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The Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
is a 2.27-mile (3.65 km)-long[1] light rail/streetcar tunnel in San Francisco, California. The tunnel runs under the Twin Peaks and is used by the K Ingleside/T Third Street, L Taraval, M Ocean View, and S Castro Shuttle
S Castro Shuttle
lines of the Muni Metro system.

Contents

1 History and background

1.1 Rail replacement project

2 See also 3 References 4 External links

History and background[edit]

The (now replaced) east portal of the Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
in February 1967

The tunnel was opened on February 3, 1918,[1] and was the world's longest of its kind at the time.[2] The eastern entrance to the tunnel is located near the intersection of Market and Castro streets in the Castro neighborhood, and the western entrance is located at West Portal
Portal
Avenue and Ulloa Street in the West Portal
Portal
neighborhood. The service through the tunnel has evolved from streetcars into light rail, and while there are longer light-rail tunnels elsewhere (such as Portland's Robertson Tunnel), the Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
remains one of the world's longest streetcar or light-rail tunnels.[citation needed] There are two stations along the tunnel, Forest Hill near the western end, and the now disused Eureka station
Eureka station
near the eastern end. When the Muni Metro
Muni Metro
system and Market Street Subway
Market Street Subway
were built, they were connected to the Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
to be used by the K Ingleside, L Taraval
L Taraval
and M Ocean View
M Ocean View
lines. The Eureka station
Eureka station
was closed, and the Metro lines stop at the nearby Castro Street Station
Castro Street Station
instead.The original eastern entrance to the tunnel in the middle of Market Street at Castro was removed and new entrances were placed on the sides of the street further up the block, though no Metro or streetcar lines use them in regular service (they were used during construction of the Market Street subway and are occasionally used in non-revenue service such as rerouting trains around construction projects). Instead, trains continue directly from the Market Street Subway
Market Street Subway
into the tunnel without going above ground.

The former West Portal
Portal
streetcar stop in 1967, prior to conversion to light rail.

Forest Hill and Eureka stations were originally constructed with low platforms, as streetcars of that era had steps to load passengers from street level. However, the six new Market Street Subway
Market Street Subway
stations were built with high-level platforms for speedier level boarding onto the new Boeing LRVs. West Portal
Portal
station, which was originally a surface stop outside of the tunnel's western entrance, was rebuilt as a high-platform station located just inside of the entrance. With Eureka station permanently closed, Forest Hill was left as the only low-platform station on the Muni Metro
Muni Metro
subway. Muni soon modified the station with high-level platforms, with completion in 1985.[3] Rail replacement project[edit] Around 2014, with the tunnel nearing a century of continuous use, Muni began planning a major track replacement project in the tunnel - the first since 1975.[4] The project includes the replacement of all rails and ties in the tunnel with new rails directly fixed to concrete pads, the installation of two pairs of crossovers (one near West Portal, the other just east of Forest Hill), replacement of existing switches to the unused eastern portals, a structural refit of the former Eureka station area, replacement of the overhead wires, and a number of other repairs and improvements.[5] The work will lift an existing 25 miles per hour (40 km/h) speed limit through the tunnel. Noise reduction techniques from a similar project on the Sunset Tunnel
Sunset Tunnel
in 2016 will be used.[6]

West Portal
Portal
station, the western tunnel entrance, seen in 2017.

The construction contract was awarded on April 5, 2016.[4] The project was originally planned to begin in late 2016, but has suffered a series of delays. It was delayed from April 2017 to mid-2017 (with a completion date of mid-2018) in March 2017 to allow for "additional technical analysis" of the tunnel.[7] In June 2017, the project was indefinitely delayed after the construction contract was terminated.[8] Muni and the contractor could not agree on a new schedule and costs to minimize disruptions to riders; the project duration increased from 460 days to 807 days and the cost to $48 million, and Muni staff recommended the contract be terminated.[9] The SFMTA released a Request for Qualifications in October 2017, and bidding opened for the $35.5 million project in November.[10][11] See also[edit]

Sunset Tunnel

References[edit]

^ a b c Wallace, Kevin (March 27, 1949). " San Francisco
San Francisco
History - City's Tunnels". San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle. Retrieved July 14, 2008.  ^ "Twin Peaks tunnel opens". San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle. February 4, 2009. Retrieved February 1, 2018.  ^ "Chapter 1". Muni Metro
Muni Metro
Turnaround Project: Final Enivironmental Impact Statement. United States DEpartment of Transportation Urban Mass Transportation Administration. August 1989. p. 1-2 – via Internet Archive.  ^ a b " Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
Contract Awarded" (Press release). San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. April 28, 2016.  ^ San Francisco
San Francisco
Planning Department (February 13, 2015). "CEQA Categorical Exemption Determination" (PDF). San Francisco
San Francisco
Municipal Transportation Agency. pp. 5–6.  ^ " Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
Improvements". San Francisco
San Francisco
Municipal Transportation Agency. Retrieved November 30, 2017.  ^ " Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
Construction Held Until Summer" (Press release). San Francisco
San Francisco
Municipal Transportation Agency. March 16, 2017.  ^ " Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
Construction Delayed" (Press release). San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency. June 6, 2017.  ^ Chinn, Jerold (January 16, 2018). "Years of delay haunt Muni tunnel projects". SFBay.  ^ "Bid Document". City and County of San Francisco. October 17, 2017.  ^ "Bid Document". City and County of San Francisco. November 2017. 

External links[edit] Media related to Twin Peaks Tunnel
Twin Peaks Tunnel
at Wikimedia Commons

Silent film by SF real estate company of construction of tunnel (1914-17)

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San Francisco
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Municipal Railway

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Muni Metro
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Heritage streetcar
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Other Muni services

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List of defunct bus and rail lines

Projects

Completed

J to Balboa Park (1991) Muni Metro
Muni Metro
Extension (1998) F to Pier 39 (2000) Third Street Light Rail Project
Third Street Light Rail Project
(2007)

Current

Central Subway
Central Subway
(2019) Van Ness Bus Rapid Transit
Van Ness Bus Rapid Transit
(2019)

Future

Fort Mason Tunnel Geary Bus Rapid Transit Subway Expansion Project

Connecting services

AC Transit  Amtrak Thruway Bus Services  BART California
California
Shuttle Bus  Caltrain  Golden Gate Ferry Golden Gate Transit Greyhound Lines PresidiGo   San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Ferry  SamTrans SolTrans WestCAT

Agencies and organizations

San Francisco
San Francisco
Municipal Transportation Agency Market Street Railway

Miscellaneous

Muni vehicle fleet Key System Market Street Railway Clipper Category for related articles

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Tunnels in the San Francisco
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Central Fort Mason Market (upper level) Sunset Twin Peaks

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