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TYKOCIN Yiddish : טיקטין‎ Belarusian : Тыкоцін Tykocin) is a small town in north-eastern Poland
Poland
, with 2,010 inhabitants (2012), located on the Narew
Narew
river. Tykocin
Tykocin
has been situated in the Podlaskie Voivodeship
Podlaskie Voivodeship
since 1999. Previously, it belonged to Białystok Voivodeship (1975-1998) . It is one of the oldest settlements in the region.

CONTENTS

* 1 History of the town * 2 The Holocaust * 3 Points of interest * 4 Notable individuals * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY OF THE TOWN

The name of Tykocin
Tykocin
was first mentioned in the 11th century and through the 14th century it was a Duchy of Masovian castellany seat and castle on the Masovian border neighboring the growing medieval pagan Lithuania
Lithuania
. Tykocin
Tykocin
received city rights from prince Janusz I of Warsaw in 1425, but several months later it was given to Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
by the Polish king Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło
.

Shortly later, or about 1433 AD, Duke Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Sigismund Kęstutaitis
gave the town along with other towns to Jonas Gostautas , and it became the most important power seat of that Lithuanian magnate Gostautai family clan. During the 1560s, upon the family's last member passing away, the town became one of the most favorite properties for Polish king and Lithuanian Grand Prince Sigismund II Augustus who had a Renaissance castle built there instead of the medieval one. It became property of the Crown and eventually it was awarded to hetman Stefan Czarniecki , later on through marriage of Czarniecki's daughters it passed to Branicki Gryf coat-of-arms family.

After the Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth one of the Branickis, Isabela Branicka sold the town to the Prussian
Prussian
government circa 1795. In 1807 it was given to Russia as a part of the Treaty of Tilsit . In 1815 it was returned to the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
. During the interwar period , the population of Tykocin
Tykocin
had reached an estimated 4,000 inhabitants. In 1950 Tykocin
Tykocin
lost its city rights due to heavy loss of life during World War II, only to regain it in 1993 after the collapse of communism .

THE HOLOCAUST

The Jewish
Jewish
population of Tykocin
Tykocin
estimated at 2,000 people was eradicated by Nazi Germans during the Holocaust . On 25–26 August 1941 the Jewish
Jewish
residents of Tykocin
Tykocin
were assembled at the market square for "relocation", and then marched and trucked by the Nazis into the nearby Łopuchowo forest, where they were executed in waves into pits by SS Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
Zichenau-Schroettersburg under SS-Obersturmführer Hermann Schaper . A memorial now exists outside the city for the Tykocin pogrom .

POINTS OF INTEREST

* Tykocin Castle
Tykocin Castle
built before 1469, extended in 16th century and partially reconstructed in 2005 * The Baroque
Baroque
Tykocin Synagogue Bejt ha-Kneset ha-Godol, built in 1642, one of the best preserved in Poland
Poland
from that period and a major tourist attraction. * A baroque Church of the Holy Trinity and former monastery of Congregation of Mission founded in 1742 by Jan Klemens Branicki
Jan Klemens Branicki
* Baroque
Baroque
monastery dating from 1771–90 * Former military hospital from 1755 * Jewish
Jewish
cemetery – one of the oldest in Poland * Abundance of white storks and their nests in the area

*

Church of the Holy Trinity *

Baroque
Baroque
Jewish
Jewish
Synagogue *

Castle after reconstruction *

Main altar at Holy Trinity *

Monument of Stefan Czarniecki on the square

NOTABLE INDIVIDUALS

* Joshua Höschel ben Joseph , a Polish rabbi born in Wilno
Wilno
* Jan Klemens Branicki
Jan Klemens Branicki
, Field Crown Hetman
Hetman
of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth * Bolesław Gebert , Communist Party official * Łukasz Górnicki , Chancellor of Sigismund Augustus of Poland
Poland
* Mikołaj Ostroróg
Mikołaj Ostroróg
, a Polish-Lithuanian nobleman * Bogusław Radziwiłł , an Imperial Prince of the Holy Roman Empire * Janusz Radziwiłł (1612-1655) , Polish prince, magnate and Field Hetman
Hetman
of Lithuania
Lithuania
* Paweł Jan Sapieha , Hetman
Hetman
and military commander * Jan Smółko (b. 1907, AK alias Lokalizator), wife Władysława (b. 1908), Polish Righteous among the Nations – produced over a hundred fake IDs for Tykocin
Tykocin
Jews during World War II, based on Catholic parish records. * Rebecca bat Meir Tiktiner (d. 1550) * Krzysztof Wiesiołowski
Krzysztof Wiesiołowski

SEE ALSO

* Gmina
Gmina
of Tykocin
Tykocin
* Tykocin pogrom

REFERENCES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to TYKOCIN .

* ^ (in Polish) "Rocznica zagłady żydowskiego Tykocina," (commemoration) Gazeta Wyborcza Białystok , 24 August 2009 * ^ Tykocin
Tykocin
na mapie polskich judaików, at www.kirkuty.xip.pl * ^ Alexander B. Rossino, "Contextualizing Anti- Jewish
Jewish
Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa", Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16 (2003) * ^ Jan Smółko, deposition made available by the Ostberg Foundation, New York City
New York City
; Okręgowa Komisja Badania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu w Białymstoku, Merkuriusz Mszonowski, 4(150), 2009, page 34

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Tykocin
Tykocin
on the map of Poland, at