Tudhaliya IV was a king of the Hittite Empire (New kingdom), and the younger son of Hattusili III. He reigned c. 1237–1209 BCE. His mother was the great queen, Puduhepa.
Tudhaliya was likely born in his father's court in Hattusa, after his brother and crown prince Nerikkaili, but still while their father was governing on his brother Muwatalli II's behalf. He was a good friend of Muwatalli's son, Kurunta, and Hattusili ordered that they stay on good terms.
After Hattusili as King wrote up a treaty with "Ulmi-Tessup" which confirmed Kurunta's rule over Tarhuntassa, Hattusili elevated Tudhaliya over his older brother to be his crown prince. Tudhaliya as king drew up a bronze tablet treaty confirming the links between him and Kurunta. During his reign, 13 dams were built after a severe drought, one of which still survives to this day at Alacahöyük.
He suffered a severe defeat at the hands of Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria in the Battle of Nihriya, c. 1230 BCE.
Tudhaliya had a sister, queen Maathorneferure of Egypt. He had two sons, who were the last two kings of the Hittites before their empire fell due to the Sea People.
Hittite New Kingdom royal family tree
- (1) = 1st spouse
- (2) = 2nd spouse
- Small caps indicates a Great King (LUGAL.GAL) of the Land of Hatti; italic small caps indicates a Great Queen or Tawananna.
- Dashed lines indicate adoption.
- Solid lines indicate marriage (if horizontal) or parentage (if vertical).
- Trevor Bryce (1997). The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
- Trevor Bryce (2012). The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
- Volkert Haas (2006). Die hethitische Literatur. Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter.
- ^ Scholars have suggested that Tudhaliya I/II was the son of Himuili and thus a grandson of the Hittite king Huzziya II (Bryce 1997, p. 131).
- ^ Bryce (1997) does not consider it clear whether Tudhaliya I/II was one king or two (p. 133).
- ^ a b c Bryce (1997), p. 139.
- ^ The existence of Hattusili II is doubtful (Bryce 1997, pp. 153–154).
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 158.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 172.
- ^ a b c d Bryce (1997), p. 174.
- ^ a b Bryce (1997), p. 168.
- ^ Also known as Malnigal; daughter of Burnaburias II of Babylonia (Bryce 1997, p. 173).
- ^ ‘Great priest’ in Kizzuwadna and king (lugal) of Aleppo (Bryce 1997, p. 174).
- ^ a b c d King (lugal) of Carchemish.
- ^ Bryce (1997), pp. 174, 203–204.
- ^ Zannanza died on his way to Egypt to marry a pharaoh's widow, probably Ankhesenpaaten, the widow of Tutankhamun (Bryce 1997, pp. 196–198).
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 227.
- ^ a b c Bryce (1997), p. 230.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 220.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 222.
- ^ Haas (2006), p. 91.
- ^ Massanauzzi married Masturi, king of the Seha River Land (Bryce 1997, p. 313).
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 296.
- ^ Puduhepa was the daughter of the Kizzuwadnan priest Pentipsarri (Bryce 1997, p. 273).
- ^ Bryce (1997), pp. 346, 363.
- ^ King (lugal) of Tarhuntassa (Bryce 1997, p. 296); apparently later Great King of Hatti (Bryce 1997, p. 354).
- ^ Nerikkaili married a daughter of Bentesina, king of Amurru (Bryce 1997, p. 294).
- ^ Two daughters of Hattusili III were married to the pharaoh Ramesses II; one was given the Egyptian name Ma(hor)nefrure. Another, Gassuwaliya, married into the royal house of Amurru. Kilushepa was married to a king of Isuwa. A daughter married into the royal family of Babylon. A sister of Tudhaliya IV married Sausgamuwa, king of Amurru after his father Bentesina. From Bryce (1997), pp. 294 and 312.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 332.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 363. Tudhaliya IV probably married a Babylonian princess, known by her title of Great Princess (dumu.sal gal) (Bryce 1997, pp. 294, 331).
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 363.
- ^ Great King of Tarhuntassa; son of Mursili, the Great King, who is likely identical with Mursili III/Urhi-Tesub (Bryce 2012, p. 21 f.).
- ^ a b Bryce (1997), p. 361.
- ^ Last documented Great King of the Land of Hatti.
- ^ King and then Great King of Carchemish (Bryce 1997, pp. 384–385).