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The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII), is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.

Contents

1 Rulers

1.1 Amenemhat I
Amenemhat I
and Senusret I 1.2 Senusret III 1.3 Amenemhat III

2 Ancient Egyptian literature 3 See also 4 References

Rulers[edit] Known rulers of the Twelfth Dynasty are as follows:[1]

Dynasty XII pharaohs of Egypt

Name of King Horus (Throne) Name Date Pyramid Queen(s)

Amenemhat I Sehetepibre 1991 – 1962 BC Pyramid of Amenemhet I Queen Neferitatjenen

Senusret I
Senusret I
( Sesostris
Sesostris
I) Kheperkare 1971 – 1926 BC Pyramid of Senusret I Queen Neferu III

Amenemhat II Nubkhaure 1929 – 1895 BC White Pyramid Queen Kaneferu Queen Keminub?

Senusret II
Senusret II
( Sesostris
Sesostris
II) Khakheperre 1897 – 1878 BC Pyramid at El-Lahun Queen Khenemetneferhedjet I Queen Nofret II Queen Itaweret? Queen Khnemet

Senusret III
Senusret III
( Sesostris
Sesostris
III) Khakaure 1878 – 1839 BC Pyramid at Dahshur Queen Meretseger Queen Neferthenut Queen Khnemetneferhedjet II Queen Sithathoriunet

Amenemhat III Nimaatre 1860 – 1814 BC Black Pyramid; Pyramid at Hawara Queen Aat Queen Hetepi Queen Khenemetneferhedjet III

Amenemhat IV Maakherure 1815 – 1806 BC Southern Mazghuna pyramid
Southern Mazghuna pyramid
(conjectural)

Queen Sobekneferu Sobekkare 1806 – 1802 BC Northern Mazghuna pyramid
Northern Mazghuna pyramid
(conjectural)

The chronology of the 12th dynasty is the most stable of any period before the New Kingdom. The Ramses Papyrus
Papyrus
canon (1290 BC) in Turin gives 213 years (1991–1778 BC). Manetho stated that it was based in Thebes, but from contemporary records it is clear that the first king moved its capital to a new city named "Amenemhat-itj-tawy" ("Amenemhat the Seizer of the Two Lands"), more simply called Itjtawy. The location of Itjtawy
Itjtawy
has not been found, but is thought to be near the Fayyum, probably near the royal graveyards at el-Lisht. Egyptologists consider this dynasty to be the apex of the Middle Kingdom. The order of its rulers is well known from several sources — two lists recorded at temples in Abydos and one at Saqqara, as well as Manetho's work. A recorded date during the reign of Senusret III
Senusret III
can be correlated to the Sothic cycle,[2] consequently many events during this dynasty can be frequently assigned to a specific year. Amenemhat I
Amenemhat I
and Senusret I[edit] This dynasty was founded by Amenemhat I, who may have been vizier to the last pharaoh of Dynasty XI, Mentuhotep IV. His armies campaigned south as far as the Second Cataract
Second Cataract
of the Nile and into southern Canaan. He also reestablished diplomatic relations with the Canaanite state of Byblos
Byblos
and Hellenic rulers in the Aegean Sea. His son Senusret I
Senusret I
followed his father's triumphs with an expedition south to the Third Cataract, but the next rulers were content to live in peace until the reign of Senusret III. Senusret III[edit] Finding Nubia
Nubia
had grown restive under the previous rulers, Senusret sent punitive expeditions into that land; he also sent an expedition into the Levant. These military campaigns gave birth to a legend of a mighty warrior named Sesostris, a story retold by Manetho, Herodotus, and Diodorus Siculus. Manetho claimed the mythical Sesostris
Sesostris
not only subdued the lands as had Senusret I, but also conquered parts of Canaan
Canaan
and had crossed over into Europe to annex Thrace. However, there are no records of the time, either in Egyptian or other contemporary writings that support these claims. Amenemhat III[edit] Senusret's successor Amenemhat III
Amenemhat III
reaffirmed his predecessor's foreign policy. However, after Amenemhat, the energies of this dynasty were largely spent, and the growing troubles of government were left to the dynasty's last ruler, Queen Sobekneferu, to resolve. Amenemhat was remembered for the mortuary temple at Hawara
Hawara
that he built, known to Herodotus, Diodorus, and Strabo
Strabo
as the "Labyrinth". Also under his reign the marshy Fayyum
Fayyum
was first exploited. Ancient Egyptian literature[edit]

Stele of Abkau

It was during the twelfth dynasty that Ancient Egyptian literature
Ancient Egyptian literature
was refined. Perhaps the best known work from this period is The Story of Sinuhe, of which several hundred papyrus copies have been recovered. Also written during this dynasty were a number of Didactic works, such as the Instructions of Amenemhat
Instructions of Amenemhat
and The Tale of the Eloquent Peasant. Pharaohs of Dynasties XII through XVIII are also credited with preserving for us some of the most remarkable Egyptian papyri:

1900 BC – Prisse Papyrus 1800 BC – Berlin Papyrus 1800 BC – Moscow Mathematical Papyrus 1650 BC – Rhind Mathematical Papyrus 1600 BC – Edwin Smith papyrus 1550 BC – Ebers papyrus

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Works of the 12th dynasty of Egypt.

History of Ancient Egypt Twelfth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree Execration Texts

References[edit]

^ Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004 ^ Parker, Richard A., "The Sothic Dating of the Twelfth and Eighteenth Dynasties," in Studies in Honor of George R. Hughes, 1977 [1]

Preceded by Eleventh Dynasty Dynasty of Egypt 1991 − 1802 BCE Succeeded by Thirte

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