Tygodnik Powszechny (Polish pronunciation: [tɨˈɡɔdɲik
pɔˈfʂɛxnɨ], The Catholic Weekly) is a Polish Roman Catholic
weekly magazine, published in Kraków, which focuses on social and
cultural issues. It was established in 1945 under the auspices of
Cardinal Adam Stefan Sapieha.
Jerzy Turowicz was its editor-in-chief
until his death in 1999. He was succeeded by Adam Boniecki, a priest.
Its publication was suspended in 1953 after it refused to print Joseph
Stalin's obituary; new editors representing a pro-government
association took it over until 1956. After the Polish October, the
former editors were allowed to resume control.
4 See also
5 Further reading
7 External links
Adam Stefan Sapieha
Adam Stefan Sapieha helped found the weekly magazine, and the
first edition of
Tygodnik Powszechny was published on 24 March 1945,
in the closing months of World War II. Initially, the editorial staff
consisted of four people: Jan Piwowarczyk, a priest; Jerzy Turowicz
(editor-in-chief for many years), Konstanty Turowski and Maria
Czapska. Later they were joined by Zofia Starowieyska–Morstinowa,
Stefan Kisielewski, Leopold Tyrmand, Antoni Gołubiew, Paweł
Jasienica (until he was arrested by the Communists in 1948),
Stanisław Stomma, Hanna Malewska and Józefa Golmont–Hennelowa.
In 1953, the weekly was closed and lost its printing house after it
refused to print the obituary of Joseph Stalin, powerful leader of the
Soviet Union. From 1953 to 1956, it was published by the
PAX Association and informally known as Tygodnik
Paxowski. The same format was used and numbering was continuous during
this period, although none of the previous editors worked for the
After the "Thaw" of 1956, the original editors were able to resume
Tygodnik Powszechny in December 1956. Columnists have
included prominent clerics, such as
Karol Wojtyła (who became Pope
John Paul II), academics and poets, journalists and other writers,
including Władysław Bartoszewski, Jerzy Zawieyski, Jacek
Woźniakowski, Stefan Wilkanowicz, Adam Szostkiewicz, Leszek
Kołakowski, Stanisław Lem, Zbigniew Herbert, Wojciech Karpiński,
Tadeusz Kudliński, and Czesław Zgorzelski.
Czesław Miłosz published his poems in
Tygodnik Powszechny for many
years. In 1945, he prepared a hand-written volume of poems called
Wiersze pół-perskie for Jerzy Turowicz, the editor. Forced into
exile in the United States, Miłosz continued to publish in Tygodnik
Powszechny. After he received, the Nobel Prize, it was the only
magazine in which Miłosz published his poems.
In the late 1950s, the newspaper became affiliated with the officially
recognized political party Znak, which was newly organized in the wake
of the Thaw. When Znak helped establish the Solidarity movement,
Father Józef Tischner, one of the writers of the Krakov edition,
became its chaplain.
After martial law was declared, the magazine suspended its publication
for several months. Since 1982,
Tygodnik Powszechny has been published
Karol Wojtyła was elected as pope,
Tygodnik Powszechny became
the most popular vehicle for John Paul II’s teachings in Poland. For
a long time, it was the only magazine in the world to have gained an
interview with the new pope, which it published 3 August 1980.
In the 1980s, the magazine informally represented the Polish
democratic opposition. It was sometimes regarded as the only legal
oppositional magazine in the People’s Republic of Poland (PRL). In
1987, it published a controversial essay by Jan Błoński, "The Poor
Poles Look at the ghetto" (“Biedni Polacy patrzą na getto”),
exploring historic relations between Catholic and Jewish Poles, and
the experiences of the
Holocaust in World War II.
Since the 1990s, a part of the church hierarchy has criticized
Tygodnik Powszechny for what they consider its overly liberal outlook.
(It does not reflect the parochial distribution of the magazine).
In 1998, Maria Zmarz-Koczanowicz produced the documentary, Ordinary
Kindness (Zwyczajna dobroć), telling the story of editor Jerzy
In 1999, following the death of Jerzy Turowicz’s death, Father Adam
Boniecki became the chief editor.
In April 2007, the
ITI Group purchased 49 per cent of the magazine.
Since 5 December 2007
Tygodnik Powszechny has been published in a
smaller size. The format and editorial staff were also changed.
Tygodnik Powszechny has tried to reconcile the values of liberalism
with the principles of faith. It has presented an open ecumenical view
of Polish Catholicism. Its goal was a dialogue. Persons with
non-Catholic ideas are invited to take part in printed debates.
According to the analysis by Jarosław Gowin, presented in his book,
Church in the Times of Freedom (Kościół w czasach wolności),
Tygodnik Powszechny is one of the main representatives of ‘open’
Catholicism, inspired by Catholic personalism.[clarification needed]
Sergiusz Kowalski, who was analyzing the history of the journal from
1993 to 1995, wrote: “The authors of
Tygodnik Powszechny appreciate
moderation, openness, readiness to dialogue and compromise,” looking
for “modus vivendi between liberal democracy and Church, between
modernity and tradition.” (Kowalski 1997: 148)
In the time of the People’s Republic of Poland (PRL), Tygodnik
Powszechny was considered as the magazine which, to some extent
(determined by censorship), could publish criticism of the communist
After 1989, the magazine was seen to represent one option in a
dialogue within the Church, called “open Catholicism”, which
caused criticism from people of other circles. After 1989, Tygodnik
Powszechny was believed to represent only one political party, the
Democratic Union, later transformed into the Freedom Union. Many
people involved in the magazine participated in the political changes
of the era (Józefa Hennelowa, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Krzysztof
The critics of the Cracow weekly magazine often quote the letter
written by John Paul II, on 15 May 1995 on the occasion of the
magazine’s 50th anniversary:
"The year 1989 brought Poland deep changes connected with the downfall
of the communist system. Resumption of independence paradoxically
coincided with an increased assault of secular left-wing parties and
liberal groups directed against the Church, the
Episcopate as well as
against the Pope. I felt it especially in the context of my last visit
to Poland in 1991. The point was to erase from the memory of citizens
what was the role of the Church in the nation within the space of the
last years. Accusations and slanders about clericalism were
multiplying as well as those about the alleged intention of the Church
to rule Poland and about hindering political emancipation in the
Polish society. Forgive me, if I say that those influences were also
visible in Tygodnik Powszechny. In those difficult times,
unfortunately the Church did not find in it any support and defense
which in a way he could have expected: “it did not feel cherished
enough” – like I once said (…)”
- Letter of 15 May 1995 from
John Paul II
John Paul II to Jerzy
Turowicz, editor-in-chief, Tygodnik Powszechny
Tygodnik Powszechny accuse the magazine of leaning to
liberal and left-wing Catholicism. In his book Obłudnik Powszechny
(2002) (The Common Canter), Jerzy Robert Nowak, said that Tygodnik
Powszechny betrayed the ideals of
John Paul II
John Paul II and the Church. He is a
historian and publicist associated with the major Catholic weekly
List of magazines in Poland
Controversial article about Russian secret operations in Poland
Christian Heidrich: Die neue Frage nach Gott und Kirche. Ein Blick auf
"Tygodnik Powszechny" und "Christ in der Gegenwart". In: Aleksandra
Chylewska-Tölle / Christian Heidrich (Editors): Mäander des
Kulturtransfers. Polnische und deutsche Kirche im 20. Jahrhundert.
Berlin [Logos Verlag] 2014, p. 249-275.
Michał Jagiełło, "Tygodnik Powszechny" i komunizm, Warszawa: NOWA,
Jacek Żakowski, Anatomia smaku czyli rozmowy o losach zespołu
Tygodnika Powszechnego w latach 1953-1956, Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Wolne
Jacek Żakowski, Jerzy Turowicz: Trzy ćwiartki wieku: rozmowy z
Jerzym Turowiczem, Kraków: Znak, 1999, ISBN 83-7006-166-4
Jacek Żakowski: Pół wieku pod włos. Czyli życie codzienne
"Tygodnika Powszechnego" w czasach heroicznych. Kraków: Znak, 1999,
^ Annika Frieberg (2008). The Project of Reconciliation: Journalists
and Religious Activists in Polish-German Relations, 1956--1972.
ProQuest. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-549-53566-9. Retrieved 8
^ Laurence Weinbaum (Fall 2002). "Penitence and Prejudice: The Roman
Catholic Church and Jedwabne". Jewish Political Studies Review. 14
(3-4). Retrieved 8 September 2013.
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