germany and Turkey) Preliminary peace treaty with the Soviet Russia, June 12, 1918 (renouncement of Brest-Litovsk
Brest-Litovsk
treaty on November 13, 1918) Peace treaty with Don Republic, August 8, 1918 Unification Act, January 20, 1919 (unification of two semi-recognized entities), Hutsul Republic
Hutsul Republic
(Eastern Zakarpattia) announced their will to join as well Loss of Kiev
Kiev
to Soviets on February 2, 1919 and political crisis within the national government of Ukraine Resignation of Serhiy Ostapenko
Serhiy Ostapenko
and his government due to failure on series of negotiations with representatives of Entente participation at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 The Eastern Galician mandate of the Jules Cambon
Jules Cambon
Commission was approved by the Entente leaders to hand it over the Poland, November 21, 1919 Treaty of Warsaw (1920)
Treaty of Warsaw (1920)
(Poland)

Demographics[edit] According to the latest census that was taken 1897, the republic was accounted for over 20 million population in seven former Russian guberniyas, plus three uyezds of the Taurida Governorate
Taurida Governorate
that were located on the mainland.

National composition (thousands)

Ukrainians
Ukrainians
– 14,931.5 (73%) Russians
Russians
– 2,146.1 (11%) Jewish – 1,871.8 (9%) Germans
Germans
– 451.3 (2%) Poles – 375.9 (2%) Belarusians
Belarusians
– 208.5 (1%) Romanians
Romanians
– 185.7 (1%) Other – 1%

Administrative division[edit] See also: Administrative divisions of Ukraine
Ukraine
(1918–25) and Administrative division of Ukraine
Ukraine
(1918) On March 4, 1918 the Ukrainian government accepted the law about the administrative-territorial division of Ukraine. The law stated that Ukraine
Ukraine
is divided into 32 zemlia (land) which are administrated by their respective zemstvo. This law was not fully implemented as on April 29, 1918 there was the anti-socialist coup in Kiev, after which Hetman
Hetman
Pavlo Skoropadsky
Pavlo Skoropadsky
reverted the reform back to the guberniya-type administration. Armed forces[edit] Main article: Ukrainian People's Army The headquarters of the republic's armed forces was called the General Bulawa and was considered to be located in Kiev. Of course, due to constant intervention from the Petrograd
Petrograd
sovnarkom and the German Empire the physical location of it was changing (Kamyanets-Podilsky, Bila Tserkva, others). Main military formations (UPR)[edit]

Sich Riflemen

Ukrainian Sich Riflemen
Sich Riflemen
were a similar unit, however, that unit wasn't part of Ukrainian military

Free Cossacks

The following three Zaporizhian infantry regiments and the 3 Haidamaka Regiment of the biggest Ukrainian military formation, the Zaporizhian Corps, later were reorganized into the 1 Zaporizhian Division.

Zaporizhian Corps Ukrainian Steppe Division (Anti- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
revolutionary-military unit) Ukrainian Marines 1 Riflemen-Cavalry Division (Gray-Coats) Blue-Coats Sloboda Ukraine
Ukraine
Haidamaka Kosh 3 Iron Riflemen Division Ukrainian Navy

Main military formations (WUPR)[edit]

Ukrainian Galician Army, was a military formation of the Ukraine Republic

Money and banking[edit] See also: Ukrainian karbovanets There were numerous banks in the republic among the most popular ones were the Ukrainabank and the Soyuzbank that were created by Khrystofor Baranovsky, the leader of a cooperative movement. Maps[edit] Green indicates UPR-controlled territory, red indicates the Red Army control, light yellow for the White Army control, dark yellow for Germany, blue for Poland, and brown for Romania. Bold black line incidates the borders of modern Ukraine.

Territory of the Ukrainian People's Republic
People's Republic
at its height, 1918

1918

March 1919

November 1919

March 1920

June 1920

August 1920

Provisional borders of Ukraine
Ukraine
in 1919

See also[edit]

General Secretariat of Ukraine West Ukrainian People's Republic Ukraine
Ukraine
after the Russian Revolution History of the Jews in Ukraine#Ukrainian People's Republic Ukrainian karbovanets
Ukrainian karbovanets
– first Ukrainian official currency Belarusian National Republic People's Republic Universal (act) Orange Revolution February 2014 Euromaidan
Euromaidan
clashes 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine 2014 Crimean crisis

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h Serhy Yekelchyk, Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
(2007), ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3 ^ Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States: 1999, Routledge, 1999, ISBN 1857430581 (page 849) ^ The Third Universal in the archives of the Verkhovna Rada (in Ukrainian) ^ Official website of Kiev
Kiev
Memorial ^ Serhy Yekelchyk, Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation, Oxford University Press (2007), ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3, page 72 ^ Babushka with a red wagon (in Russian) ^ Timothy Snyder (2008). Red Prince: the Secret Lives of a Habsburg Archduke. New York: Basic Books, pp. 138–148 ^ People's War (Ukrainian pravda, photos) (Ukrainian) ^ Left-bank Uprisings (Ukrainian pravda) (Ukrainian) ^ Festival in Lehedzyne (Ukrainian pravda) (Ukrainian) ^ TERMS OF PEACE MADE BY UKRAINE; New Republic Gets Increased Territory at Expense of Rest of Russia, The New York Times, February 12, 1918 (PDF) ^ (Talmon 1998, p. 289) ^ Alison Fleig Frank (1 July 2009). Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia. Harvard University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-674-03718-2.  ^ Richard K. Debo (1992). Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-1921. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. pp. 210–211. ISBN 978-0-7735-6285-1.  ^ Ivan Katchanovski; Zenon E. Kohut; Bohdan Y. Nebesio; Myroslav Yurkevich (11 July 2013). Historical Dictionary of Ukraine. Scarecrow Press. pp. 747–. ISBN 978-0-8108-7847-1. 

Sources[edit]

Kubijovyč, Volodymyr (ed.) (1963). Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopædia Vol. 1. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. ISBN 0-8020-3105-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Magosci, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. ISBN 0-8020-7820-6.  Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6.  Talmon, Stefan (1998). Recognition of Governments in International Law. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826573-5.  Velychenko, Stephen, (2010). Statebuilding in Revolutionary Ukraine. A Comparative Study of Governments and Bureaucrats 1917-1922, Toronto, University of Toronto
Toronto
Press.

External links[edit]

Media related to Ukrainian People's Republic
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at Wikimedia Commons People's war 1917-1932 by Kyiv city organization "Memorial"

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