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The Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
was a period of papal history from 1012 to 1048 where three successive Counts of Tusculum
Counts of Tusculum
installed themselves as pope.

Contents

1 Background 2 History

2.1 Benedict VIII 2.2 John XIX 2.3 Benedict IX

3 Aftermath 4 Legacy 5 Notes 6 References

Background[edit] Main articles: Saeculum obscurum and Crescentii Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum, his wife Theodora, and daughter Marozia held great sway over the appointment of popes from 904 to 964. The lovers of Theodora and Marozia, as well as the son and grandson of Marozia, rose to the papacy during this period. However, a Count of Tusculum had not yet attempted to appoint himself as pope until 1012. Their rivals, the Crescentii
Crescentii
had taken over the papacy from 974 to 1012. According to Cushing, "in many ways, increasing respect for papal authority from the mid-tenth century to mid-eleventh centuries can be best viewed through the spectrum of two Roman families: the Crescentians and the Tusculans, whose control of the papacy would have important ramifications for both the control and direction of reform."[1] Both the Crescentii
Crescentii
and the Counts of Tusculum
Counts of Tusculum
were descended from Theophylact I, the former papal vestararius.[1] The Crescentii
Crescentii
had cooperated with German empress Theophanu
Theophanu
and Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, who resided in Rome from 999 to 1001.[1] The Tusculans did not expropriate church property to increase the already substantial holdings of their family; in fact, they appear to have expended their own resources to increase the power of the papacy.[2] According to Luscombe and Riley-Smith, "in contrast to the Crescentians, who had largely relied on the entrenchment of their own dynasty and their supporters in the duchy of Rome as secular magnates and landowners - often at the expense of the temporal power of the Roman church - the Tusculans used their secular power and successes to shore up the standing of the papacy among the Roman nobility. The position of Patrician, so important to Crescentian rule, remained vacant."[3] Abbot Odilo of Cluny
Odilo of Cluny
flourished during this period receiving support form Benedict VII and John XIX for monastic immunity.[2] The power of the Tusculan popes derived both from their assertions of papal supremacy and from their ability to balance power between the competing families of Rome.[4] The Counts of Tusculum
Counts of Tusculum
were centered at Tuscolo, above Frascati, protected by an ancient fortress in Borghetto; their principle monasteries were Grottaferrata
Grottaferrata
and Subiaco; they also controlled many churches and religious houses in and around Rome.[5] History[edit] Benedict VIII[edit]

Benedict VIII crowns Henry II

In 1012, Rome saw a violent political upheaval then ended Crescentii domination and elevated Theophylact, the son of Gregory I, Count of Tusculum, as Pope Benedict VIII
Pope Benedict VIII
(1012-1024).[2] Benedict VIII was a layman until his election.[2] However, during his papacy he was a strong proponent of papal supremacy and frequently interfered in ecclesiastical matters on the Italian peninsula outside Rome.[2] Benedict VIII's brother, Romanus, was the city prefect ("Senator of all the Romans".[2][5] His other brother, Alberic, was a Consul and Senator ("consul et dux").[5][6] Alberic was responsible for overseeing courts of justice in the Imperial Palatinate, near Santa Sabina.[7] Gregory I had been a figure in the court of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor as the "naval prefect" and Alberic had been the "master of the imperial palace."[5] Other Roman families still held important offices: the Stefaniani family held the prefecture of Rome and the Ottaviani retained the rectorate of Sabina.[8] Among Benedict VIII's first acts as pope was a military campaign against the strongholds of the Crescentii
Crescentii
around Rome.[2] The Crescenzi fortresses in Sabina were demolished.[8] The Crescentii faction set up a rival to Benedict VIII: Antipope
Antipope
Gregory VI (1012).[9] John Crescentius
John Crescentius
still remained the Prefect of Rome, but was soon dispossessed of much of his property.[6] Benedict VIII was an ally of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor; he called upon the emperor to visit Rome, which he did in late 1013 (spending Christmas in Pavia).[5][7] A synod convoked by the emperor deposed the archbishop of Ravenna, who was replaced with Arnulf, a half-brother.[5] Benedict VIII and the emperor met in Ravenna, and then proceeded to Rome (with the emperor arriving later).[10] Benedict VIII confirmed his privileges at Bamberg
Bamberg
and crowned him on February 14, 1014 as emperor, in a ceremony in Old Saint Peter's Basilica.[2][10] These twelve people calling themselves the Senate of Rome had doubtlessly consented to the coronation before it occurred.[11] Benedict VIII visited Henry II in Bamberg
Bamberg
in 1020 (where he celebrated Easter), and the emperor came to Italy the following year.[12][13] In Bamberg, Henry issued the Henricianum, which repeated the Diploma Ottonianum, which itself had repeated donations of land which date back to the Frankish Papacy.[3] The Henricianum, as much as the forged "Donation of Constantine", played a central role in papal territorial and sovereignty claims in the coming centuries.[3] Just as Henry II was promising the pope this territory, the pope was being deprived of nearly all of his temporal power by the armies of John Patricius, and competing hereditary counts had "sprung up on both sides of the Tiber."[14] While the Tusculans remained strong in the Latin mountains, the Counts of Segni
Counts of Segni
controlled Campagna, the Crescentii
Crescentii
held Sabina, the Counts of Galeria controlled Tuscany, and Thrasmundus, Berardus, and Oderisius retained the Marsian territory as far as Subiaco.[15] According to Gregorovius, "of the dominions founded for them by the Carolingians the popes possessed little beyond the yellowed deeds of gift in their archives."[15] In 1016, a Pisan and Genoese fleet defeated the Arabs, in a victory which Benedict VIII may have something to do with; he also possibly schemed with the Normans
Normans
against the Byzantines in southern Italy.[13] Benedict VIII himself led an allied force against Mussetus, who escaped after the battle of Luni.[16] However, in 1018, Melo, the leader of the rebellion against the Greeks was defeated.[13] The Germans honored the Henricianum in 1022 by sending their own army to southern Italy.[13] In 1022, Benedict VIII held with Henry II a council in Ravenna which issued stringent prohibitions against clerical concubinage.[2] John XIX[edit] Benedict VIII's brother Romanus succeeded him as Pope
Pope
John XIX (1024-1032).[2] John XIX did not resign his secular titles ("senatorial dignity") upon his election as pope; documents would refer to him not as "Senator" but as "Count Palatine and Consul."[17] According to Cushing, John XIX was "somewhat less adept" than his brother in cooperating with Henry II's successor, Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor but was "by no means a puppet."[2] John XIX was open to rapprochement with Byzantine emperor Basil II
Basil II
and was willing to declare the patriarch of Constantinople an ecumenical bishop; the Italian bishops and congregation of Cluny, however, opposed such moves.[18] Benedict IX[edit] Pope
Pope
Benedict IX (1032-1044, 1045, 1047-1048) was the nephew of Benedict VIII and John XIX.[2] Norwood Young calls Benedict IX the "Nero of the Tusculan Papacy. Absolute power appears to paralyse the brain if applied at an early age."[19] According to Cushing, "the report of [his] crimes and deviance became ever more squalid as the latter reformers grew in power" but was for the first 12 years of his papacy "adequate and credible, if not perhaps immensely pious."[2] Another interpretation of his first twelve years is provided by successor Victor III:

Leading a life so shameful, so foul, so execrable that he shuddered to describe it. He ruled like a captain of banditti, rather than a prelate. Adulteries, homicides perpetrated by his own hand, passed unnoticed, unrevenged; for the patrician of the city, Gregory, was the brother of the Pope; and another brother, Peter, an active partisan [...] The oppressed people at length grew weary of his robberies, murders, and abominations. They rose and drove him from the city, and proceeded to the election of John Bishop of Sabina, who took the name Silvester III.[20]

By Autumn 1044, the position of Benedict IX was "seriously threatened" by the creation of Pope
Pope
Silvester III (1045).[4] In May 1045, Benedict IX resigned the papacy in favor of John Gratian, who became Pope Gregory VI (1045-1046).[4] Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
met Gregory VI in 1046 and received him favorably.[4] By December, however, Henry III had changed his mind and ordered Benedict IX, Silvester III, and Gregory VI to appear before him in a synod in Sutri.[4] Gregory VI was the only one to show up, and he was declared guilty of simony and deposed on December 20.[4] Silvester III had long since given up being pope and returned to acting as Bishop of Sabina
Bishop of Sabina
but he too was deprived of his orders and forced to retire to a monastery.[4] Three days later, in Rome, Benedict IX was excommunicated for simony and Henry III's candidate, Bishop Suidger of Bamberg, was installed as Pope
Pope
Clement II (1046-1047).[4]

Henry III deposed

Benedict IX,

Silvester III,

and Gregory VI

and installed Clement II.

Aftermath[edit] Main article: History of the Papacy (1048-1257) According to John Cowdrey, "the decline of the Tusculans and Crescentians was to a limited extent balanced by the emergence of newer families which were to provide valuable support for Gregory VII and the popes that followed him," including the Frangipani family
Frangipani family
and Pierleoni family.[21] Legacy[edit] The Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
"shaped other aspects of papal policy far beyond the reigns of the Tusculan popes themselves."[3] The Chancery underwent important changes, and the filoque clause was introduced.[3] A synod following Henry II's coronation in 1014 agreed to adopt the Frankish custom of reciting the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed
along with other prayers at mass on Sundays and other Holidays.[22] Notes[edit]

^ a b c Cushing, 2005, p. 61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Cushing, 2005, p. 62. ^ a b c d e Luscombe and Riley-Smith, 2004, p. 10. ^ a b c d e f g h Cushing, 2005, p. 63. ^ a b c d e f Partner, 1972, p. 102. ^ a b Milman, 1872, p. 353. ^ a b Gregorovius, 1896, p. 16. ^ a b Partner, 1972, p. 103. ^ Milman, 1872, p. 352. ^ a b Gregorovius, 1896, p. 17. ^ Gregorovius, 1896, p. 20. ^ Milman, 1872, p. 354. ^ a b c d Partner, 1972, p. 104. ^ Gregorovius, 1896, p. 18. ^ a b Gregorovius
Gregorovius
,1896, p. 19. ^ Gregorovius, 1896, p. 25. ^ Gregorovius, 1896, pp. 31-32. ^ Gregorovius, 1896, p. 32. ^ Young, 1901, p. 180. ^ Milman, 1872, pp. 357-58. ^ Herbert Edward John Cowdrey. 1998. Pope
Pope
Gregory VII, 1073-1085. p. 7. ^ Luscombe and Riley-Smith, 2004, p. 11.

References[edit]

Cushing, Kathleen G. 2005. Reform and the papacy in the eleventh century: spirituality and social change. Luscombe, David and Riley-Smith, Jonathan. 2004. New Cambridge Medieval History: C.1024-c.1198, Volume 4. Milman, Henry Hart. 1872. Históry of Latin Christianity including that of the Popes to the Pontificate of Nicholas V. Partner, Peter. 1972. The lands of St. Peter: the Papal State in the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance. Young, Norwood. 1901. The story of Rome.

v t e

Popes of the Catholic Church

List of popes

graphical canonised

Papal names Tombs

extant non-extant

Antipope Pope
Pope
emeritus

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1st–4th centuries During the Roman Empire (until 493) including under Constantine (312–337)

Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleutherius Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I

5th–8th centuries Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857)

Innocent I Zosimus Boniface I Celestine I Sixtus III Leo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniface II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius I John III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniface III Boniface IV Adeodatus I Boniface V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene I Vitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory III Zachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III

9th–12th centuries Papal selection before 1059 Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012) Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044/1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257)

Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Benedict V Leo VIII John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Benedict IX Gregory VI Clement II Benedict IX Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III

13th–16th centuries Viterbo (1257–1281) Orvieto (1262–1297) Perugia (1228–1304) Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417) Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689)

Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII

17th–20th centuries Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present) World War II (1939–1945) Cold War (1945–1991)

Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul II

21st century

Benedict XVI Francis

History of the papacy

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the Roman Empire (until 493)

Under Constantine (312–337)

Ostrogothic Papacy
Ostrogothic Papacy
(493–537) Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
(537–752) Frankish Papacy
Frankish Papacy
(756–857) Saeculum obscurum (904–964) Crescentii
Crescentii
era (974–1012)

High and Late Middle Ages

Tusculan Papacy
Tusculan Papacy
(1012–1044 / 1048) Imperial Papacy (1048–1257) Wandering Papacy

Viterbo, 1257–1281 Orvieto, 1262–1297 Perugia, 1228–1304

Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
(1309–1378) Western Schism
Western Schism
(1378–1417)

Early Modern and Modern Era

Renaissance Papacy
Renaissance Papacy
(1417–1534) Reformation Papacy
Reformation Papacy
(1534–1585) Baroque Papacy
Baroque Papacy
(1585–1689) Revolutionary Papacy (1775–1848) Roman Question
Roman Question
(1870–1929) Vatican City
Vatican City
(1929–present)

WWII (1939–1945)

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