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Bolshevik
Bolshevik
victory

Establishment of the UkSSR

Territorial changes Split of Ukraine
Ukraine
between the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
and Poland (Peace of Riga)

Belligerents

Ukrainian PR

Galician Army

 German Empire (1918) Poland (1920–21)

White Movement (1919–20) Poland (1918–19)

Various independent rebels  Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR

Commanders and leaders

Symon Petliura Mykhailo Pavlenko Oleksandr Udovychenko Pavlo Skoropadsky Anton Denikin Pyotr Wrangel Józef Piłsudski Mikhail Muraviev Georgiy Pyatakov Volodymyr Zatonsky Nikolay Shchors

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Ukrainian–Soviet War
Ukrainian–Soviet War
(1917–1921)

Kharkiv Lozova/Chuhuiv Pavlohrad/Synelnykove Katerynoslav Poltava Mykolaiv Kruty (Litky) Chernihiv Darnytsia Sack of Kiev Severynivka Liberation of Kiev Liberation of Crimea

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Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Uprisings in Ukraine

Dubno Kiev
Kiev
(November) Vinnytsia Aleksandrovsk Yekaterinoslav Kiev
Kiev
(January) Odessa

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The Ukrainian–Soviet War[1] (Ukrainian: Українсько-радянська війна) is the term commonly used in post-Soviet Ukraine
Ukraine
for the events taking place between 1917–21, nowadays regarded essentially as a war between the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
and the Bolsheviks. The war ensued soon after the October Revolution
October Revolution
when Lenin dispatched the Antonov's expeditionary group to Ukraine
Ukraine
and Southern Russia. Soviet historical tradition viewed it as an occupation of Ukraine
Ukraine
by military forces of Western and Central Europe, including the Polish Republic's military – the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
victory constituting Ukraine's liberation from these forces. Conversely, modern Ukrainian historians consider it a failed War of Independence
War of Independence
by the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
against the Russian Soviet Republic, ending with Ukraine
Ukraine
falling under a Russian-Soviet occupation. Both historical interpretations tend to underplay the part of the anarcho-communist Nestor Makhno, who established the Free Territory
Free Territory
and does not quite fit into either interpretation.

Contents

1 Historiography

1.1 Important documents

2 Background 3 War

3.1 December 1917 – April 1918

4 Post-Hetmanate intervention

4.1 December 1919 – November 1920 4.2 November 1921

5 Aftermath 6 See also 7 References

Historiography[edit] In Soviet historiography and terminology, the armed conflict is depicted as part of the greater Russian Civil War: in Ukraine, this war was fought between the national government (led by Symon Petliura) and the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
government (led by Lenin). The war can be subdivided into three phases:

December 1917 – April 1918: Revolutionary days, Bolshevik
Bolshevik
uprisings, invasion of the Red Guards formations, signing of protectorate treaty, and liberation from bolsheviks. December 1918 – December 1919: Civil war in Ukraine, invasion of the Red Army, unification of Ukraine, anti-Soviet peasant uprisings, Denikin's Volunteer Army and the Allied intervention, loss of West Ukraine
Ukraine
to Poland. Spring 1920 – Autumn 1921: Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
(Treaty of Warsaw), Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
(between Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
armies and the Armed Forces of South Russia), Ukrainian guerrilla operations (First and Second Winter Campaigns), government in exile.

Important documents[edit]

Declarations of the Central Council of Ukraine
Ukraine
(Universals) Ultimatum of Sovnarkom
Sovnarkom
to the Central Council of Ukraine Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
granting status of neutrality to Ukraine
Ukraine
as a bufferzone for the Central Powers, as well as military protection, in negotiating peace with the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Unification Act, unification of the western Ukraine Treaty of Warsaw, Polish-Ukrainian anti- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
pact Peace of Riga, splitting of Ukraine

Background[edit] See also: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Kiev
Kiev
Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Uprising, and December Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Uprising (Kiev) After the February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917 the nationalities within the tsarist empire (renamed the Russian Republic) demanded national autonomy from Petrograd. In summer of 1917 the Provisional government approved regional administration over some parts of former tsarist Ukraine. In October 1917 the government of Ukraine
Ukraine
denounced the Bolsheviks' armed revolt and declared it would decisively fight against any attempted coup in Ukraine. A special joint committee for preservation of revolution was organized to keep the situation under control. The Kiev
Kiev
Military District command tried to prevent a Bolshevik
Bolshevik
coup, leading to street fights and eventually surrendering of pro-Bolshevik troops in the city. On November 14, 1917 the Ukrainian Central Rada issued its "Appeal of the Central Council to the citizens of Ukraine" in which it sanctioned transfer of the state power in Ukraine
Ukraine
to itself. On November 16 a joint session of the Rada
Rada
and executive committee of the local workers and soldiers soviets recognized the Central Rada
Rada
as the regional authority in Ukraine. On November 20, 1917 the Rada
Rada
declared Ukraine
Ukraine
the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
as an autonomous part of the Russian Republic and scheduled on January 9, 1918 elections to a Ukrainian Constituent Assembly. The Secretary of Military Affairs Symon Petliura
Symon Petliura
expressed his intentions to unite both the Southwestern and Romanian fronts that were stretched across Ukraine
Ukraine
into one Ukrainian Front under the command of Colonel General Dmitry Shcherbachev. On December 17, 1917 Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
planned an All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets and on December 11–12, 1917 set off a number of uprisings across Ukraine
Ukraine
in Kiev, Odessa, Vinnytsia. They were successfully defeated by the Rada. On December 17, 1917 Sovnarkom, that initiated peace talks with Central Powers
Central Powers
earlier that month, sent a 48-hour ultimatum to the Rada
Rada
requesting it stop "counterrevolutionary actions" or prepare for war. Also on December 17, 1917 Reingold Berzins led his troops from Minsk
Minsk
towards Kharkiv
Kharkiv
to Don. They engaged in an armed conflict at a rail station in Bakhmach
Bakhmach
with the Ukrainian troops who refused to let the Red forces (three regiments and an artillery division) pass. The Central Rada
Rada
did not accept the accusations and stated its conditions: recognition of the Ukrainian People's Republic, non-interference in its internal affairs and affairs of the newly organized the Ukrainian Front, permission on transferring of Ukrainized troops to Ukraine, division of the former imperial finances, participation of the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
in the general peace negotiations. The same day the All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets in Kiev, after the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
delegation left, recognized the authority of the Ukrainian government and denounced the ultimatum of the Russian government. The Kiev
Kiev
Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
in their turn denounced that congress and scheduled another one in Kharkiv. Next day, Sovnarkom
Sovnarkom
in Moscow
Moscow
decided for war. Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko was appointed the commander-in-chief of expeditionary force against Kaledin and the South Russia, while near the borders with Ukraine ( Bryansk
Bryansk
– Belgorod) Red troops began to gather. The Kievan Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
who fled to Kharkiv
Kharkiv
joined the regional Congress of Soviets of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic. They then declared this meeting the First All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets that announced the creation of the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
of Soviets. It called the Central Rada
Rada
of Ukraine
Ukraine
an enemy of the people declaring war against it on January 2. The Rada
Rada
then broke all ties with Petrograd
Petrograd
on January 22, 1918, and declared independence, thereby commencing the Ukrainian War of Independence.[2][3] It was around this point that Bolshevik
Bolshevik
troops began invading Ukraine
Ukraine
from Russia.[4] Russian military units from Kharkiv, Moscow, Minsk
Minsk
and the Baltic Fleet invaded Ukraine.[5] War[edit] December 1917 – April 1918[edit] See also: First All-Ukrainian Congress of Soviets (Kharkiv) and Group of forces in fight with counter revolution in the South Russia The Bolsheviks, numbering around 30,000 and composed of Russian army regulars stationed at the front, a number of garrisoned units, and Red Guard detachments composed of laborers from Kharkov gubernia and the Donbass, began by advancing from the northeast led by Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko and Mikhail Muravyov.[6] The Ukrainian forces at the time of the invasion consisted of about 15,000 made up from volunteer detachments and several battalions of the Free Cossacks
Free Cossacks
and the Sich Riflemen. The invasion of pro-Soviet forces from Russia
Russia
was accompanied by uprisings initiated in Ukraine
Ukraine
by the local Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
in the developed cities throughout the territory of Left-bank Ukraine
Ukraine
as well as Right-bank Ukraine. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
led by Yevgenia Bosch
Yevgenia Bosch
conducted a successful uprising in Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
sometime in December 1917. They took charge of the 2nd Guard Corps and moved towards Kiev
Kiev
to help the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
in the city. Pavlo Skoropadsky
Pavlo Skoropadsky
with a regiment of the Free Cossacks managed to stop them near Zhmerynka, disarm them, and deport them to Russia. The other Bolshevik
Bolshevik
forces captured Kharkiv
Kharkiv
(December 26), Yekaterinoslav (January 9), Aleksandrovsk (January 15), and Poltava
Poltava
(January 20) on their way to Kiev. On January 27, the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
army groups converged in Bakhmach
Bakhmach
and then set off under the command of Muravyov to take Kiev.[1]

The first detachment of Sich Riflemen
Sich Riflemen
after the capture of Kiev
Kiev
in January 1918.

As the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
marched towards Kiev, a small Ukrainian National Republic unit of less than 500 schoolboys (some sources give a figure of 300[7]), commanded by Captain Ahapiy Honcharenko, was hastily organized and sent to the front on January 29, 1918 to take part in the Battle of Kruty. The small unit consisted mainly of the Student Battalion (Kurin) of Sich Riflemen, a unit of the Khmelnytsky Cadet School, and a Haidamaka
Haidamaka
detachment. About half of the 500 men were killed during the battle. On January 29, 1918, the Kiev
Kiev
Arsenal January Uprising, a Bolshevik-organized armed revolt, began at the Kiev
Kiev
Arsenal factory. The workers of the plant were joined by the soldiers of the Ponton Battalion, the 3rd Aviation Regiment and the Sagaydachny regiment. Sensing defeat, the "Central Rada" and Petlyurist forces stormed the city on February 3.[8] After six days of battle and running low on food and ammunition, the uprising was suppressed by counter-revolutionary forces,[9] in which 300 Bolshevik
Bolshevik
workers died. During the struggle, more than 1500 pro-Soviet workers and soldiers were killed.[10] On February 8 the Ukrainian government evacuated Kiev in order to avoid destruction by opposing Soviet troops, which then entered Kiev
Kiev
under Mikhail Muravyov's on February 9.

German and Austro-Hungarian advance in Ukraine
Ukraine
in March 1918

Once the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
took Kiev, they began an offensive in Right-Bank Ukraine. However, on February 9 the UNR signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and thus received aid from German and Austro-Hungarian troops in late February, over 450,000 troops.[4] In exchange for military aid, the Ukrainians
Ukrainians
were to deliver foodstuffs to the Central Powers.[4] Under the command of Symon Petlura, the combined forces pushed the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
out of Right Bank Ukraine
Ukraine
and retook Kiev
Kiev
on March 1. Because of the socialist policies of the Rada, mainly the policy of land nationalization which affected food exports to the Central Powers, on April 28 the German forces disbanded the Tsentralna Rada
Rada
and installed the Hetman government in its place. Ukrainian, German, and Austro-Hungarian armies continued making gains, taking back Left Bank Ukraine, Crimea and the Donets Basin. These setbacks forced the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
to sign a peace treaty with the Ukrainian government on June 12. Post-Hetmanate intervention[edit]

Polish–Ukrainian, Polish–Soviet and Ukraine–Soviet Wars in early 1919

The relative positions of key combatants in Ukraine
Ukraine
in March 1919

During November 1918, troops from the Directorate of Ukraine
Ukraine
overthrew the Hetmanate with some help from the Bolsheviks. German forces led by the Soldatenrat kept their neutrality during the two-week-long civil war as they were withdrawing from the country, due to the defeat of the German Empire
German Empire
in World War I. The Directorate reestablished the Ukrainian People's Republic. On January 22, 1919 the neighboring Ukrainian Republics united under the Act Zluky. During that time the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
invaded Ukraine
Ukraine
in full force[11] with an army led by Vladimir Antonov-Ovsiyenko, Joseph Stalin, and Volodymyr Zatonsky.[1] The Directorate declared war once again against Russia
Russia
on January 16 after several preliminary ultimatums to the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
sovnarkom to withdraw their troops. The two main directions of the Bolshevik's forces were onto Kiev
Kiev
and Kharkiv. To stop the war the government of Chekhivsky sent a delegation to Moscow
Moscow
led by the Minister of Foreign Affairs Semen Mazurenko. The delegation succeeded in signing the preliminary peaceful agreement yet it did not stop the aggression from the Russian side due to poor communication between the delegation in Moscow
Moscow
and the government of the Ukrainian People's Republic.[12] On December 28, 1918 the Central Committee of the Left UPSR officially declared the mobilization of force in the support of the Soviet government by an armed staging. From the beginning of January 1919 the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
bands consistently were crossing the eastern and north-eastern borders for purpose of raids.[citation needed] The Central Military-Revolutionary Committee in Kursk
Kursk
on October 22, 1918 issued the order to form two divisions under the Army Group the Ukrainian Front or the Group of the Kursk
Kursk
Direction. The group was assigned the Worker's Division of Moscow, the 9th Soviet Division, 2nd Orlov Brigade, and two armored trains. According to Antonov-Ovsiyenko the army was accounted for some 6,000 soldiers, 170 artillery guns, 427 machine guns, 15 military planes, and 6 armored trains. On December 15, 1918 the meeting of the Ukrainian chief of staff was called in Kiev
Kiev
headed by Otaman Osetsky and including the Chief Otaman Petliura, Colonel Bolbachan, Colonel Shapoval, Sotnik
Sotnik
Oskilko. They were discussing the border security and formed a plan in case of threat from all sides. During that time the Soviet forces were advancing across the north-eastern Ukraine
Ukraine
and occupied Rylsk and Novhorod-Siversky. On December 21 the Ukrainian Front took the important strategic railroad connection in Kupyansk. After that a full-scale advance started between Dnieper
Dnieper
and Oskol Rivers. On January 3, the Red Army took Kharkiv, almost as by the same scenarios when Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
occupied Kiev in February 1918. The Ukrainian forces at that time consisted of two regular troop formations, the Zaporozhian Corps and the Sich Riflemen, as well as partisan detachments. These partisans were led by unreliable atamans who occasionally sided with the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
such as Zeleny, Anhel, and Hryhoryev. The army which had over 100,000 fell to about 25,000 due to peasants leaving the army and desertions to the Bolsheviks.[4] Bolbochan with the remnants of the Zaporizhian Corps retreated to Poltava
Poltava
which was holding off for couple of more weeks. On January 6, 1919 the government of Pyatakov officially declared the creation of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic. Yet his government continued to stay in Kursk
Kursk
until January 24. On January 4 the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
Army Group Ukrainian Front was reformed into the unified Ukrainian front under the command of Antonov-Ovsiyenko with his deputies Kotsiubynsky and Schadenko. On the several inquiries about the purpose of the Russian Army in Ukraine
Ukraine
that Directory was sending to Moscow
Moscow
Chicherin finally responded on January 6:

...there is no army of the Russian Socialist Soviet Republic in Ukraine. At this time the military action that takes place on the territory of Ukraine
Ukraine
is between the armies of Directory and the Ukrainian Soviet Government which is completely independent.

On January 12, the troops under the command of Mykola Schors occupied Chernihiv
Chernihiv
while other units under command of Pavlo Dybenko took Lozova, Pavlohrad, Synelnykove, and established the contact with Nestor Makhno. After some long discussion between the members of the Directory and other state officials it was decided to declare a war against the Soviet Russia. The only person who was against it was the chairman of the Directory Volodymyr Vynnychenko, while Shapoval, for example, for some reason was simply requesting the prompt creation of the Soviet government. Denikin later commented that the war declaration did not change absolutely anything on frontlines and only reflected the political crisis inside the Ukrainian government with the victory of the military party of Petliura-Konovalets-Hrekov over Vynnychenko-Chekhivsky. On January 20 the Soviet Army took Poltava while the Ukrainian troops retreated further to Kremenchuk. On January 26 Dybenko took Katerynoslav. The Soviets took Left-Bank Ukraine, and then marched on to Kiev. On February 2 they forced the Directorate to move to Vinnytsia
Vinnytsia
while troops of Schors and Bozhenko occupied Kiev three days later. Chekhivsky after resignation from the office right after Vynnychenko has created in Kamyanets-Podilsky
Kamyanets-Podilsky
the Committee for the salvation of Republic which was dissolved by Petliura on February 13. During that time the Soviet troops has acquired the rest of the Kiev
Kiev
Governorate while the bands of Hryhoryev took Oleksandria and Yelyzavethrad. By March 6 the Directory has relocated to Proskurov
Proskurov
while yielding most of Polissya
Polissya
and Podillya
Podillya
to Bolsheviks. Surprisingly by the end of March the Ukrainian armies successfully conducted series of military operations liberating Sarny, Zhytomyr, Korosten, and threatening to take back Kiev. On March 2 Otaman Hryhoryev occupied Kherson
Kherson
and March 12 he was already in Mykolaiv. By April 3 the Entente forces evacuated from Odessa
Odessa
which Hryhoryev entered three days later. December 1919 – November 1920[edit] Main articles: First Winter Campaign and Polish–Soviet War From December 6, 1919 to May 6, 1920, the UNR Army
UNR Army
under the command of Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko
Mykhailo Omelianovych-Pavlenko
carried out an underground operation known as the First Winter Campaign in the Kirovohrad
Kirovohrad
region against the Soviet 14th Army. Another significant development of this period was the signing of the Treaty of Warsaw
Warsaw
with Poland
Poland
on April 22, and then beginning of a joint offensive with Polish troops against the Bolsheviks.[6] On May 7 a Ukrainian division under the command of Marko Bezruchko
Marko Bezruchko
entered Kiev, but was quickly forced out by a Red Army counteroffensive led by Semyon Budyonny. The Ukrainians
Ukrainians
and Poles were pushed back across the Zbruch River
Zbruch River
and past Zamość
Zamość
toward Warsaw. The Poles signed a peace with the Soviets on October 18. By 1921, the Polish author of the Polish-Ukrainian alliance, Józef Piłsudski, was no longer the Polish head of state, and only participated as an observer during the Riga negotiations, which he called an act of cowardice.[13] The Petliura's forces kept fighting.[14] They lasted until October 21, when they were forced to cross the Zbuch River and enter Polish-controlled Galicia. There they were disarmed and placed in internment camps.[1]

March 1920

June 1920

15 August 1920

November 1921[edit] Main article: Second Winter Campaign The last action of the UNR against the Soviets was a raid behind the Red Army lines in November 1921 known as the Second Winter Campaign.[1] This campaign was meant to incite a general uprising amongst the Ukrainian peasants, who were already disgruntled with the Soviets,[11] and to unify partisan forces against the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
in Ukraine. The commander of the Ukrainian forces was Yurii Tiutiunnyk. Two expeditionary forces were established, one from Podolia
Podolia
(400 men) and one from Volhynia
Volhynia
(800 men). The Podolia
Podolia
group only made it to the village of Vakhnivka, before returning to Polish territory through Volhynia
Volhynia
on November 29. The Volhynia
Volhynia
group started out on November 4, captured Korosten
Korosten
on November 7 and made its way to the village of Leonivka. When they began to run low on supplies they decided to return. However, on its return west, it was intercepted by a Bolshevik cavalry force under the command of Grigore Kotovski
Grigore Kotovski
at Bazar and routed in battle near Mali Mynky on November 17. 443 soldiers were captured by the Soviets during the battle. 359 were shot on November 23 near the town of Bazar, and 84 were passed on to Soviet security forces.[15] This was the last operation of the UNR army against the Soviets. The end of the Second Winter Campaign brought the Ukrainian-Soviet war to a definite end,[1] however partisan fighting against the Bolsheviks continued until mid-1922[16] and in response the Red Army terrorized the countryside.[17] Aftermath[edit]

Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

The end of the war saw the incorporation of most of the territories of Ukraine
Ukraine
into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
which, on December 30, 1922, was one of the founding members of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Parts of Western Ukraine
Ukraine
fell into under the control of the Second Polish Republic, as laid out in the Peace of Riga. The UNR government, led by Symon Petlura, was forced into exile.[18] For the next few years the Ukrainian nationalists would continue to try to wage a partisan guerrilla war on the Soviets. They were aided by Polish intelligence (see Prometheism); however they were not successful. The last active Ukrainian movements would be mostly eradicated during the Holodomor.[19] Further, the relative lack of Polish support for the Ukrainian cause would cause a growing resentment on the part of the Ukrainian minority in Poland
Poland
towards the Polish interwar state. See also[edit]

Ukraine
Ukraine
after the Russian Revolution Polish–Soviet War Polish–Ukrainian War Nestor Makhno

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f Ukrainian-Soviet War, 1917–21 at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine ^ J. Kim Munholland. "Ukraine". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2007-11-08.  ^ Reid, Anna (2000). Borderland: A Journey Through the History of Ukraine. Westview Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-8133-3792-5.  ^ a b c d Orest Subtelny. Ukraine
Ukraine
a History. University of Toronto Press, 1988. ^ Robert Sullivant. Soviet Politics and the Ukraine
Ukraine
1917–1957. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962. ^ a b Nicholas Chirovsky. An introduction to Ukrainian History Volume III 19th and 20th Century Ukraine. New York, Philosophical Library, 1986 ^ "History of Ukraine". History of Ukraine
Ukraine
(in Ukrainian). Retrieved September 12, 2006.  ^ Палач Петлюра — предтеча нынешних властей. Rabochaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 27 January 2012.  ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 352. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.  ^ Дмитрий Аггеевич Чугаев. "Коммунистическая партия: организатор Союза Советских Социалистических Республик". Мысль. 1972. p.176 ^ a b Paul Robert MagocsiA History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-0830-5 ^ "А. Скромницкий. Связи Украинской Народной Республики (УНР) и Советской России (November 1918 — April 1919 год)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.  ^ Norman Davies
Norman Davies
(2003). White Eagle, Red Star: the Polish-Soviet War, 1919–20. Pimlico. p. 399. ISBN 0-7126-0694-7.  (First edition: New York, St. Martin's Press, inc., 1972.) ^ Mykhailo Hrushevsky, edited by O. J. Frederiksen. A History of Ukraine. New Haven: Yale University Press: 1941. ^ Winter Campaigns at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine ^ Partisan movement in Ukraine, 1918–22 at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine ^ WED Allen. The Ukraine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1941. ^ Ukrainian National Republic at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine ^ Timothy Snyder, Covert Polish Missions across the Soviet Ukrainian Border, 1928–1933, p. 71-78, in Cofini, Silvia Salvatici (a cura di), Rubbettino, 2005. Full text in PDF

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Armed conflicts involving Russia
Russia
(incl. Imperial and Soviet times)

Internal

Razin's Rebellion Bulavin Rebellion Pugachev's Rebellion Decembrist revolt Russian Civil War August Uprising Bitch Wars Coup d'état attempt (1991) 1993 Russian constitutional crisis First Chechen War War of Dagestan Second Chechen War Insurgency in the North Caucasus

Pre-17th century

Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376) First Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1492–94) Russo-Swedish War (1495–97) Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1500–03) Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1507–08) Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1512–22) Fifth Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1534–37) Russo-Crimean Wars Russo-Kazan Wars Russo-Swedish War (1554–57) Livonian War Russian Conquest of Siberia (1580–1747) Russo-Swedish War (1590–95) Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
and the Time of Troubles Ingrian War Smolensk War Russo-Persian War (1651–53) Sino-Russian border conflicts
Sino-Russian border conflicts
(1652–89) Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1676–81) Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

18th–19th century

Great Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1710–11) Russo-Persian War (1722–23) War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1733–38) Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–48) Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) Seven Years' War Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) Bar Confederation Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) Russo-Swedish War (1788–90) Russo-Polish War (1792) Kościuszko Uprising Russo-Persian War (1796) War of the Second Coalition War of the Third Coalition Russo-Persian War (1804–13) War of the Fourth Coalition Russo-Turkish War (1806–12) Anglo-Russian War Finnish War War of the Fifth Coalition French invasion of Russia War of the Sixth Coalition War of the Seventh Coalition Russian conquest of the Caucasus Caucasian War

Russo-Circassian War Murid War

Russo-Persian War (1826–28) Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) November Uprising Russian conquest of Bukhara Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Crimean War January Uprising Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) Boxer Rebellion

Russian invasion of Manchuria

20th century

Russo-Japanese War Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911 World War I Russian Civil War Ukrainian–Soviet War Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19

Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian–Soviet War

Polish–Soviet War Red Army invasion of Azerbaijan Red Army invasion of Armenia Red Army invasion of Georgia Red Army intervention in Mongolia Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) Soviet–Japanese border conflicts Soviet invasion of Xinjiang Xinjiang War (1937) World War II

Soviet invasion of Poland Winter War Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940) Continuation War Eastern Front (World War II) Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Soviet–Japanese War

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states Ili Rebellion First Indochina War Korean War Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Eritrean War of Independence War of Attrition Warsaw
Warsaw
Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Sino-Soviet border conflict Vietnam War Ogaden War South African Border War Soviet–Afghan War

Post-Soviet

Nagorno-Karabakh War Transnistria War Georgian Civil War Tajikistani Civil War Russo-Georgian War Intervention in Ukraine

Annexation of Crimea War in Donbass

Intervention in Syria

Military history of Russia Russian Winter Russian Revolution Cold War S

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