The Info List - Tulu Nadu

Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
or Tulunad is a Tulu speaking region spread over parts of the Karnataka
and Kerala
states of India. The erstwhile district of South Canara
South Canara
(present day districts of Dakshina Kannada, Udupi
of Karnataka
and Kasaragod district
Kasaragod district
of Kerala) is the core of the Tulu speaking region. This region is not an official administrative region but a region inhabited by Tulu speaking people. Tulunad is the homeland of the Tuluva ethnic people.Kudla/Mangalore, Udupi
and Kasaragod
are its important cities.[3][4][5]


1 History

1.1 Alupa dynasty

2 Demographics 3 Language 4 Geography and climate 5 Culture 6 Economy 7 Education 8 Notable people 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links


Royal emblem of the Alupas, the oldest known native rulers of Tulu Nadu

Extent of the Alupa kingdom

A regional map of Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
in Karnataka. Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
also includes Kasaragod district
Kasaragod district
of Kerala

. Alupa dynasty[edit] Ptolemy, the 2nd century geographer identifies the Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
region as Olokhoira which is widely believed to be a corruption of the term Alva Kheda, 'the land of the Alvas'.[2] Historically, Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
included the two separate lands of Haiva and Tuluva.[6] The longest ruling and oldest known native dynasty of Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
was that of the Alupas
(c. 5th - 14th century C. E.).[7] Their kingdom was also known as Alvakheda. They initially ruled independently and later were the feudatories of the prominent dynasties. The Kadamba dynasty
Kadamba dynasty
of Banavasi was the earliest, under which the Alupas
flourished. Later the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas
of Badami, Chalukyas
of Kalyani, Hoysalas
of Dwarasamudra (Halebidu) and Rayas of Vijayanagara were the overlords. The Alupas, however, were independent and their subordination was nominal at best. They ruled until the Vijayanagara Empire took control of Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
from 14th to the 17th centuries. During the rule of Vijayanagara, Tulu nadu was administered in two parts – Mangaluru Rajya and Barkuru Rajya. Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
was the original homeland of the dynasty that founded the Vijayanagar Empire based in eastern Karnataka. Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
was governed by the native feudatories of the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
until the 18th century. These feudatories gained power towards the end of Alupa period. Notable among them were[7] the Chowtas of Ullal
and Moodabidri
(c. 1160-1801 C.E), Ajilas of Venur
(c. 1418-1800 C.E), the Savanta or Samantha Rajas of Mulki (c. 1411- 1700), the Bhairarasa Odeyas of Karkala
(c. 1240-1650 C.E), the Tolaharas of Suralu (c.1139-1800 C.E), the Bangas of Bangadi (c. 1410-1800 C.E.), the Rajas of Kumbla
(c. 12th century - 1800 C.E) and the Rajas of Vitla
(c. 1436-1800 C.E). The region became extremely prosperous during Vijayanagara period with Barkur
and Mangalore
gaining importance. After the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Keladi Nayakas of Ikkeri
controlled much of Tulu Nadu.Over the following many centuries, more ethnic groups migrated to the area. Konkanis
from Goa
arrived by sea, as Mangalore was a major port that served not only the Portuguese but also the Arabs
for maritime trades. Jains were already a prominent group and even today are uniquely preserved in Tulu Nadu. Though small in number, the Jains left behind indelible reminders of their glory with temples (bastis) in (Moodabidri) and monolithic statues of Bahubali
in Karkala, Venoor
and Dharmasthala. In the 16th century there was a large influx of Catholics to Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
from Goa. The Muslim community of Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
were basically Arab traders who married local women and settled there. Some came from Kerala. They speak the Beary
dialect, which is a mix of Tulu and Kannada, and the others speak Urdu. Under Portugal, the region was called the Missao do Sul (Mission of the South). In the 18th century, it was conquered by Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore. After the British defeated Haidar's successor Tipu Sultan in 1799, the region was attached to the Madras
Presidency before being reverted to the state of Mysore in the aftermath of independence. Mysore has since been renamed Karnataka. At the end of the 18th century, Hyder Ali
Hyder Ali
and Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
controlled the region. Mangalore
played a prominent role in Tipu’s battles with the British. The British gained full control in 1801, after Tipu's death in 1799. The British ruled the region with Madras
(now Chennai) as its headquarters. Tipu conquered the region and the British conquered it from him. Under the British, the region was organised into the districts of North Canara
North Canara
and South Canara
South Canara

As per Hindu mythology
Hindu mythology
Lord Parshurama
commanded Lord Varuna
to make the seas recede to make the Tulu Nadu.[8][9]

When the states were reorganised on linguistic basis in the 1956, Tulu Nadu (South Canara) which was earlier a part of Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
and North Canara
North Canara
which was a part of Bombay Presidency
Bombay Presidency
became part of the newly formed Mysore state, which was later renamed as Karnataka. Kasargod became part of the newly formed state of Kerala. The Tuluvas began demanding official language status for Tulu and a separate state named Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
for themselves. Organisations like the Tulu Rajya Horata Samiti have taken up the cause of the Tuluvas and meetings and demonstrations were held at towns like Mangalore
and Udupi
to voice their demand.[10][11] Demographics[edit] According to the 2001 Census of India, the population of the region was 3,005,898.[3] The majority of the population in Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
are Tuluvas, Other ethnic groups include Malayalis, Kannadigas, Konkanis and Bearys Language[edit] Main article: Tulu language

Tigalari script has been used for Tulu since at least the 10th century.[12]

The most widely spoken Language is Tulu which belongs to the Dravidian family of languages, and whose native speakers are referred to as Tuluva. The number of Tulu speakers was estimated to be about 1.7 million in 2001,[13][14] although some sources quote as many as 3 million.[15] The other languages spoken in Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
include Kannada, Konkani, Koraga and Beary.[15] The Tigalari script, bears partial similarity to the Grantha script. It was used by Tuluvas for centuries, before it was eventually replaced by the Kannada
script. Most Sanskrit works and Tulu classics are present in this script, with a few in other scripts. This script was used by Brahmins.[16] Geography and climate[edit]

A Yakshagana
artist portraying a rakshasa (demon)

A typical house in Tulu Nadu, with the roof constructed using Mangalore

Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
lies along the Konkan
Coast.[17] Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
is bounded on the west by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and on the east by the Western Ghats. Tulu Nadu spans an area of 8,441 km2 (3,259 sq mi), roughly 4.4 per cent of the total geographical area of present-day Karnataka. Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
also experience heavy rainfalls during Monsoon season. The coastal area of Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
is very rich with respect to rainforests and backwaters. The region has a tropical climate; summer and winter months experience similar temperate conditions, with average temperatures ranging from 24 °C to 33 °C. Culture[edit]

Chaturmukha Basadi, Karkala

Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodabidri

Shri Madhva Acharya, a Hindu philosopher and the chief proponent of the philosophy of Dwaita or Dualism.[18]

The Yakshagana
is a night-long dance and drama performance practised in Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
with great fanfare.[19][20] Pilivesha is a unique form of folk dance in the region fascinating the young and the old alike, which is performed during Marnemi (as Dussehra is called in Tulu) and Krishna Janmashtami.[21] Karadi Vesha (Bear Dance) is one more popular dance performed during Dasara in Tulu Nadu.[22] Bhuta Kola
Bhuta Kola
(Spirit worship), which is usually done at night is practised here. Kambala (Buffalo race) is conducted in water filled paddy fields. Korikatta (Cockfight) is another favourite sport for the people. Nagaradhane (Snake worship) is practised in the Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
according to the popular belief of the Naga Devatha to go underground and guard the species on the top.[23] Udupi
cuisine is popular across South India, mostly due to Udupi restaurants, which are primarily vegetarian. Apart from Southern India, there are famous Udupi
Hotels in Mumbai and New Delhi
too. Economy[edit] Historically, Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
was primarily dependent on agriculture and fishing. The main crops grown were rice, Bengal gram, horse gram, vegetables and fruits. Plantation crops like coconut, areca nut, cocoa, cashew nut, and pepper are also grown. In the early 20th century, the Mangalore
tile industry, cashew nut processing, and the banking industry grew substantially. Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
is called "the cradle of Indian banking".[24] Five major banks of India
(Syndicate Bank, Canara Bank, Corporation Bank, Vijaya Bank
Vijaya Bank
and Karnataka
Bank) have their origins here.

Bank Founded Place Founded by

Canara Bank 1906; 112 years ago (1906) Mangalore[25] Shri Ammembal Subba Rao Pai

Bank 1924; 94 years ago (1924) Mangalore[26] -

Vijaya Bank 1931; 87 years ago (1931) Mangalore[27] Shri A B Shetty

Syndicate Bank 1925; 93 years ago (1925) Manipal[28] T M A Pai, Upendra Pai and Vaman Kudva

Corporation Bank 1906; 112 years ago (1906) Udupi[29] Khan Bahadur Haji Abdulla Haji Kasim Saheb Bahadur

In the early part of the 21st century the area has been transforming itself into a hub of the information technology and medical services industries. There has been large-scale decline in agriculture and related industries due to the non-availability of labour and preference for white-collar jobs. Agricultural land is being converted to commercial and real estate properties, and environmental pollution is increasing drastically due to large-scale deforestation and increase in automobile use. A public sector petroleum refinery (MRPL) was established in the 1990s. Some chemical plants (e.g., fertilizers and pesticides) have been established. This region contributes the second highest revenue to Karnataka
state after the city of Bangalore. This region has an international airport at Mangalore
which is well connected to the rest of India
and middle eastern countries. New Mangalore
port (NMPT) is one of the major port of India
is located at Panambur, Mangalore.[30] Education[edit] Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
is the most prominent Educational
Hub on the western coast of India. There are hundreds of professional colleges in Tulu Nadu. Thousands of students from all over India
and countries abroad study in these institutions. Mangalore
and Manipal
are the major cities that accommodate these students. National Institute of Technology Karnataka (NITK, Surathkal, owned by Central Government) is ranked as one of the best engineering college in Karnataka
and is one among the top ten engineering colleges of India.[31] KMC Manipal
is one among the top ten Medical Colleges in India
and stands at sixth position[32][33] Throughout Mangalore
(Dakshina Kannada) and Udupi
Districts, Christians/Protestant missions run many educational institutions offering basic education to Academic degrees and professional education such as Medical (e.g. Father Muller's Medical College), Engineering (e.g. Canara Engineering College) and Management education (St Aloysius Management College). Notable people[edit]

— Hindu saint and philosopher Sri Krishna DevaRaya — The emperor of Vijayanagar. Tuluva dynasty rulers of Vijayanagara Gopalakrishna Adiga
Gopalakrishna Adiga
poet Rani Abbakka Devi — Popular queen of Tulunadu Janardhana Poojary — Former Union Minister of State for Finance in Government of India V. S. Acharya
V. S. Acharya
— Former Higher education minister in the Karnataka state government V. Dhananjay Kumar
V. Dhananjay Kumar
- Former Union minister of India
and a former Member of Parliament from Mangalore Aravind Adiga — Writer and journalist who won the Booker Prize
Booker Prize
in 2008 Ashish Kumar Ballal
Ashish Kumar Ballal
— Former captain of the Indian National Hockey team Yograj Bhat
Yograj Bhat
cinema film director, producer, screenwriter and a lyricist Sandeep Chowta
and Tollywood music director, head of Columbia Records
Columbia Records
in India George Fernandes
George Fernandes
— Former Railway and Defence Minister Bannanje Govindacharya
Bannanje Govindacharya
— Madhava scholar Gurukiran — Singer, music director in the Kannada
film industry Ganesh Hegde
Ganesh Hegde
— Singer, performer, video director and Bollywood choreographer K. S. Hegde — Former Speaker of Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
and Supreme Court Judge Nitte Santosh Hegde
Nitte Santosh Hegde
— Former justice of the Supreme Court Of India, former Solicitor General of India, and Lokayukta (ombudsman) for Karnataka
State of India
from 2006–2011 Veerendra Heggade
Veerendra Heggade
— Philanthropist and the Dharmadhikari (hereditary administrator) of the Dharmasthala
Temple K. V. Kamath
K. V. Kamath
— Chairman of Infosys Limited M. V. Kamath — Journalist and former Chairman of Prasar Bharthi B. V. Karanth
B. V. Karanth
— Playwright and director

Aishwarya Rai, belongs to a Tuluva Bunt community from Tulu nadu[34]

K. Shivaram Karanth
K. Shivaram Karanth
writer, social activist, environmentalist, Yakshagana
artist, film maker and thinker Isha Koppikar
Isha Koppikar
actress Kadri Gopalnath
Kadri Gopalnath
- One of the pioneers of Carnatic music
Carnatic music
on the saxophone Shirish Kunder
Shirish Kunder
director and Producer Budhi Kunderan — Cricketer Sheetal Mallar
Sheetal Mallar
— Model who won the Femina Look of the Year
Femina Look of the Year
in 1994 V. Manohar — Music director, lyricist, film director and actor in Kannada
Cinema Veerappa Moily
Veerappa Moily
— Minister of Corporate Affairs and former chief minister of Karnataka Daya Nayak — Sub-inspector in the Mumbai Police Anant Pai
Anant Pai
— Educationist and creator of Indian comics M. Govinda Pai
M. Govinda Pai
poet T. M. A. Pai
T. M. A. Pai
— Doctor, educationist, banker and philanthropist who founded the university town of Manipal
in Udupi Suman Talwar
Suman Talwar
— Actor Prakash Raj — Actor, director and producer who won the National Award winner in 2008 V. T. Rajshekar — Journalist, founder and editor of the Dalit Voice U. R. Rao
U. R. Rao
— Space scientist and former chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Ratnakaravarni Kannada
poet and writer Victor Rodrigues — Konkani novelist and short story writer V. J. P. Saldanha — Konkani littérateur, dramatist, novelist, short-story writer and poet Vittal Mallya — Entrepreneur Vijay Mallya
Vijay Mallya
— Liquor and airline baron Aishwarya Rai
Aishwarya Rai
actress and former Miss World Rakshit Shetty Kannada
Actor, Producer and Director Anushka Shetty
Anushka Shetty
— actress B. R. Shetty
B. R. Shetty
— Dubai-based entrepreneur Devi Shetty
Devi Shetty
— philanthropist and cardiac surgeon, recipient of the Padma Bhushan civilian award Shilpa Shetty
Shilpa Shetty
film actress and model Srinidhi Ramesh Shetty — Miss Supranational 2016 Sunil Shetty
Sunil Shetty
film actor, producer and entrepreneur Rohit Shetty
Rohit Shetty
film director, cinematographer and occasional actor Upendra — Kannada
actor, director, producer, screenwriter, lyricist and singer D. V. Sadananda Gowda
D. V. Sadananda Gowda
— served as 20th Chief Minister of Karnataka, currently serving as Vice President of the Bharatiya Janata Party Prakash Bare
Prakash Bare
— Actor and producer Satish Acharya
Satish Acharya
— cartoonist Avantika Shetty Kannada
Actress Rishab Shetty Kannada
Actor and Director Freida Pinto
Freida Pinto
— Actress and model Ravi Basrur
Ravi Basrur

Director and Director

Pooja Hegde
Pooja Hegde
- Actress and Model

See also[edit]

Mangalore Udupi Dakshina Kannada Kasaragod Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
state movement Tulu people Tulu language Tulu alphabet Kundagannada dialect List of temples in Tulu Nadu


^ "Tourism in DK District". National Informatics Centre, Karnataka State Unit. Retrieved 26 March 2008.  ^ "Tour to Udupi". Tourism of India. Retrieved 26 March 2008.  ^ a b c "Census GIS India". Census of India. Retrieved 26 March 2008.  ^ http://www.tuluacademy.org/en/tulu-nadu/ ^ http://www.dk.nic.in/other/dkdoc.pdf ^ "Tulu Nadu, Kasaragod, Kerala, India
Tourism". www.keralatourism.org. Retrieved 2016-12-12.  ^ a b Bhat, N. Shyam (1998). South Kanara, 1799-1860: A Study in Colonial Administration and Regional Response. Mittal Publications. pp. 17–45. ISBN 9788170995869. Retrieved 18 April 2015.  ^ "Tulu Nadu: The Land and its People by Dr. Neria H. Hebbar". Boloji. Retrieved 2016-12-12.  ^ "Brahmins of Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
- MADHWA SAMAJAM KOLLAM". sites.google.com. Retrieved 2016-12-12.  ^ "News headlines". DHNS. 21 October 2006. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ "Tulu organisations to meet soon". The Hindu. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ "ScriptSource - Tulu (Tigalari)". scriptsource.org. Retrieved 2016-12-12.  ^ "Census of India
- Statement 1". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009), "Tulu", Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.), SIL International, retrieved 2009-11-12.  ^ a b D.N.S. Bhat (1998). Sanford B. Steever, ed. The Dravidian Languages. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 0-415-10023-2.  ^ Dr. K Padmanabha Kekunnaya. "Tulu Language and Script - Shivalli Brahmins". Shivalli Brahmins. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ Lozupone, Patsy; Beehler, Bruce M.; Ripley, Sidney Dillon (2004). Ornithological gazetteer of the Indian subcontinent. Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International. p. 82. ISBN 1881173852.  ^ " Madhvacharya
Philosopher Personalities". Karnataka.com. 2011-10-07. Retrieved 2016-12-12.  ^ "Yakshagana". SZCC, Tamil Nadu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2007.  ^ Plunkett, Richard (2001). South India. Lonely Planet. p. 53. ISBN 9781864501612.  ^ Stanley G. Pinto (26 October 2001). "Human 'tigers' face threat to health". The Times of India. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  ^ Stephen D'Souza. "What's in a Name?". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  ^ "Nagarapanchami Naadige Doddadu". Mangalorean.com. 18 August 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  ^ http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/15944/12/12_chapter%204.pdf ^ "Canara Bank :: About Us :: Profile". www.canarabank.com. Retrieved 2016-10-23.  ^ "Welcome to Karnataka
Bank Ltd". www.karnatakabank.com. Retrieved 2016-10-23.  ^ "Vijaya Bank". www.vijayabank.com. Retrieved 2016-10-23.  ^ "Syndicate Bank- ourprofile". www.syndicatebank.in. Retrieved 2016-10-23.  ^ "History Corporation Bank". www.corpbank.com. Retrieved 2016-10-23.  ^ Gavin Shatkin (14 August 2013). "Chapter 10 : Planning Mangalore: Garbage Collection in a Small Indian City". Contesting the Indian City: Global Visions and the Politics of the Local. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-118-29584-7.  ^ "NITK Surathkal - Info, Ranking, Cutoff & Placements 2016 College Pravesh". College Pravesh. 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2016-12-12.  ^ "Top ten Medical Colleges of India". Tack-in.com. 31 July 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  ^ "Top Medical Colleges in India". Knowurcollege.com. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  ^ "Aishwarya Rai, Abhishek Bachchan participate in event organised by Bunt community Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". dna. 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 

Further reading[edit]

Bhat, P. Gururaja (1975). "Studies in Tuluva history and culture: (from the pre-historic times upto the modern)". 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tulu Nadu.

Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
- Samajika Chariteyalli ondu samshodhanatmaka Vivechane (History of Tulunadu) World Tulu Conference Tuluvas Social Networking Tulu Nadu: The Land and Its People Mangalore
Home Page History of tulunad – udupipages.com South Canara
South Canara
Gazetteer 1973 A Research on Tulunadu and Tuluvas

Places adjacent to Tulu Nadu

Uttara Kannada Shivamogga

Arabian Sea

Tulu Nadu


Kerala Kodagu
and Hassan

v t e

Culture of Tulu Nadu

Yakshagana Bhuta Kola Aati kalenja Kambala Nagamandala Dakke Bali Koti and Chennayya Hulivesha Jumadi Epic of Siri

v t e

South India articles


Satavahana Chalukyas Chera Cholas Gangas Hoysalas Kadambas Kakatiya Pallava Kolathiri Venad
(Kingdom of Quilon) Travancore
Kingdom Kingdom of Cochin Musunuri Nayaks Nizam Pandyan kingdom Rashtrakutas Vijayanagara Empire Kingdom of Mysore Zamorin of Calicut


Eastern Ghats Godavari Kaveri
(Cauvery) Krishna Narmada River Protected areas of Tamil Nadu Sapta Konkan Satpura Range Vindhya Range Western Ghats

States and territories

Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Kerala Lakshadweep Pondicherry Tamil Nadu Telangana


Carnatic Chola Nadu Coromandel Coast Deccan Konkan Kongu Nadu Kosta Malabar Malabar Coast Malenadu North Malabar Pandya Nadu Raichur Doab Rayalaseema Coastal Andhra Tondai Nadu Tulu Nadu Uttarandhra

Flora Fauna

Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve Anaimalai Hills Karnataka Kerala
backwaters Malabar

coastal moist forests monsoon rainforests

Nilgiris South Western Ghats

montane rainforests moist deciduous forests


Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Kerala


Tamil Nadu Telangana



Adivasis Badagas Bearys Cochin Jews Dravidians Kannadigas Kodavas Kovains Malabaris Malayalis Syrian Malabar Nasranis Tamils Telugu people Tulu people


bashe Dakhini Kannada Kodava Konkani Malayalam Tamil Telugu Tulu


Andhra Natyam Ayudha Puja Bathukamma Bharata Natyam Carnatic music Duffmuttu Hindustani classical music Kalaripayattu Kannada
literature Kathakali Kuchipudi Kolkali Malayalam
literature Mappila Paattukal Margam Kali Mohiniyattam Mundum Neriyathum Onam Pongal Poorakkali Puthandu Sari Sopana Sangeetham Tamil literature Telugu literature Theyyam Thidambu Nritham Ugadi Vidyarambham Vishu Yakshagana


v t e

Communities in Mangalore


Bunts Billavas Mogaveeras Shivalli Brahmins Gaud Saraswat Brahmins Saraswats Kota brahmins Havyaka Brahmins Devadiga Sthanika Brahmins


Mangalorean Catholics Mangalorean Protestants


Bearys Konkani Muslims


Jain Bunt

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Proposed states and territories of India

Proposed states

(Uttar Pradesh) Baghelkhand
(Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh) Bhojpur (Uttar Pradesh/Bihar) Bodoland
(Assam) Bundelkhand
(Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh) Chola Nadu
Chola Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra
(Andhra Pradesh) Delhi Dimaraji
(Assam/Nagaland) Dogradesh (Jammu and Kashmir) Garoland (Meghalaya) Gird (Madhya Pradesh) Gondwana (Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh/Odisha) Gorkhaland
(West Bengal) Harit Pradesh
Harit Pradesh
(Uttar Pradesh) Kalyana Karnataka
(Karnataka) Kamtapur
(West Bengal) Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir) Khandesh
(Maharashtra) Kodagu
(Karnataka) Kongu Nadu
Kongu Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Konkan
(Maharashtra/Goa/Karnataka) Kosal (Odisha) Kutch
(Gujarat) Mahakoshal
(Madhya Pradesh) Malwa
(Madhya Pradesh) Male Nadu
Male Nadu
(Karnataka) Marathwada
(Maharashtra) Maru Pradesh (Rajasthan) Mithila (Bihar) Nagalim
(Nagaland/Assam/Arunachal Pradesh) Pandya Nadu
Pandya Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Panun Kashmir
Panun Kashmir
(Jammu and Kashmir) Puducherry Purvanchal
(Uttar Pradesh) Rayalaseema
(Andhra Pradesh) Saurashtra (Gujarat) Seemanchal (Bihar) Tipraland
(Tripura) Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
(Karnataka/Kerala) Vidarbha
(Maharashtra) Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
(Madhya Pradesh) Uttarandhra
(Andhra Pradesh)

Proposed territories

Karaikal (Puducherry) Karbi Anglong
Karbi Anglong
(Assam) Ladakh
(Jammu and Kashmir)

Current states and