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Tyrol
Tyrol
(historically the Tyrole,[1][2][3] German: Tirol, Italian: Tirolo) is a historical region in the Alps; in northern Italy
Italy
and western Austria. The area was to Habsburg
Habsburg
times the former County of Tyrol. The Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
in 1919 divided the area into two parts:

State of Tyrol; formed by North
North
and East Tyrol, it belongs to the Republic of Austria Region of Trentino-South Tyrol; at that time still with Souramont (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Livinallongo del Col di Lana
Livinallongo del Col di Lana
and Colle Santa Lucia) and the municipalities Valvestino, Magasa and Pedemonte, belonged to the Kingdom of Italy, since 1946 the Italian Republic.

With the founding of the European region Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino the area has its own legal entity since 2011 in the form of a European Grouping for Territorial Cooperation.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Location 2.2 Mountains 2.3 Biggest municipalities

3 Society

3.1 Language distribution

3.1.1 Dialects

4 Heraldry 5 History

5.1 Prehistory 5.2 Roman times 5.3 Middle Ages

6 Politics

6.1 Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino 6.2 Political Parties

7 Economy

7.1 Primary sector 7.2 Secondary sector 7.3 Tertiary sector

8 Transport

8.1 Airports 8.2 Road transport 8.3 Railways 8.4 Local public transport

9 Culture

9.1 Tyrolean cuisine 9.2 Tyrolean Shooters 9.3 Customs

10 Sports

10.1 Sports events

11 Universities and research institutions

11.1 Universities 11.2 Colleges 11.3 Independent research institutions

12 See also 13 References

Etymology[edit] According to Egon Kühebacher (de), the name Tyrol
Tyrol
derives from a root word meaning terrain (i.e. area, ground or soil; compare Latin: terra and Old Irish: tir); first from the village of Tirol, and its castle; from which the County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
grew.[4] According to Karl Finsterwalder, the name Tyrol
Tyrol
derives from Teriolis (de), a late- Roman fort
Roman fort
and travellers' hostel in Zirl, Tyrol.[5] There seems to be no scholarly consensus. Geography[edit] Location[edit]

Inn Valley
Inn Valley
with a view of Kufstein

Tyrol
Tyrol
has an area of 26,673 km2. The region consists of the State of Tyrol, the Province of South Tyrol
South Tyrol
and the Province of Trento. In addition to the region belong the municipalities Cortina d'Ampezzo, Livinallongo del Col di Lana, Colle Santa Lucia
Colle Santa Lucia
and Pedemonte
Pedemonte
from the Region of Veneto
Veneto
and Valvestino
Valvestino
and Magasa from the Region of Lombardy. The largest cities in Tyrol
Tyrol
are Innsbruck, Trento
Trento
and Bolzano. The whole region of Tyrol
Tyrol
is located in the Alps. Tyrol
Tyrol
is bordered to the north by the state of Bavaria
Bavaria
and to the east by the states of Carinthia
Carinthia
and Salzburg. West of Tyrol
Tyrol
lies the state of Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
and the canton of Grisons. On the southern side of Tyrol, the land is bordered by the regions of Veneto
Veneto
and Lombardy. Important rivers in Tyrol
Tyrol
are the Adige, Inn and Drau. The region is characterized by many valleys. Some of these valleys are still difficult to reach today. The most important valleys are the Inn Valley and Adige
Adige
Valley. A large part of the population lives in these two valleys and also the five largest cities of Tyrol
Tyrol
(Innsbruck, Bolzano, Trento, Merano
Merano
and Rovereto) lie in these valleys. For centuries, the region has been known for transit trade. The most important trade route across the Alps, namely the Brenner Route, traverses the whole of Tyrol
Tyrol
and is regarded as a connecting link between the Italian and German speaking areas. Mountains[edit]

left summit: the Gran Zebrù, right summit: the Ortler; seen from Lake Reschen

As the Tyrolean region is located in the Alps, the landscape is heavily influenced by the mountains. The highest mountains in Tyrol include:

the Ortler
Ortler
3905 m a.s.l. the Gran Zebrù
Gran Zebrù
3851 m a.s.l. the Grossglockner; 3798 m AA the Monte Cevedale; 3769 m a.s.l. the Wildspitze; 3768 m AA

Across Tyrol, on the border between North
North
and South Tyrol, runs the main chain of the Alps. The main chain of the Alps
Alps
geographically divides the Alps
Alps
into a southern and northern half. Biggest municipalities[edit]

Innsbruck

Trento

Bolzano

Lienz

Municipalities of Tyrol
Tyrol
with over 10,000 inhabitants:

Rank Municipality Inhabitants

1 Innsbruck 132,236

2 Trento 117,417

3 Bolzano/Bozen 106,951

4 Merano/Meran 40,047

5 Rovereto 39,482

6 Brixen/Bressanone 21,688

7 Pergine Valsugana 21,363

8 Kufstein 18,973

9 Laives 17,780

10 Arco 17,588

11 Riva del Garda 17,190

12 Bruneck/Brunico 16,356

13 Telfs 15,582

14 Eppan/Appiano 14,900

15 Hall in Tirol 13,801

16 Schwaz 13,606

17 Wörgl 13,537

18 Lana 12,046

19 Lienz 11,945

20 Imst 10,371

Austria: 1st January 2017 Italy: 31st December 2016 Society[edit]

Language distribution in Trentino-South Tyrol.

Language distribution[edit] Tyrol
Tyrol
can be subdivided into 5 different language groups. In addition to the majority languages such as German and Italian, languages such as Ladin, Cimbrian and Mócheno are also spoken. The last three languages are recognized as minority languages. These language groups are mostly located in the Trentino-Alto Adige
Adige
region and are thus promoted and protected by the region. The Ladin language
Ladin language
is also spoken outside the region in Souramont (Province of Belluno). Ladin is considered a Rhaeto-Romance language. The Cimbrian language
Cimbrian language
is also used in various linguistic islands (Sette Comuni) outside the region of Trentino-South Tyrol. The Cimbrian language
Cimbrian language
is considered an upper-Bavarian dialect. Dialects[edit] In state of Tyrol, the German language
German language
is used by a large majority. As in many other regions in German-speaking countries, Tyrol
Tyrol
also has its own German-language dialect. The Tyrolean dialect comes from the Bavarian dialect. In South Tyrol, the Tyrolean dialect was mixed with a few individual Italian words. Due to the difficult accessibility of the valleys in earlier years, many other valleys developed a slightly differentiated dialect compared to the Tyrolean. The Italian language group in South Tyrol
South Tyrol
mostly uses the Italian standard language and does not speak any dialect. The Ladin language
Ladin language
also has no uniform language, so every valley also has a slight difference in Ladinia. The majority in Trentino
Trentino
speaks its own Italian dialect. This dialect has slightly Venetian features, mixed with words from the German-Bavarian dialect. Heraldry[edit]

See Coat of arms of Tyrol (de)

Although the details of the arms of Tyrol
Tyrol
have changed over the centuries, one feature has remained more-or-less constant: argent, an eagle displayed gules, armed (and sometimes crowned) or.[6] Since 1983, the Province of South Tyrol
South Tyrol
has its own coat of arms. It is very similar to the coat of arms of the State of Tyrol. The Province wanted to emphasize the historical commonality of the countries. [7] The Province of Trento
Trento
received its coat of arms in 1340 and refers to the prince-bishopric of Trento. The former County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
had a uniform coat of arms, which was slightly changed over the centuries.

Coat of arms of Tyrol
Tyrol
(State)

Coat of arms of the Province of South Tyrol

Coat of arms of the Province of Trentino

Coat of arms of the Region of Trentino–South Tyrol

Coat of arms of the former County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
during the Austro-Hungarian Empire

History[edit] ‹ The template below (Incomplete) is being considered for deletion. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. ›

This section is incomplete. (February 2018)

See also: History of Tyrol Prehistory[edit]

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The earliest archaeological records of human settlement in Tyrol
Tyrol
have been found in the Tischofer Cave. They date from the Palaeolithic, about 28,000-27,000 BP. The same cave has also yielded evidence of human occupation during the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(very roughly, 4000-3000 BP (2000-1000 BC)). In 1991, the mummified remains of a man who had died around 3300-3100 BC were discovered in a glacier in the Ötztal Alps, in Tyrol. Researchers have called him Ötzi
Ötzi
(and also other names, including "The Iceman"). He lived during the Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
or Copper Age, after man had learned how to exploit copper but before man had learned how to make bronze. His body and belongings were very well-preserved, and have been subjected to detailed scientific study. They are preserved in the South Tyrol
South Tyrol
Museum of Archaeology, Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy. There is evidence that Tyrol
Tyrol
was a centre for copper mining in the 4th millennium BC; for example, at Brixlegg. There is also evidence of the Urnfield culture
Urnfield culture
(roughly 1300-750 BC). Evidence of the La Tène culture
La Tène culture
(roughly 450-100 BC, during the Iron Age) has also been found; as has evidence of the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture from about the same period. Towards the end of that time, Tyrol
Tyrol
began to be noted in Roman written records. The inhabitants may have been Illyrians, in the process of being displaced by Celts (perhaps themselves displaced from Noricum
Noricum
by Slavs). There are also indications that Adriatic Veneti
Adriatic Veneti
may have been present in the south of the region. The Romans called them Rhaetians; although it is not clear whether that then meant a specific tribe or confederation of tribes, or was a broader term for the inhabitants of the area. They made wine barrels (an idea which the Romans took from them), and had their own alphabet. Roman times[edit]

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In 15 BC, Tyrol
Tyrol
was conquered by Roman forces commanded by Drusus and Tiberius. The Romans established Raetia
Raetia
and Noricum
Noricum
as provinces of the Roman Empire. Raetia
Raetia
included Vinschgau, Burggrafenamt, Eisacktal, Wipptal, Oberinntal and parts of the Unterinntal. Noricum
Noricum
included Pustertal, Defereggen and parts of the Unterinntal
Unterinntal
to the right of the Ziller and the Inn. Bolzano
Bolzano
and the extreme south of Tyrol
Tyrol
belonged to the province of Venetia et Histria. The inhabitants adopted vulgar Latin, and combined it with their own languages. The result was Romansh, which is still spoken today and is one of the official languages of Switzerland. The Romans constructed metalled roads guarded by forts through Tyrol to connect the Italian peninsula and the lands beyond; notably the Via Claudia Augusta and the Via Raetia (de). The Romans did not seem to find Tyrol
Tyrol
an attractive area in which to build new towns, because there are few of them. One town they did build was Aguntum, near modern Lienz. In late antiquity (from AD 476), Tyrol
Tyrol
belonged to the Ostrogoths, and it was included in the Ostrogothic Kingdom. In 534, the Ostrogoths lost Merrano, Val Venosta and Passer to the Franks. The Ostrogothic Kingdom collapsed in 553, after being overrun by Bajuvarians (de) from the north and Lombards
Lombards
from the south. The Lombards
Lombards
established the Duchy of Tridentum (or, Trent; roughly corresponding to modern Trentino) in south Tyrol. Slavic peoples, who had recently taken Carinthia
Carinthia
from the Bajuvarians, settled in east Tyrol. Middle Ages[edit]

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Main article: County of Tyrol Most of Tyrol
Tyrol
came under the control of the Duchy of Bavaria
Bavaria
(created c. 555). The southern parts, including Bolzano, Salorno, and the right bank of the Adige
Adige
(including Eppan
Eppan
and Kaltern) remained under the Lombards. Tyrol
Tyrol
was christianised through the bishoprics of Brixen and Triento. The frontier remained the same though Carolingian and Ottonian times. The area was subject to Stammensgerechte (Ancient Germanic laws), such as Lex Romana Curiensis (see Raetia
Raetia
Curiensis), Lex Alamannorum, Lex Baiuvariorum
Lex Baiuvariorum
and Leges Langobardorum.

Tyrol Castle
Tyrol Castle
in Tirol, near Merano.

In 1027, Emperor Conrad II, in order to secure the important route through the Brenner Pass, allotted the left bank of the Adige
Adige
(from Lana to Mezzocorona) to the Duchy of Bavaria. During the 12th century, the local nobility went further: they built Tyrol Castle
Tyrol Castle
in the modern comune of Tirol in South Tyrol, near modern Merano; and around 1140, established the County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
as a state within the Holy Roman Empire. The Counts of Tyrol
Tyrol
were at first Vogt
Vogt
(underlords) subject to the Bishoprics of Brixen
Brixen
and Triento; but they had other ideas. They expanded their holdings at those bishoprics' expense. They displaced competing nobles like the House of Eppan (de), and declared their independence from the Duchy of Bavaria; though not without dispute. In 1228, they conceded the Saalforste (de) to the House of Wittelsbach, rulers of Bavaria; as a result, that area remains part of Bavaria
Bavaria
to this day. In 1253, rulership of the County passed by inheritance to the Meinhardiner
Meinhardiner
family. In 1335, the last male heir to the Meinhardiner lands, Henry of Bohemia, died. His daughter, Margaret, thereupon became Countess of Tyrol; but her title was in doubt because of different laws in different lands as to what a woman could or could not inherit. She navigated her way between the competing claims of the Houses of Wittelsbach, Luxembourg and Habsburg
Habsburg
by, in 1342, marrying Louis of Wittelsbach. Louis died in 1361. Margaret died in 1369, and bequeathed Tyrol
Tyrol
to Rudolf of Habsburg. The various dynastic squabbles were resolved that same year by the Treaty of Schärding (de), under which (for suitable compensation) the Wittelsbachs agreed to relinquish their claims to Tyrol
Tyrol
in favour of the Habsburgs. When the Habsburgs took control of Tyrol, it had roughly its modern size. However, the Unterinntal
Unterinntal
downstream from Schwaz
Schwaz
still belonged to Bavaria; the Zillertal
Zillertal
and Brixental
Brixental
to Salzburg; Brixen
Brixen
and the Pustertal
Pustertal
were episcopal territories, or part of the County of Gorizia. Therefore, the Montafon
Montafon
and the Unterengadin were Tyrolean. Tyrol
Tyrol
was of great strategic importance to the Habsburgs. It controlled several important Alpine passes. It connected their landholdings in Further Austria. In 1406, as the Habsburg
Habsburg
lands were split up by inheritance, Tyrol
Tyrol
once again became a separate entity (a Landstand), in which the greater landowners had the right to be consulted (Mitspracherecht). During a confusing succession of events, in 1420 Frederick IV, Duke of Austria
Austria
moved the capital of Tyrol
Tyrol
from Meran
Meran
to Innsbruck, and Meran
Meran
lost its earlier importance. Politics[edit] Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino[edit] Main article: Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino

Dreier-Landtag

The Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol- Trentino
Trentino
was founded in 1998. The aim is to strengthen cooperation between the separated countries. [8] In several areas, such as mobility, agriculture, education and culture will be tried to promote exchange and to raise the awareness of the cultural and historical heritage of the region of Tyrol
Tyrol
in the minds of the population. Cross-border projects will be initiated to improve the relationship between the different language groups. To represent common ideas and values in Europe, the Euroregion has a joint office in Brussels
Brussels
since 1995. [9] The headquarters of the office is in Bolzano. Joint decisions are taken by organized three diet (in German: Dreier-Landtag), which have been held since 1991 mostly every two to three years with the state Diets of Trento
Trento
(provincial council of Trentino), Bolzano
Bolzano
(provincial council of South Tyrol) and Innsbruck (state council of Tyrol
Tyrol
(State)). In 2011, the region was institutionalized and since then has its own legal entity. Political Parties[edit] Political parties in the Italian part of Tyrol
Tyrol
(provinces of Bolzano and Trento) include:

Partito Democratico
Partito Democratico
(PD) Südtiroler Volkspartei
Südtiroler Volkspartei
(SVP) Movimento Cinque Stelle (M5S) Lega Nord
Lega Nord
(LN) Greens South Tyrolean Freedom Die Freiheitlichen Trentino
Trentino
Tyrolean Autonomist Party (PATT)

The Austrian part of Tyrol
Tyrol
shares the Austrian party system:

Tiroler Volkspartei; organization of the ÖVP
ÖVP
in the state of Tyrol, which has dominated local politics since 1945 Social Democratic Party of Austria
Austria
(SPÖ) Freedom Party of Austria
Austria
(FPÖ) The Greens – The Green Alternative NEOS

The multiplicity of parties is due to the fact that Tyrol
Tyrol
lies in two different nation states and thus are politically independent of each other. Another reason for the large number of parties is the great independence of the two Provinces of Bolzano
Bolzano
and Trento. By the second statute of autonomy in 1972, the province of Bolzano
Bolzano
acquired much of the region's competences and since then has been mostly independent of the province of Trento. The second autonomy statute enabled the linguistic minorities to be better protected. [10] The regional council of Trentino-South Tyrol, which consists of the two provincial councils of Bolzano
Bolzano
and Trento, has less influence and competences. Thus, many parties determine their focus within the provinces. Other parties in Trentino-South Tyrol, especially in South Tyrol, were founded on the example of Austrian parties and have many similarities with the parties in Austria. Economy[edit] In the economic sector statistics are shown, which are based largely on numbers and data of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino. It lacks individual communities that are outside the Euroregion. As there are no 10,000 inhabitants living in these communities, the statistics hardly distort the territory of Tyrol
Tyrol
and the remaining 1.8 million inhabitants. Tyrol
Tyrol
had a total GDP of 67.6 billion euros in 2014. Divided into individual countries, the State of Tyrol
Tyrol
generated 28.8 billion euros, the Province of South Tyrol
South Tyrol
20.6 billion euros and the Province of Trentino
Trentino
18.2 billion euros. [11] In GDP per capita (2015), that means 39,300 euros/capita in the State of Tyrol, 42,400 euros/capita in South Tyrol
South Tyrol
and 35,500 euros/capita in Trentino. The unemployment rate in the State of Tyrol
Tyrol
is 3.2% (2014), in South Tyrol
South Tyrol
3.4% (2017) [12] and in Trentino
Trentino
4.6% (2017) [13]. The Tyrol
Tyrol
region is one of the wealthiest regions in Europe and, in terms of GDP/capita, is above the EU average, which amounted to 28,900 euros/capita in 2015. The Region of Trentino-South Tyrol
Trentino-South Tyrol
is, in terms of GDP/capita, the wealthiest region in Italy
Italy
with 37,813 euros/capita in 2015. [14] Primary sector[edit]

Vineyards in Bolzano

Agriculture and forestry occupy a special position in Tyrol. The many small and medium-sized farms have shaped the landscape and culture in Tyrol
Tyrol
for many centuries. In order to be competitive with larger farms outside Tyrol, there is a strong cooperative system in Tyrol. South of Tyrol, in the Region of Trentino-South Tyrol, the cultivation of apples and wine plays an important role. So every tenth apple in Europe comes from South Tyrol. [15] Known wines in Trentino-South Tyrol
Tyrol
are the Vernatsch, the Lagrein, the Gewürztraminer
Gewürztraminer
and the Weißburgunder. [16] Livestock, grazing and forestry are important at higher elevations and in more northerly areas. Mainly cattle, sheep, goats and pigs are kept. [17] Accordingly, the production of milk and Tyrolean Speck
Tyrolean Speck
in the farms is very important. Horses also play an increasingly important role in livestock, for equestrian sports and farm holidays. The Haflinger
Haflinger
horses are known in the Tyrolean region and originate from Hafling, near Merano. [18] Secondary sector[edit] The first industrialization reached Tyrol
Tyrol
late in the 19th century. Most of these were small businesses that were important only in the local area. A second wave of industrialization took place at the beginning of the 20th century. Particularly affected at that time was the city of Bolzano
Bolzano
with the Italianization
Italianization
policy under the fascism in the 20s. [19] In 2011, approximately 10% of the workplaces in all parts of the country were active in the manufacturing sector. Thus lies Tyrol
Tyrol
in the EU average at 10.3% (2011). [20] Important branches of industry in Tyrol
Tyrol
are the food industry, wood processing and mechanical engineering. The industry in Tyrol
Tyrol
consists mostly of small and medium-sized companies. The craft still plays a special role throughout the region. A large part of these craft businesses are still partially small-structured and family businesses. From an economic point of view, the energy sector is important in the secondary sector. Much of the electricity produced is generated by hydropower. Tertiary sector[edit]

A known city for tourism: Riva del Garda
Riva del Garda
on Lake Garda

The most important sector in Tyrol
Tyrol
is the tertiary sector. Especially tourism has a special position in this region. Due to the connection of the areas by the railway in the 19th century, many villages in Tyrol
Tyrol
developed into popular tourism locations. The construction of the Brenner motorway in the 1960s gave region in the 20th century a renewed upswing in the tourism branch. Today, Merano, Kitzbühel, Cortina or Riva del Garda
Riva del Garda
are among the most important tourism destinations in the Alpine region. In 2013, the Euroregion counted over 80 million [21] overnight stays in the Tyrolean region (to compare - Province of Rome
Province of Rome
in 2011: 25.8 million overnight stays). [22] Also important for Tyrol
Tyrol
is the trade. Among other things, the Exhibition of Bolzano
Bolzano
has been a meeting point for Italian and German economy already for centuries. As a transit route country, more than 2.25 million trucks (2017) drove over the Brenner Pass
Brenner Pass
[23] . This means that two times more trucks travel on the Brenner Route than in all four Alpine crossing roads in Switzerland together. [24] Transport[edit] Tyrol
Tyrol
is known as a transit route. The most important route between northern and southern Europe, the Brenner route, traverses the entire region. At 1370 m above the Adriatic, the Brenner Pass
Brenner Pass
is the lowest pass crossing of the main chain of the Alps. Due to the linguistic diversity and the climatic transition from temperate climate (alpine climate) to mediterranean climate, the area is regarded as a bridge between the Italian and German speaking countries. Airports[edit]

Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Airport

The most important airport in Tyrol
Tyrol
is Innsbruck
Innsbruck
Airport. With over one million passengers, it is the third largest airport in Austria. [25] Other airports in the region are in Bolzano
Bolzano
and Trento. These do not offer regular scheduled flights and the Bolzano
Bolzano
Airport currently offers charter flights. There are other small airfields in Toblach, Kufstein, St. Johann in Tirol, Reutte
Reutte
and Cortina. The airfield in Cortina was closed in 1976 due to a crash. Road transport[edit] Highways in Tyrol
Tyrol
are the Brenner motorway and the Inntal motorway. The Brenner motorway runs from Innsbruck
Innsbruck
(in Austria
Austria
A13) to Modena (in Italy
Italy
A22). Together with the Inntal motorway from Innsbruck
Innsbruck
to Kufstein
Kufstein
is the part of the European route E45. The dual carriageway from Merano
Merano
to Bolzano
Bolzano
(MeBo) ends in Bolzano
Bolzano
South in the Brenner motorway. Important road section in Trentino, next to the Brenner motorway, is the SS 47 (Strada Statale 47), which connects via Sugana Valley Trento
Trento
with Padova. A large part of this route is dual-lane and flows into the Brenner state road (SS 12). Due to the Alps, there are many mountain passes that connect valleys. The most important pass roads for transit trade are the Reschen Pass
Reschen Pass
and Brenner Pass. Popular pass roads include the Stelvio Pass, Arlberg Pass, Karer Pass, Mendel Pass and the Gardena Pass. The Provinces of Trento
Trento
and Bolzano
Bolzano
have been responsible for the preservation and management of the state roads in their provinces since 1998. [26] Railways[edit]

Pustertal
Pustertal
railway

The most important railway line in Tyrol
Tyrol
is the Brenner Line via the Brenner Pass. The Brenner Railway
Brenner Railway
was opened in 1867 and runs from Innsbruck
Innsbruck
to Verona
Verona
via the cities of Bolzano
Bolzano
and Trento. Together with the Lower Inn Valley
Inn Valley
Railway in North
North
Tyrol, this section of the route is part of the important European railway axis Berlin-Palermo, which connects northern Europe with southern Europe across the Alps. With the construction of the Brenner Base Tunnel
Brenner Base Tunnel
and its completion in 2027, transit traffic on the rail will be promoted and relocated. After completion, the Brenner Base Tunnel, together with the Innsbruck bypass, will be the longest railway tunnel in the world at 64 km and will reduce the travel time between Bolzano
Bolzano
and Innsbruck
Innsbruck
from 2 hours to 45 minutes. [27] [28] Further important railway lines in Tyrol
Tyrol
are the Arlberg railway, Zillertal
Zillertal
railway, Salzburg- Tyrol
Tyrol
railway, Pustertal
Pustertal
railway with continuation of the Drautal railway, the railway line Bolzano-Merano and the continuation of the Vinschgau railway, the Trento–Malè–Mezzana railway
Trento–Malè–Mezzana railway
and the Valsugana railway, which leads from Trento
Trento
to Venice
Venice
over the Sugana Valley. Cross-border connections are offered only a few. The ÖBB
ÖBB
travels over the Brenner Pass on the Eurocity
Eurocity
trains and several regional trains connect South Tyrol
Tyrol
with North Tyrol
North Tyrol
an East Tyrol. The Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol- Trentino
Trentino
has set itself the goal of promoting and expanding cross-border connections. The aim is to shift traffic through the Alps to sustainable means of transport, thus protecting the Alpine environment. [29] Local public transport[edit] Many villages and communities are difficult to reach because of the large differences in altitude, so the region sets much on ropeway concepts. Although most of the cable cars are located in ski resorts, they are also used for the local public transport. Known cable cars in Tyrol
Tyrol
are the Ritten
Ritten
cable car in Bolzano, the Sardagna cable car in Trento
Trento
and the Nordkette cable car in Innsbruck. Also funicular railways are being built to cope with the differences in altitude more quickly. Famous funiculars are among others the Hungerburgbahn
Hungerburgbahn
in Innsbruck
Innsbruck
and the Mendel funicular
Mendel funicular
in Kaltern. Local public transport is usually offered with intercity buses or city buses. The city of Innsbruck
Innsbruck
has its own tram network. Another tram is located in Ritten. The cities of Bolzano, Merano
Merano
and Trento
Trento
formerly had their own tram network, but these were displaced and replaced by the city buses and private transport in the 50s and 60s. Culture[edit] The Tyrolean culture has been cultivated for several centuries and passed on to future generations. The state border between South and North Tyrol
North Tyrol
is more a political border and is considered less as a cultural border. Many traditions are cultivated throughout the Tyrolean region and show little differences. In all cultural areas such as food, dress or customs there are many similarities. Nevertheless, the individual language groups, especially the minority languages, try to maintain and promote their own linguistic identity. Tyrolean cuisine[edit]

South Tyrolean Speck

The Tyrolean cuisine has similarities with the Austrian cuisine
Austrian cuisine
and is characterized by its alpine influence. Also the historical influence of the former K.U.K. Monarchy
K.U.K. Monarchy
can be found in the Tyrolean dishes. These include dishes such as goulash, Kaiserschmarrn
Kaiserschmarrn
and apple strudel which are consumed in large parts of the Danube monarchy
Danube monarchy
and today still in Tyrol. Since the region is still relatively strong agricultural and peasant today, also many peasant dishes are offered on the farms. Schlutzkrapfen, boiled dumplings or cold cuts with bacon (in German: Speck) is eaten on the farms. [30] The Tyrolean dishes show only slight differences throughout Tyrol. Due to the Mediterranean conditions in the southern part of Tyrol, a lot of wine is grown and is therefore also an important part of the Tyrolean dish, especially in South Tyrol
South Tyrol
and Trentino. Famous wines from this area are the Gewürztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Grigio
Pinot Grigio
and Chardonnay. [31] Furthermore, a lot of apples are grown in the Region of Trentino-South Tyrol. In this region also a food culture is cultivated with a mixture of Italian and Tyrolean specialties. [32] [33] Tyrolean Shooters[edit]

Trentino
Trentino
Shooters Company in front of Castle of Castellano

The Tyrolean Shooters were an army that in case of an attack on the crown land Tyrol
Tyrol
were obliged to defend their country. The "army" consisted mostly of citizens and peasants and were responsible only for the defense of their own country and did not have to move in fights of the Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy. This was made possible by a certificate of Emperor Maximilian I in 1511 and that was valid until 1918. The Tyrolean Shooters became known in 1809 when the Tyrolean peasants were liberated and defended against the French-Bavarian occupation under Napoleon. The following four Battles of Bergisel
Battles of Bergisel
were led by Andreas Hofer. The shooters were also used in World War I
World War I
in 1915 on the Dolomite front. After the separation of Tyrol
Tyrol
and the downfall of the monarchy, the companies also lost their task of defending their country. Nevertheless, they remained as a non-governmental organization. Today, the shooters are responsible as an organization for the preservation of the Tyrolean culture and are always present at important political events in Tyrol. [34] Customs[edit] Many Tyrolean customs were created centuries ago and are passed on by the population for the next generations. Typical in the Alpine region are the many individual customs in the valleys. Due to the seclusion of the valleys, the locals developed their own customs. Many customs have been created by legends and narratives, others by the close connection to the church. There are also traditions that are cultivated everywhere in the Tyrolean region and do not differ from other valleys and villages. These customs give local people an identity and thus feel the community more connected. [35]

Krampus
Krampus
in Toblach. Typical in the alpine region.

Imster Schemenlaufen in Imst

Herz Jesu Fire in whole Tyrol

Egetmann with the "Wudelen" in Tramin

Sports[edit] Tyrol
Tyrol
is traditionally a winter sports country. Many athletes, such as Gustav Thoeni, Benjamin Raich, Carolina Kostner, Gregor Schlierenzauer, Toni Sailer
Toni Sailer
and Armin Zoeggeler
Armin Zoeggeler
have already won overall World Cups and medals at World Championships and Olympic Games. Even in summer sports, several athletes from Tyrol
Tyrol
were and still are among the best in the world. In water jumping Tania Cagnotto and Klaus Dibiasi
Klaus Dibiasi
won several medals. In cycling, Francesco Moser
Francesco Moser
won the Giro d'Italia. Andreas Seppi
Andreas Seppi
played against the best tennis players in the world for many years. In bouldering Anna Stöhr
Anna Stöhr
was one of the best in the world. Many Tyrolean mountaineers such as Reinhold Messner and Hans Kammerlander
Hans Kammerlander
influenced the alpinism.

Soccer

The FC Wacker Innsbruck
Innsbruck
is one of the most traditional and successful clubs in Austria. Since the club was founded in 1915 and several name changes, the football club has won ten times the Austrian Championship and seven times the Austrian Cup. In 1987, it reached the semi-finals of the UEFA CUP. In 1970, the team defeated Real Madrid in Madrid. [36] Currently (2018) Wacker Innsbruck
Innsbruck
plays in the "Erste Liga" (second highest category of Austria). In the Region of Trentino-South Tyrol, the FC Südtirol
FC Südtirol
and AC Trento are the two most important clubs. Both teams participated in the Italian Serie C
Serie C
(third highest league in Italy) for several seasons. The AC Trento
Trento
has a long history until 1921. [37] FC Südtirol
FC Südtirol
was founded in 1995. [38] AC Trento
Trento
are currently (2018) playing in the Italian Serie D (fourth highest league in Italy) and FC Südtirol
FC Südtirol
in Serie C. Thus, the FC Südtirol
FC Südtirol
is the only professional football club in the region.

Icehockey

Tyrolean derby; HC Bolzano
Bolzano
against HC Innsbruck
Innsbruck
in the EBEL.

Ice hockey is a very popular sport in Tyrol. Important clubs are the HC Bolzano
Bolzano
and the HC Innsbruck. Both teams play in the EBEL. The HC Innsbruck, formerly EV Innsbruck, won the Austrian championship seven times. With 19 won Italian championships, the HC Bolzano
Bolzano
is the record champion in Italy. The club celebrated the biggest international successes by winning the Alpenliga, the EBEL
EBEL
and the Six Nations Tournament with Jaromir Jagr. [39] The Italian ice hockey league consists mostly of South Tyrolean teams. 5 of the 8 Italian teams in the Alps
Alps
Hockey League come from South Tyrol
South Tyrol
(HC Neumarkt-Egna, HC Pustertal, Ritten
Ritten
Sport, HC Gardena
HC Gardena
and WSV Sterzing Broncos). In this league three more Tyrolean teams play (SG Cortina, HC Fassa
HC Fassa
and EC Kitzbühel). In 2005, the Ice Hockey World Championship was held in Innsbruck
Innsbruck
and Vienna. The 1994 Ice Hockey World Championship took place in Bolzano, Canazei
Canazei
and Milan.

Volleyball

In volleyball, Trentino
Trentino
Volley is one of the best teams in the world. Three times the Champions league title, four times the club world championship title and four times the Italian championship title could win the club from Trento. Founded in 2000, the club quickly established itself at the top of the league. [40] In 2011, Trentino Volley won the CEV Champions League
CEV Champions League
ahead of its own fans at the PalaOnda
PalaOnda
in Bolzano. [41] Hypo Tirol Innsbruck
Innsbruck
conquered the Austrian title 10 times. Of the last 13 seasons, the team won 10 times the Austrian championship. Since the season 2017/18 the club plays in the German volleyball league under the name "Hypo Tirol Alpenvolleys Haching". The club went into cooperation with the German team TSV Unterhaching. [42] Sports events[edit]

Alpine Skiing World Cup
Alpine Skiing World Cup
in Kitzbühel

In Tyrol, the Olympic Winter Games
Olympic Winter Games
have been organized three times so far. In 1964 and 1976 they were held in Innsbruck
Innsbruck
and 1956 in Cortina. Most of the big annual sporting events in Tyrol
Tyrol
take place in winter. The Alpine Skiing World Cup
Alpine Skiing World Cup
is held in Kitzbühel, Val Gardena, Cortina and Madonna di Campiglio. These races are classics in the Ski World Cup and have a long tradition. A famous biathlon location is in Antholz. There were often held the Biathlon
Biathlon
World Championships. Several Nordic Combined
Nordic Combined
World Championships were organized in Val di Fiemme. Part of the Four Hills Tournament
Four Hills Tournament
is the Bergisel Ski Jump
Bergisel Ski Jump
in Innsbruck. A stage of the Tour de Ski
Tour de Ski
is also located in Toblach. Some summer sports events are also held in Tyrol. The Tour of the Alps take place every year in Tyrol. The tour was launched by the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino. It is the successor of the Giro del Trentino, which has been around for over 40 years. [43] In 2017, the UCI Downhill World Championships took place in Val di Sole, near Trento. The BOclassic
BOclassic
in Bolzano
Bolzano
takes place on New Year's Eve and is one of the best occupied New Year's Eve races in the world. [44] Every year, an ATP World Series tennis tournament is organized in Kitzbühel. Universities and research institutions[edit]

MCI Campus in Innsbruck

Faculty of Economics – University of Trento

Universities[edit]

University of Innsbruck University of Trento Free University of Bolzano UMIT - Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology Medical University of Innsbruck

Colleges[edit]

Philosophical-theological Academy Brixen Conservatory "Claudio Monteverdi" Tyrolean State Conservatory University of Applied Sciences Kufstein Health university of Applied Science Tyrol MCI Management Center Innsbruck Pedagogical University of Applied Science Tyrol Ecclesiastical Pedagogical University of Applied Science – Edith Stein State College of Health Professions "Claudiana"

Independent research institutions[edit]

Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research; is a facility of Austrian Academy of Sciences Eurac Research NOI Techpark Foundation Bruno Kessler Edmund Mach Foundation Research Centre Laimburg

See also[edit]

Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino County of Tyrol

References[edit]

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