The Info List - Turkestan Elm

The Siberian elm cultivar Ulmus pumila 'Pinnato-ramosa' was raised by Georg Dieck at the National Arboretum, Zöschen, Germany, from seed collected for him circa 1890 in the Ili valley, Turkestan (then a region of Russia, now part of Kazakhstan) by the lawyer and amateur naturalist Vladislav E. Niedzwiecki while in exile there.[1][2]


1 Taxonomy 2 Description 3 Pests and diseases 4 Cultivation 5 Notable trees 6 Accessions 7 References 8 External links

Taxonomy[edit] Originally named U. pinnato-ramosa by Dieck at Zöschen. In 1908 Litvinov treated the tree as a variety of Siberian elm, U. pumila var. arborea [3] but this taxon was ultimately rejected by Green, who sank the tree as a cultivar: "in modern terms, it does not warrant recognition at this rank but is a variant of U. pumila maintained and known only in cultivation, and therefore best treated as a cultivar".[4] Elwes and Henry confused the tree, in their Synonymy list, with U. turkestanica Regel,[5] which Regel himself had regarded as "a form of U. suberosa [:U. minor]".[6] The Späth nursery of Berlin treated U. turkestanica Regel as a cultivar distinct from U. pinnato-ramosa[7][8][9] and from U. minor 'Umbraculifera', with which Green considered Ulmus turkestanica Regel synonymous, naming it U. 'Turkestanica'.[4] Description[edit] 'Pinnato-ramosa' grows very vigorously, and can ultimately make a large tree,[10] however it also has a straggling, untidy habit, producing long shoots 0.60–0.95 m in length.[5] Dieck also described the unusual arrangement of the branch and shoots: 'The branches are organized in a way that each offshoot lies in the same plane as the main branch or stem, like the quill and filaments of a bird feather'.[1] The tree is chiefly distinguished from U. pumila by its greater height and more slender leaves.[11][12] The leaves, which have pinnate venation, are 4–7 cm in length, ovate-lanceolate, with double-toothed margins, and finely pointed.

U. pumila var. arborea

Bole of RBGE tree

Bark of specimen in University of Belgrade Botanical Garden

Leaf, in September

Dried leaves from 'Pinnato-ramosa', Edinburgh

Long shoots of 'Pinnato-ramosa'

Pests and diseases[edit] 'Pinnato-ramosa' has not been scientifically tested for resistance to Dutch elm disease, however several old specimens have survived unscathed by the disease (see Notable trees). Cultivation[edit] Dieck gave several specimens to the Späth nursery, which exported the tree across Europe, and to the USA. Some of these trees still survive, notably in the UK, and North America. Introduced to Croatia from Italy, 'Pinnato-ramosa' can now be found in many places along the Croatian littoral, where it is known as 'Turkestan Elm'.[13] Also introduced to Australia, the tree was listed by nurseries there (as U. turkestanica) in the early 20th century, but it is not known whether it still survives. The tree was included in the early stages of the Dutch elm breeding programme, but was dropped owing to the susceptibility of its flowers, which emerge in early February, to frost.[14] Notable trees[edit] One of three trees labelled Ulmus pinnato-ramosa obtained from Späth in 1902 by the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh survives (2016),[15][16] measuring 15 m height × 82 cm d.b.h. in 2004.[9] A specimen at Mote Park in Kent measured 20 m × 80 cm in 2009.[17] In the USA, a probable 'Pinnato-ramosa' grows in the grounds of the Gillett-Beer Farm, Chicago Road, Warren, a suburb within the Detroit Metropolitan Area; the tree was 45 m tall, with a d.b.h. of 155 cm in 2012. [2] Accessions[edit]

North America

Arnold Arboretum. Acc. nos. 925–83, 698–87. Holden Arboretum. Acc. no. 60–317 New York Botanical Garden. Acc. no. 1032/60


Brighton & Hove City Council, UK. National Elm Collection [3]. Full accession details unknown. Darmstadt University of Technology Botanic Garden, Darmstadt, Germany. Some accession details available [4] Grange Farm Arboretum, Sutton St James, Spalding, Lincolnshire, UK. As U. pinnato-ramosa. Acc. no. 1088. Hergest Croft Gardens [5], Kington, Herefordshire, UK. One tree, as U. pinnato-ramosa; no accession details available. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. As U. pinnato-ramosa. Acc. no. 19021006 Sir Harold Hillier Gardens, Ampfield, UK. Acc. no. 1977.4795 (LM200), Acc. no. 1986.2511 (LM600) Späth-Arboretum, Berlin, Germany. Acc. no 02-009. Strona Arboretum [6], University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland. Acc. details not known University of Copenhagen Botanic Garden, Denmark. No details available. University of Ulm Botanic Garden, Ulm, Germany. Some accession details available [7]


^ a b Dieck, G. (1894). Neuheiten-Offerten des National-Arboretums zu Zöschen bei Merseburg, 1894/95. ^ Hansen, N. How to produce that $1000 premium apple, in Minnesota State Hort. Soc. (1900). Trees, fruits & flowers of Minnesota. Vol. 28. 470–1. Forgotten Books, London, 2013. ISBN 9781153197953 ^ U. pumila L. var. arborea Litwinow, in Schedae ad Herbarium Florae Rossicae No. 1992, &: 460 (1908) ^ a b Green, Peter Shaw (1964). "Registration of cultivar names in Ulmus". Arnoldia. Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. 24 (6–8): 41–80. Retrieved 16 February 2017.  ^ a b Elwes, Henry John; Henry, Augustine (1913). The Trees of Great Britain & Ireland. 7. pp. 1926–1927.  ^ "Literatur". Gartenflora. 33: 28. 1884.  ^ Katalog (PDF). 108. Berlin, Germany: L. Späth Baumschulenweg. 1902–1903. pp. 132–133.  ^ Accessions book. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. 1902. pp. 45, 47.  ^ a b "List of Living Accessions: Ulmus". Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Retrieved 21 September 2016.  ^ J., White; D., More (2003). "Trees of Britain & Northern Europe". Cassell, London. ISBN 0-304-36192-5.  ^ A., Mitchell (1974). "A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain & Northern Europe". Collins, London. p. 254.  ^ Diagnostic photographs of Turkestan elms, their leaves and samarae, in the Björngårdsvägen, Södermalm, Stockholm, the Enkehusparken in Vasastan, Stockholm, and the Norra Kyrkogården in Solna, Sweden: www.tradgardsakademin.se [1] ^ Trinajstić, I. (2001). Turkestan elm - Ulmus pinnato-ramosa in 'The Dendroflora of Croatia', Šumarski list (:Journal of Forestry) 9–10, CXXV, 2001; 533–537. ^ Went, J. (1954). The Dutch Elm Disease – Summary of fifteen years' hybridization and selection work (1937–1952). European Journal of Plant Pathology. 02(1954); 60(2): 109–1276. ^ H. M., Heybroek; L, Goudzwaard; H., Kaljee (2009). Iep of olm, karakterboom van de Lage Landen (:Elm, a tree with character of the Low Countries). Centraal Boekhuis. p. 29. ISBN 978 9050112819.  ^ Photograph in spring of tree (on left) labelled on trunk Ulmus pinnato-ramosa, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh File:Royal-Botanical-Gardens-Edinburgh.jpg ^ Johnson, O. (ed.). (2011). Champion Trees of Britain & Ireland. 300 pages. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. ISBN 978-1842464526

External links[edit]

'Turkestan elm - Ulmus pinnato-ramosa - in the dendroflora of Croatia' Šumarski list, 2001 (in Croatian) "Herbarium specimen - E00212454". Herbarium Catalogue. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.  RBGE leaves specimen from Späth nursery, 1902 (2004) "Herbarium specimen - E00212455". Herbarium Catalogue. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.  RBGE flowers specimen from Späth nursery, 1902 (2004) "Herbarium specimen - E00824816". Herbarium Catalogue. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh.  RBGE specimen from Späth nursery, 1902 "Herbarium specimen - L.1582529". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.  Sheet labelled U. pumila L. arborea Litv., Arnold Arboretum specimen, 1930 "Herbarium specimen - L.1582539". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.  Sheet labelled U. pumila L. arborea Litv.; samara specimen "Herbarium specimen - L.1582538". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.  Sheet labelled U. pumila L. arborea Litv.; 1938 specimen, Romania "Herbarium specimen - L.1582536". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.  Sheet labelled U. pumila L. arborea Litv.; formerly called U. pinnato-ramosa, specimen from Hesse nursery, Weener, 1954 "Herbarium specimen - L.1582530". Botany catalogues. Naturalis Biodiversity Center.  Sheet labelled U. pumila L. arborea Litv.; formerly called U. pinnato-ramosa, specimen from Zuiderpark, The Hague, 1962

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Elm species, varieties, hybrids, hybrid cultivars and species cultivars

Species, varieties and subspecies

U. alata (Winged elm) U. americana (American elm) U. americana var. floridana (Florida elm) U. bergmanniana (Bergmann's elm) U. bergmanniana var. bergmanniana U. bergmanniana var. lasiophylla U. castaneifolia (Chestnut-leafed or multinerved elm) U. changii (Hangzhou elm) U. changii var. changii U. changii var. kunmingensis (Kunming elm) U. chenmoui (Chenmou or Langya Mountain elm) U. chumlia U. crassifolia (Cedar or Texas cedar elm) U. davidiana (David or Father David elm) U. davidiana var. davidiana U. davidiana var. japonica (Japanese elm) U. elongata (Long raceme elm) U. gaussenii (Anhui or hairy elm) U. glabra (Wych or scots elm) U. glaucescens (Gansu elm) U. glaucescens var. glaucescens U. glaucescens var. lasiocarpa (hairy-fruited glaucescent elm) U. harbinensis (Harbin elm) U. ismaelis U. laciniata (Manchurian cut-leaf or lobed elm) U. laciniata var. nikkoensis (Nikko elm) U. laevis (European white elm) U. laevis var. celtidea U. laevis var. parvifolia U. laevis var. simplicidens U. lamellosa (Hebei elm) U. lanceifolia (Vietnam elm) U. macrocarpa (Large-fruited elm) U. macrocarpa var. glabra U. macrocarpa var. macrocarpa U. mexicana (Mexican elm) U. microcarpa (Tibetan elm) U. minor (Field elm) U. minor subsp. minor U. minor var. italica U. parvifolia (Chinese or lacebark elm) U. parvifolia var. coreana (Korean elm) U. prunifolia (Cherry-leafed elm) U. pseudopropinqua (Harbin spring elm) U. pumila (Siberian elm) U. rubra (Slippery elm) U. serotina (September elm) U. szechuanica (Szechuan (Sichuan) or red-fruited elm) U. thomasii (Rock or cork elm) U. uyematsui (Alishan elm) U. villosa (Cherry-bark or marn elm) U. wallichiana (Himalayan or kashmir elm) U. wallichiana subsp. wallichiana U. wallichiana subsp. xanthoderma U. wallichiana var. tomentosa

Disputed species and varieties

U. canescens (Grey, grey-leafed or hoary elm) U. elliptica


U. davidiana var. japonica × U. minor U. × arbuscula U. × arkansana U. × brandisiana U. × diversifolia U. × hollandica (Dutch elm) U. × hollandica var. insularum U. × intermedia U. × mesocarpa

Species cultivars

American elm

American Liberty Ascendens Augustine Aurea Beaverlodge Beebe's Weeping Brandon Burgoyne JFS Prince II = Colonial Spirit College Columnaris Creole Queen Deadfree Delaware Exhibition Fiorei Flick's Spreader Folia Aurea Variegata Hines Incisa Independence Iowa State Jackson Jefferson Kimley Klehmii L'Assomption Lake City Lewis & Clark Littleford Maine Markham Miller Park Minneapolis Park Moline Morden New Harmony Nigricans Patmore Pendula Penn Treaty Princeton Pyramidata Queen City Sheyenne Skinner Upright St. Croix Star Valley Forge Variegata Vase Washington

Cedar elm

Brazos Rim

Chinese elm

A-1 A. Ross Central Park = Central Park Splendor Blizzard BSNUPF = Everclear Burgundy Burnley Select Catlin Chessins Churchyard Cork Bark D.B.Cole Drake Dynasty Ed Wood Elsmo Emer I = Athena Emer II = Allee Emerald Prairie Frosty Garden City Clone Geisha Glory Golden Rey Hallelujah Harzam = Harrison™ Hokkaido Jade Empress King's Choice Littleleaf Lois Hole Matthew Milliken Nire-keyaki Ohio Orange Ribbon Pathfinder Pendens Prairie Shade Prince Richard Red Fall Sabamiki Sagei Seiju Select 380 Sempervirens Small Frye State Fair Stone's Dwarf Taiwan The Thinker Todd True Green UPMTF = Bosque Ware's Yarralumla Yatsubusa Zettler = Heritage Ulmus parvifolia f. lanceolata

European white elm

Aureovariegata Colorans Helena Ornata Pendula Punctata Urticifolia

Field elm

Ademuz Albo-Dentata Amplifolia Argenteo-Variegata Atinia Variegata Atinia Biltii Boissieri Christine Buisman Concavaefolia Coritana Cretensis Cucullata Cucullata Variegata Dehesa de Amaniel Dehesa de la Villa Dicksonii Dijkwel Erecta Folia Alba-Punctata Glandulosa Goodyeri Hoersholmiensis Holmstruph Hunnybunii Laciniata Lanuginosa Majadahonda Microphylla Pendula Microphylla Purpurea Microphylla Rubra Monumentalis Pendula Picturata Plotii Propendens Punctata Purpurascens Purpurea Retiro Reverti Rugosa Rueppellii Sarniensis Schuurhoek Silvery Gem Sowerbyi Stricta Suberosa Umbraculifera Gracilis Umbraculifera Viminalis Viminalis Aurea Viminalis Betulaefolia Viminalis Gracilis Viminalis Incisa Viminalis Marginata Viminalis Pendula Viminalis Pulverulenta Viminalis Stricta Virgata Webbiana

Japanese elm

Discovery Freedom Jacan JFS-Bieberich = Emerald Sunshine Mitsui Centennial Prospector Reperta Reseda Thomson Validation

Siberian elm

Ansaloni Aurea Aurescens Chinkota Dropmore Dwarf Weeper Green King Hansen Harbin Manchu Mauro Mr. Buzz Park Royal Pendula Pinnato-ramosa Poort Bulten Puszta Pyramidalis Fiorei Variegata Zhonghua Jinye

Winged elm

Lace Parasol

Wych elm

Albo-Variegata Australis Camperdownii Cebennensis Concavaefolia Cornuta Corylifolia Purpurea Corylifolia Dovaei Escaillard Fastigiata Macrophylla Fastigiata Stricta Fastigiata Variegata Firma Flava Gigantea Gittisham Grandidentata Holgeri Horizontalis Insularis Latifolia Latifolia Aurea Latifolia Aureo-Variegata Latifolia Nigricans Luteo Variegata Lutescens Macrophylla Maculata Minor Nana Nigra Nitida Oblongata Pendula Macrophylla Pendula Variegata Pyrenaica Ramulosa Rugosa Spectabilis Superba Tomentosa

Hybrid cultivars

Androssowii Amsterdam Arno Cathedral Clusius Columella Den Haag Dodoens Fiorente Frontier Fuente Umbria Homestead Karagatch Lobel Morfeo Morton Glossy = Triumph Morton Plainsman = Vanguard Morton Red Tip = Danada Charm Morton Stalwart = Commendation Morton = Accolade Nanguen = Lutece New Horizon Patriot Plantyn Plinio Rageth Rebella Rebona Recerta Regal Repura Revera San Zanobi Sapporo Autumn Gold Sapporo Gold 2 Stavast Toledo Urban Wanoux = Vada

Dutch elm

Alba Angustifolia Balder Bea Schwarz Belgica Blandford Canadian Giant Cicestria Cinerea Commelin Dampieri Dauvessei Daveyi Dumont Elegantissima Eleganto-Variegata Etrusca Fastigiata Fjerrestad Folia Rhomboidea Freja Fulva Gaujardii Groeneveld Haarlemensis Hillieri Klemmer Loke Macrophylla Aurea Major Microphylla Modiolina Muscaviensis Odin Pioneer Pitteurs Serpentina Smithii Superba Tricolor Tyr Vegeta Viminalis Viscosa Wentworthii Pendula Wredei Ypreau

U. × intermedia

Coolshade Fremont Improved Coolshade Lincoln Rosehill Willis

Unconfirmed derivation cultivars

aff. Plotii Acutifolia Alata Alksuth Argenteo-Marginata Aspera Atropurpurea Australis Berardii Betulaefolia Nigrescens Crispa Crispa Aurea Crispa Pendula Densa Exoniensis Fastigiata Glabra Folia Aurea Folia Rubra Folia Variegata Pendula Gallica Glabra Globosa Hamburg Hertfordensis Angustifolia Hertfordensis Latifolia Jalaica Jacqueline Hillier Kansas Hybrid Klemmer Blanc Koopmannii Lombartsii Louis van Houtte Marmorata Monstrosa Myrtifolia Myrtifolia Purpurea Nemoralis Nigrescens Planeroides Planifolia Purpurea Pyramidalis Bertini Pyramidalis Rotundifolia Rubra Rufa Scampstoniensis Sericea Tiliaefolia Tortuosa Turkestanica Variegata Nova Virens

Fossil elms

U. okanaganensis

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q7879639 GBIF: 6