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Tuva
Tuva
(Russian: Тува́) or Tyva (Tuvan: Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, tr. Respublika Tyva, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva]; Tuvan: Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika, [tʰɯˈʋa resˈpʰuplika]), is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).[12] The Tuvan republic lies at the geographical center of Asia, in southern Siberia. The republic borders the Altai Republic, the Republic of Khakassia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, and the Republic of Buryatia
Republic of Buryatia
in Russia
Russia
and Mongolia
Mongolia
to the south. Its capital is the city of Kyzyl. It has a population of 307,930 (2010 census).[7] From 1921 to 1944, Tuva
Tuva
constituted a sovereign, independent nation under the name of Tannu Tuva, officially, the Tuvan People's Republic, or the People's Republic of Tannu Tuva. The independence of Tannu Tuva, however, was recognized only by its neighbors: the Soviet Union and Mongolia.[13] A majority of the population are ethnic Tuvans
Tuvans
who speak Tuvan as their native tongue, while Russian is spoken natively by the Russian minority; both are official and widely understood in the republic. Tuva
Tuva
is governed by the Great Khural, which elects a chairman for a four-year term. The current chairman is Sholban Kara-ool.[citation needed]

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Biosphere reserve 2.2 Rivers 2.3 Lakes 2.4 Mountains 2.5 Natural resources 2.6 Climate

3 Administrative divisions 4 Demographics

4.1 Vital statistics 4.2 Ethnic groups 4.3 Religion

5 Politics 6 Economy 7 Tourism

7.1 Popular places

8 Transportation 9 Culture 10 Sports 11 Education 12 Miscellanea 13 See also 14 References 15 Sources 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Tuva See also: History of the Tuvan people

Map of the Tuva
Tuva
Republic.

The territory of Tuva
Tuva
has been controlled by the Xiongnu
Xiongnu
Empire (209 BC–93 AD) and Mongolian Xianbei state
Xianbei state
(93–234), Rouran Khaganate (330–555), Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368), Northern Yuan
Northern Yuan
(1368–1691), Khotgoid Khanate
Khotgoid Khanate
and Zunghar Khanate
Zunghar Khanate
(1634–1758).[14] Medieval Mongol tribes, including Oirats
Oirats
and Tumeds, inhabited areas which are now part of the Tuvan republic.[14] From 1758–1911 it was part of Mongolia
Mongolia
which was under Manchu rule itself. During the 1911 revolution in China, Tsarist Russia
Russia
formed a separatist movement among the Tuvans. Tsar Nicholas II ordered Russian troops into Tuva
Tuva
in 1912, as Russian settlers were allegedly being attacked. Tuva
Tuva
became nominally independent as the Urjanchai Republic before being brought under Russian protectorate as Uryankhay Kray under Tsar Nicholas II, on April 17, 1914.[citation needed] A Tuvan capital was established, called Belotsarsk (Белоца́рск; literally, "(Town) of the White Tsar"). Meanwhile, in 1911 Mongolia
Mongolia
became independent, though under Russian protection. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917
Russian Revolution of 1917
that ended the imperial autocracy, most of Tuva
Tuva
was occupied from July 5, 1918 to July 15, 1919 by Aleksandr Kolchak's "White" Russian troops. Pyotr Ivanovich Turchaninov was named the governor of the territory. In the autumn of 1918, the southwestern part was occupied by Chinese troops and the southern part by Mongol troops led by Khatanbaatar Magsarjav.[citation needed] From July 1919 to February 1920 the communist Red Army
Red Army
controlled Tuva, but from February 19, 1920 to June 1921 it was occupied by China
China
(governor was Yan Shichao [traditional, Wade–Giles transliteration: Yan Shi-ch'ao]). On August 14, 1921, the Bolsheviks established a Tuvan People's Republic, popularly called Tannu-Tuva. In 1926, the capital (Belotsarsk; Khem-Beldyr since 1918) was renamed Kyzyl, meaning "red". Tuva
Tuva
was de jure an independent state between the World Wars. The state's first ruler, Prime Minister Donduk, sought to strengthen ties with Mongolia
Mongolia
and establish Buddhism as the state religion. This unsettled the Kremlin, which orchestrated a coup carried out in 1929 by five young Tuvan graduates of Moscow's Communist University of the Toilers of the East.[citation needed] In 1930, the pro-Soviet regime discarded the state's Mongol script in favor of a Latin alphabet designed for Tuva
Tuva
by Russian linguists. In, 1943 Cyrillic script replaced Latin. Under the leadership of Party Secretary Salchak Toka, ethnic Russians
Russians
were granted full citizenship rights and Buddhist and Mongol influences on the Tuvan state and society were systematically reduced.[15] Tuva
Tuva
voluntarily became a part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1944, with the approval of Tuva's Little Khural (parliament). The exact circumstances surrounding Tannu-Tuva's incorporation into the USSR in 1944 remain obscure. Salchak Toka, the leader of Tuvan communists, was given the title of First Secretary of the Tuvan Communist Party and became the de facto ruler of Tuva
Tuva
until his death in 1973. Tuva
Tuva
became the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast and, later, Tuva
Tuva
ASSR, on October 10, 1961.[citation needed]

Russian President Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in Tuva

In February 1990, the Tuvan Democratic Movement was founded by Kaadyr-ool Bicheldei, a philologist at Kyzyl
Kyzyl
University. The party aimed to provide jobs and housing (both were in short supply), and also to improve the status of Tuvan language
Tuvan language
and culture. Later in the year year, there was a wave of attacks against Tuva's sizeable Russian community, including sniper attacks on trucks and attacks on outlying settlements with 168 murdered.[16] Russian troops eventually were called in. Many Russians
Russians
moved out of the republic during this period. To this day, Tuva
Tuva
remains remote and difficult to access.[17] Tuva
Tuva
was a signatory to the March 31, 1992 treaty that created the Russian Federation. A new constitution for the republic was drawn up on October 22, 1993. This created a 32-member parliament (Supreme Khural) and a Grand Khural, which is responsible for foreign policy and any possible changes to the constitution, and ensures that Tuvan law is given precedence. The constitution also allowed for a referendum if Tuva
Tuva
ever sought independence. This constitution was passed by 53.9% (or 62.2%, according to another source) of Tuvans
Tuvans
in a referendum on December 12, 1993.[18] At the same time, the official name was changed from Tuva
Tuva
(Тува) to Tyva (Тыва).[citation needed] Geography[edit]

The geographic "center of Asia", 2015

The republic is situated in the far south of Siberia. Its capital city of Kyzyl
Kyzyl
is located near the geographic "center of Asia". The eastern part of the republic is forested and elevated, and the west is a drier lowland.

Borders:

internal: Republic of Khakassia
Republic of Khakassia
(NW/N), Krasnoyarsk Krai
Krasnoyarsk Krai
(N), Irkutsk Oblast (N/NE), Republic of Buryatia
Republic of Buryatia
(E), Altai Republic
Altai Republic
(SW/W) international: Mongolia
Mongolia
(S) (border line length: 1,305 kilometers (811 mi))

Highest point: Mount Mongun-Tayga, 3,970 meters (13,020 ft) Maximum N–S distance: 450 kilometers (280 mi) Maximum E–W distance: over 700 kilometers (430 mi) Area: 170,427 square kilometers (65,802 sq mi)

Biosphere reserve[edit]

Ubsunur Hollow

Ubsunur Hollow
Ubsunur Hollow
is a biosphere reserve, an environmentally protected zone and a top attraction.[19]

Rivers[edit] There are over 8,000 rivers in the republic. The area includes the upper course of the Yenisei River, the fifth longest river in the world. Most of the republic's rivers are Yenisei tributaries. There are also numerous mineral springs in the area. Major rivers include:

Yenisei River
Yenisei River
(also called Ulug-Khem) Kantegir River Khemchik River Maly Yenisei River
Yenisei River
(also called Ka-Khem or Kaa-Khem) Upper Yenisei River
Yenisei River
(also called Biy-Khem or Bii-Khem)

Lakes[edit] There are numerous lakes in Tuva, many of which are glacial and salt lakes, including Todzha Lake, a.k.a. Azas Lake (100 km²) – the largest in the republic, and Uvs Lake
Uvs Lake
(shared with Mongolia
Mongolia
and a World Heritage Site). Mountains[edit]

Little Yenisey in Tuva.

The area of the republic is a mountain basin, about 600 m high, encircled by the Sayan and Tannu-Ola ranges. Mountains and hills cover over 80% of the territory. Mongun-Tayga ("Silver Mountain", 3,970 m) is the highest point in the republic and is named after its glacier.[citation needed] Natural resources[edit] Major natural mineral resources of Tuva
Tuva
include coal, iron ore, gold, and cobalt. Fauna include sable, lynx, wolverine, weasel, maral, Siberian ibex, musk deer, bears, snow leopards, ground squirrels, flying foxes, and eagles.[citation needed] Climate[edit]

Average January temperature: −32 °C (−26 °F) Average July temperature: +18 °C (64 °F) Average annual precipitation: 150 millimeters (5.9 in) (plains) to 1,000 millimeters (39 in) (mountains) Much of the territory is affected by permafrost.

Administrative divisions[edit]

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Main article: Administrative divisions of the Tuva
Tuva
Republic The Tuva
Tuva
Republic is administratively divided into seventeen districts and two cities under republic jurisdiction (urban okrugs) ( Kyzyl
Kyzyl
and Ak-Dovurak). The districts are further subdivided into sumons (rural settlements), towns under district jurisdiction (urban settlements), and urban-type settlements. Demographics[edit] Population: 307,930 (2010 Census);[7] 305,510 (2002 Census);[20] 309,129 (1989 Census).[21] Vital statistics[edit]

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service[22]

Years Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates

1970 233 6,559 1,938 4,621 28.2 8.3 19.8

1975 253 6,950 2,306 4,644 27.5 9.1 18.4

1980 272 7,133 2,748 4,385 26.2 10.1 16.1

1985 287 8,110 2,624 5,486 28.3 9.1 19.1

1990 309 8,116 2,664 5,452 26.3 8.6 17.7 3.22

1991 304 7,271 2,873 4,398 23.9 9.5 14.5 2.97

1992 303 6,545 3,006 3,539 21.6 9.9 11.7 2.68

1993 302 6,130 3,480 2,650 20.3 11.5 8.8 2.50

1994 303 6,076 4,086 1,990 20.1 13.5 6.6 2.46

1995 304 6,172 4,010 2,162 20.3 13.2 7.1 2.47

1996 305 5,705 4,110 1,595 18.7 13.5 5.2 2.25

1997 305 4,908 3,954 954 16.1 12.9 3.1 1.91

1998 306 5,267 3,631 1,636 17.2 11.9 5.4 2.02

1999 306 4,894 4,142 752 16.0 13.5 2.5 1.86

2000 306 4,871 4,170 701 15.9 13.6 2.3 1.83

2001 305 4,992 4,165 827 16.3 13.6 2.7 1.85

2002 305 5,727 4,576 1,151 18.8 15.0 3.8 2.10

2003 305 6,276 4,633 1,643 20.6 15.2 5.4 2.28

2004 304 6,127 4,090 2,037 20.2 13.5 6.7 2.19

2005 303 5,979 4,326 1,653 19.8 14.3 5.5 2.11

2006 302 5,950 3,802 2,148 19.7 12.6 7.1 2.06

2007 302 7,568 3,687 3,881 25.1 12.2 12.9 2.60

2008 303 7,874 3,526 4,348 26.0 11.6 14.3 2.68

2009 305 8,242 3,666 4,576 27.0 12.0 15.0 2.97

2010 307 8,262 3,566 4,696 26.9 11.6 15.3 3.03

2011 308 8,478 3,403 5,075 27.5 11.0 16.5 3.25

2012 310 8,266 3,471 4,795 26.7 11.2 15.5 3.35

2013 311 8,111 3,399 4,728 26.1 10.9 15.2 3.42

2014 313 7,921 3,419 4,502 25.3 10.9 14.4 3.49

2015 315 7,489 3,258 4,231 23.7 10.3 13.4 3,39

2016 317 7,421 3,112 4,309 23.4 9.8 13.6 3,42(e)

2017 320 6,977 2,788 4,189 21.8 8.7 13.1

Average life expectancy: Tuva: 56.5 (average male and female, UNDP data); Russia: (UN data) Male 59 (world rank 166); Female 73 (127)

Ethnic groups[edit] According to the 2010 Census,[7] Tuvans
Tuvans
make up 82.0% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians
Russians
(16.3%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic group 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census 2010 census1

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Tuvans 97,996 57.0% 135,306 58.6% 161,888 60.5% 198,448 64.3% 235,313 77.0% 249,299 82.0%

Russians 68,924 40.1% 88,385 38.3% 96,793 36.2% 98,831 32.0% 61,442 20.1% 49,434 16.3%

Khakas 1,726 1.0% 2,120 0.9% 2,193 0.8% 2,258 0.7% 1,219 0.4% 877 0.3%

Others 3,282 1.9% 5,053 2.2% 6,725 2.5% 9,020 2.9% 7,526 2.5% 4,427 1.4%

18,689 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[23] As can be seen above, during the period 1959–2010 there has been more than a doubling of ethnic Tuvans. The Russian population growth slowed by the 1980s and decreased by 50% since 1989. The official languages are Tuvan (Turkic) and Russian (Slavic). Outside Kyzyl, settlements have few if any Russian inhabitants and, in general, Tuvans
Tuvans
use their original language as their first language. However, there is a small population of Old Believers
Old Believers
in the republic scattered in some of the most isolated areas. Before Soviet rule, there were a number of large ethnic Russian Old Believer villages, but as the atheist ideology crept in, the believers moved deeper and deeper into the Taiga
Taiga
in order to avoid contact with outsiders. Major Old Believer villages are Erzhei, Uzhep, Unzhei, Zhivei and Bolee Malkiye (all in the Kaa-Khemsky District). Smaller ultra-Orthodox settlements are found further upstream.[24] Ethnic Russians
Russians
make up 38.68% of the population (as of 2002 Census) in Kaa-Khemsky District, one of the most remote regions in Tuva. The population is mostly Old Believers.[25] Russians
Russians
account for 34.12% of the population in Piy-Khemsky and 19.80% in Todzhinsky. In Kyzyl, they account for 37.02%.[citation needed] Religion[edit]

Buddhist temple of Kyzyl
Kyzyl
(Цеченлиң/Tsechenling).

Religion in Tuva
Tuva
as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[26][27]

Russian Orthodoxy

0.8%

Protestantism

1.4%

Other Christians

1.4%

Buddhism

61.8%

Rodnovery
Rodnovery
and other native faiths

8%

Spiritual but not religious

7.6%

Atheism
Atheism
and irreligion

11.8%

Other and undeclared

7.2%

Two religions are widespread among the people of Tuva: Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
and shamanism. Tibetan Buddhism's present-day spiritual leader is Tenzin Gyatso, the fourteenth Dalai Lama. In September 1992, the fourteenth Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
visited Tuva
Tuva
for three days.[28] On September 20, he blessed and consecrated the new yellow-blue-white flag of Tuva, which had been officially adopted three days previously.[29] The Tuvan people
Tuvan people
– along with the Yellow Uyghurs
Yellow Uyghurs
in China
China
– are one of the only two Turkic groups who are mainly adherents to Tibetan Buddhism, combined with native shamanism.[30] During the 16th and 17th centuries, Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
gained popularity in Tuva. An increasing number of new and restored temples are coming into use, as well as novices being trained as monks and lamas. Religious practice declined under the restrictive policies of the Soviet period but is now flourishing.[31][32] Shamanism
Shamanism
is being revived as well, also in organized Tengrian forms. As of a 2012 survey 61.8% of the population of Tuva
Tuva
adheres to Buddhism, 8% to Tengrism
Tengrism
or Tuvan shamanism, 1.5% to the Russian Orthodox Church, the Old Believers
Old Believers
or other forms of Christianity, 1% to Protestantism. In addition, 7.7% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey, 8% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious" and 12% to be atheist.[26]

Politics[edit]

Building of the Government of Tuva.

The head of the government in Tuva
Tuva
is the Chairman of the Government, who is elected for a four-year term. The first Chairman of the Government was Sherig-ool Oorzhak. As of 2007, the Chairman of the Government was Sholban Kara-ool. Tuva's legislature, the Great Khural, has 162 seats; each deputy is elected to serve a four-year term. The present flag of Tuva – yellow for prosperity, blue for courage and strength, white for purity – was adopted on September 17, 1992. The Republic's Constitution was adopted on October 23, 1993. On April 3, 2007, Russian president Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
nominated Sholban Kara-ool, 40, a former champion wrestler, as the Chairman of the Government of Tuva.[33] Sholban Kara-ool's candidacy was approved by the Khural on April 9, 2007.[34] Economy[edit]

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A coal mine in Tuva

Tuva
Tuva
has a developing mining industry (coal, cobalt, gold, and more). Food processing, timber, and metal working industries are also well-developed. Most of the industrial production is concentrated in the capital Kyzyl
Kyzyl
and in Ak-Dovurak. According to the HDI, the republic of Tuva
Tuva
is the least developed region in Russia. Tourism[edit]

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Tuva
Tuva
is a region with a unique history, culture, and nature. All native zones of the Earth except savanna (even rainforest, see Southern Siberian rainforest) are featured in Tuva. There are more than 100 mineral springs in Tuva. The biggest of which are the warm mineral springs Ush-Beldir and Tarys, the temperature of the water is 52-85 °C. Cold mineral springs and salt lakes are popular among tourists and the general population for their medicinal qualities. The geographical location of Tuva
Tuva
between the east-Siberian taiga and central-Asian landscape engenders a wealth of flora and fauna. Popular places[edit]

Highest Mountain: Mongun-Taiga Healing Resort: "Ush-Beldir" Azas Lake Mineral Springs: "Choigan" and Nogaan-Khol Ethno-Cultural Park: "Aldyn-Bulak" Healing Lake: "Dus-Khol"

Transportation[edit] Tuva
Tuva
does not have a railway, although famous postage stamps in the 1930s, designed in Moscow
Moscow
during the time of Tuvan independence, mistakenly depict locomotives as demonstrating Soviet-inspired progress there. [35] Culture[edit]

Wrestling competition in stadium "Хүреш" (from Tuvan, a reversed spelling of "Khuresh").

A yurt in Tos Bulak.

Khuresh, the Tuvan form of wrestling, is a very popular sport. Competitions are held at the annual Naadym
Naadym
festival at Tos-Bulak. Tuva has a rich cultural potential, which provides the population with wide access to cultural values, knowledge, and information. An important feature is the high safety of traditional culture, successfully developing professional art.[36] The Tuvan people
Tuvan people
are traditionally a Central Asian nomadic culture. Tuva
Tuva
is an agrarian republic. The main branch of agriculture is livestock breeding (mainly sheep breeding and meat and dairy cattle breeding); also goat breeding and horse breeding are developed. In the tundra, reindeer are bred, in the mountains - yaks, south, in the semi-desert - camels. Tuva
Tuva
has a rich historical heritage and a preserved ethnic culture among the local population. Tuvan music features the world famous Tuvan throat singing (khoomei). This type of singing can be heard, in particular, during the performances of the Tuva
Tuva
National Orchestra.[37] Sainkho Namtchylak
Sainkho Namtchylak
is one of a few singers from Tuva
Tuva
to have an international following. Namtchylak is also very involved with Tuvan culture. Every year, she invites Western musicians to perform in Kyzyl and to learn about the republic, its culture, and its music. In recent years, Kongar-ool Ondar
Kongar-ool Ondar
has become well known in the West as well, in large part because of the film Genghis Blues
Genghis Blues
featuring Ondar and American blues singer Paul Pena. Huun-Huur-Tu
Huun-Huur-Tu
has been one of the most well known Tuvan music ensembles since the late 1990s, while the Alash ensemble came to prominence in the early 2000s.[citation needed] The Tuvan language
Tuvan language
is Turkic, although with many loan-words from Mongolian. It is currently written with a modified Cyrillic alphabet, previously used Turkic runes, later Mongolian, then Latin alphabets. Then, Tuva
Tuva
was administered as part of Outer Mongolia, and the language difference was a determining factor in Tuva
Tuva
seeking full independence from Outer Mongolia, following the collapse of the Qing dynasty of China
China
in 1911.[citation needed] Tuva
Tuva
is one of the few places in the world wherein the original form is preserved shamanism part of the traditional culture of Tuva. Shamanism
Shamanism
presupposes the existence of good and evil spirits inhabiting mountains, forests and water, the heavens and the underworld. The mediator between man and the spirits of the shaman. It is believed that with the help of spirits the shaman is able to cure patient, to predict the future.[37] In Tuva, shamanism peacefully coexists with Buddhism. Buddhism
Buddhism
is associated with many folk rituals, calendar holidays, and folk medicines in Tuva. Centers of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tuva
Tuva
are Khuree – temples, temple complexes. The temple complex Tsechenling in Kyzyl
Kyzyl
– the residence of Kamba-Lama, head of Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tuva. Treasures of the old Slavonic culture in the Asian Tuva
Tuva
saved along with the values of other peoples – children's folklore ensemble "Oktay" from the city of Kyzyl
Kyzyl
in the course several ethnographic expeditions In the old believers ' settlements were able to collect and record of conservatives extensive collection of samples of ancient singing art.[37] The traditional culture of Tuvans
Tuvans
is as Yurt-dwelling nomads, and national cuisine and folk arts and the craft, among which a special place is carving soft stone (agalmatolite). And of course, the archeology of Tuva. Excavations archaeologists of ancient burial mounds bring sometimes these discoveries, which for a long time determined in the excitement of the whole scientific world. So, the symbol of ancient Tuva
Tuva
became coagulated ring amazing beauty of bronze panther VIII century BC, discovered in the excavation of barrow Arzhaan-1. Rich a Scythian burial was discovered in 2001, during the excavation of barrow Arzhaan-2. Collection of gold jewelry from this burial is demonstrated now in the specialized hall of the National Museum Aldan-Maadyr in Kyzyl.[37] The development of the cultural potential of the region is facilitated by the organization of festivals aimed at expanding interregional and international cooperation aimed at strengthening the image of the region, supporting cultural innovations: the ecological film festival "The Living Path of Dersu", the Interregional Festival of National Cultures "Heart of Asia". It has become a tradition to hold the international festival of live music "Ustuu-Khuree", the International Symposium "Khoomei - the Phenomenon of the Culture of the Peoples of Central Asia", the Regional Competition-Festival of Performers on National Instruments "Dingildai", the International Felt Festival "Patterns of Life on Felt" Pop songs "Melodies of the Sayan Mountains".[36] Sports[edit] Bandy
Bandy
is played in Tuva.[38] Education[edit] The most important facilities of higher education include the Tuvan State University and the Tuvan Institute of Humanities, both in the capital, Kyzyl.[citation needed] Miscellanea[edit]

Tuvan Stamp from 1927.

In the 1920s and 1930s, postage stamps from Tuva
Tuva
were issued. Many philatelists, including the physicist Richard Feynman, have been fascinated with Tuva
Tuva
because of these stamps. The stamps were issued mainly during the brief period of Tuvan independence and were not accepted by serious collectors until recently as they were thought to be produced in Moscow
Moscow
and not to represent a genuine postal service.[39]

Feynman's efforts to reach Tuva
Tuva
are chronicled in the book Tuva
Tuva
or Bust! and the video The Quest For Tannu Tuva: Richard Feynman
Richard Feynman
– The Last Journey of a Genius (1988) which can be viewed online on YouTube. Project Tuva was named in honor of his efforts.[citation needed]

Tuva
Tuva
was featured prominently in the award-winning documentary Genghis Blues. United Nations Human Development Index: Russian Federation – Republic of Tyva, rank: 79/79 (the lowest). Tuvan stamps are mentioned in a line of Gregory Corso's poem Marriage. Tuvan Sergey Shoygu, Russia's Minister of Defense, and previously Minister for Emergency Situations since 1994, is Russia's longest-serving minister, and a leader of Russia's governing party 'Unity'. Tuvans
Tuvans
make wishes each morning, sprinkling milk on the ground, to the north, south, east and west, with a special wooden spoon with nine small hollows for the various milk products made.[citation needed] According to Ilya Zakharov of Moscow's Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, genetic evidence suggests that the modern Tuvan people
Tuvan people
are the closest genetic relatives to the native peoples of North and South America.[40]

Russian Defense Minister Sergey Shoygu
Sergey Shoygu
in 2012.

Some Tuvans, even near Kyzyl, still live in traditional yurts, round, demountable and portable dwellings with sectional lath trellis walls, decorated pole roofs and covered with white felt and canvas, with colorful cloth lining. There is a central smoke-hole above the hearth or stove. It is used to tell the time as the sunlight moves around inside the yurt. The interior is arranged with the man's side to the left, the woman's to the right of the door facing East, with the altar cupboard facing that. Tuvans, as traditional nomads, knew no fixed national borders, which has led to small numbers being in areas outside the present Republic's boundaries, including as follows.

China
China
– Xinjiang: Tuwa people by Lake Kanas, Altay Prefecture. Russia
Russia
– Irkutsk Oblast: Tofa people adjacent to north-east Tuva; Buryatia: Soyot people of the Upper Oka river. Mongolia
Mongolia
– northern: Tsaatan people; north-western: Dukha/Duva people; western: Tsengel people.

The Sayan Mountains
Sayan Mountains
in Tuva
Tuva
were featured in Bear Grylls' Man vs Wild popular adventure TV show.[41]

Tuva
Tuva
in the ROC's official claimed maps.

Tuva's territorial boundaries is not recognized by Republic of China based in Taiwan
Taiwan
and its claimed by the ROC as part of the Mainland area.[42][citation needed]

See also[edit]

List of Tuvans Music of Tuva Altai-Sayan region

References[edit]

^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.). ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. ( Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ). ^ Official website of the Government of the Tuva
Tuva
Republic. Sholban Valeryevich Kara-ool (in Russian) ^ Constitution, Article 10.3 ^ Constitution, Article 10.2 ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All- Russia
Russia
Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.  ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia. ^ Constitution, Article 5.1 ^ "Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Constitution.ru. Retrieved February 22, 2018.  ^ Alatalu, Toomas (January 1, 1992). "Tuva. A State Reawakens". Soviet Studies. 44 (5): 881–95. doi:10.2307/152275. JSTOR 152275.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b History of Mongolia, Volume II, 2003. ^ "Tuva: Russia's Tibet or the Next Lithuania?". Retrieved February 22, 2018.  ^ Mark R. Beissinger, Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pg. 230 ^ "Tuva". Geographic Bureau — Siberia
Siberia
and Far East/Tuva. Retrieved May 4, 2016.  ^ ”Tyva republic approves own constitution”], BBC Monitoring Service, December 15, 1993. ^ "Top Attractions of Russia". Retrieved February 21, 2018.  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики" (in Russian). Gks.ru. May 8, 2010.  ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ [1] Archived September 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Староверы Республики Тыва. Фото" (in Russian). Rodonews.ru. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ a b "2012 Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". sreda.org; retrieved February 22, 2018. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), August 27, 2012; retrieved February 22, 2018. Arena Atlas Religion Maps (archived) ^ "Dalai Lama". Avantart.com. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ The World Encyclopedia of Flags; ISBN 1-84038-415-8 ^ "Russia's Daily Online". Kommersant. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ [2]Archived August 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Tyvans keen to protect traditions". BBC News. September 19, 2009. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ "Tuva-Online: New Head for Tuva
Tuva
Chosen by President Putin". En.tuvaonline.ru. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ "Tuva-Online: 40-year-old Head of Tuva
Tuva
Backed by Parliament". tuvaonline.ru. Retrieved December 22, 2017.  ^ "Tyva coal line PPP plan revised". Railway Gazette. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ a b "Культура Республики Тыва - Официальный портал Республики Тыва". gov.tuva.ru (in Russian). Retrieved July 24, 2017.  ^ a b c d "The Republic of TUVA, travel guide" (PDF). ИПК «ПЛАТИНА». 1: 50. 2016 – via ИПК «ПЛАТИНА».  ^ "Google Translate". bandynet.ru. Retrieved February 22, 2018.  ^ "Philately's Ugliest Ducklings: Rehabilitating the 1934–36 Issues of Tannu Tuva" at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived July 14, 2011) by James Negus
James Negus
at TTCS. Originally published in The Philatelic Journal, July–September 1960. ^ "Central Asian Origins of the Ancestor of First Americans", by I. Zakharov (in Russian) ^ "Man Vs Wild Siberia
Siberia
1–5". YouTube. November 27, 2008. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ The Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC), now based in Taiwan, is involved in territorial disputes with many governments bordering mainland China. Due to the One- China
China
policy, it has no formal diplomatic relations with any of these states. The ROC recognizes neither the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
(PRC) nor its border agreements or treaties with any other countries. Article 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of China
China
states that "The territory of the Republic of China
Republic of China
according to its existing national boundaries shall not be altered except by resolution of the National Assembly." Section 5 of Article 4 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China
Republic of China
now overrides this provision, with the power of the National Assembly to alter transferred to the Legislative Yuan and the electorate.

Sources[edit]

DONAHOE, Brian "Hey, you! Get offa my taiga!": Comparing the sense of property rights among the Tofa and Tozhu-Tyva. Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology working papers, nº 38. Halle/Saale: Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, 2002; ISSN 1615-4568 6 мая 2001 г. «Конституция Республики Тыва», в ред. Конституционного закона №748 ВХ-2 от 7 июля 2008 г. (May 6, 2001 Constitution of the Tyva Republic, as amended by the Constitutional Law #748 VKh-2 of July 7, 2008. ).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tuva.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tuva.

(in Russian) Official website of Tuva Tyva at Encyclopædia Britannica Photos from Tuva
Tuva
by Stanislav Krupar Research among the Tuvans
Tuvans
of South Siberia World Statesmen – Russia Singing Stones – The Republic of Tuva (in Russian) Website of Tuva (in Russian) Tuva
Tuva
in Russia.Travel (in English) Friends of Tuva
Tuva
website (in English) (in Japanese) Friends of Tuva, Japan (in English) Some Tuvan stamps issued in 1920s/1930s (in English) Genghis Blues, official movie site (in English) Animated slideshow presentations of Tuva (in English) (in Russian) (in Japanese) (in Esperanto)More complete collection of Tuvan Stamps (1926–1943) (in English) TyvaWiki:Main Page (in English) The Tuva
Tuva
Trader; Tuva
Tuva
and Richard Feynman
Richard Feynman
media, products and information (in English) Buga-shadara A traditional Tuvan boardgame Audio of the Tuvan national anthem recorded by the Tuvan National Orchestra. The orchestral arrangement was composed by Ayana Samiyaevna Mongush. (in Russian) (in Japanese) Map of Republic of Tuva
Tuva
(in Tuvan) Slavic-Eurasian Research Center at Hokkaido University Tuvan contribution to the Second World War, russian7.ru, April 2015; accessed February 21, 2018.(in Russian)

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