Tudhaliya I (sometimes referred to as Tudhaliya II, or even Tudhaliya I/II) was a king of the Hittite empire (New kingdom) ca. the early 14th century BC (short chronology).
Proper numbering of the Hittite rulers who bore the name Tudhaliya is problematic. There was a Hattian era figure who bore the name Tudhaliya who may or may not have ruled as king. Other reconstructions insert a Tudhaliya directly after Muwatalli I, but before the Tudhaliya discussed here.
Some scholars call Tudhaliya I the first king of the New Kingdom, or Empire. Others give this honor to Suppiluliuma I. Tudhaliya may have been the grandson of the Middle Kingdom ruler Huzziya II. He may have been the direct successor of Muwatalli I, having overthrown him. The exact sequence of succession at the beginning of the New Kingdom is uncertain, however, because of the difficulty of placing Hattusili II. Tudhaliya I's reign includes a period of co-regency with Arnuwanda I, his son-in-law and adopted son.
The most famous event of Tudhaliya's reign was his conquest of the land Assuwa. Assuwa's name is believed by some scholars to be the origin of the modern place name Asia, although this is not beyond dispute. Further, there were many component territories within Assuwa, including the lands Taruisa and Wilusiya, which are now generally accepted to be references to Troy/Ilios, although there is not enough evidence at this time to explain how these two lands came to apply to a single location.
Tudhaliya's wife was Nikal-mati. He had a daughter Ašmu-nikal who married Arnuwanda.
Hittite New Kingdom royal family tree
- (1) = 1st spouse
- (2) = 2nd spouse
- Small caps indicates a Great King (LUGAL.GAL) of the Land of Hatti; italic small caps indicates a Great Queen or Tawananna.
- Dashed lines indicate adoption.
- Solid lines indicate marriage (if horizontal) or parentage (if vertical).
- Trevor Bryce (1997). The Kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
- Trevor Bryce (2012). The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
- Volkert Haas (2006). Die hethitische Literatur. Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter.
- ^ Scholars have suggested that Tudhaliya I/II was the son of Himuili and thus a grandson of the Hittite king Huzziya II (Bryce 1997, p. 131).
- ^ Bryce (1997) does not consider it clear whether Tudhaliya I/II was one king or two (p. 133).
- ^ a b c Bryce (1997), p. 139.
- ^ The existence of Hattusili II is doubtful (Bryce 1997, pp. 153–154).
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 158.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 172.
- ^ a b c d Bryce (1997), p. 174.
- ^ a b Bryce (1997), p. 168.
- ^ Also known as Malnigal; daughter of Burnaburias II of Babylonia (Bryce 1997, p. 173).
- ^ ‘Great priest’ in Kizzuwadna and king (lugal) of Aleppo (Bryce 1997, p. 174).
- ^ a b c d King (lugal) of Carchemish.
- ^ Bryce (1997), pp. 174, 203–204.
- ^ Zannanza died on his way to Egypt to marry a pharaoh's widow, probably Ankhesenpaaten, the widow of Tutankhamun (Bryce 1997, pp. 196–198).
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 227.
- ^ a b c Bryce (1997), p. 230.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 220.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 222.
- ^ Haas (2006), p. 91.
- ^ Massanauzzi married Masturi, king of the Seha River Land (Bryce 1997, p. 313).
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 296.
- ^ Puduhepa was the daughter of the Kizzuwadnan priest Pentipsarri (Bryce 1997, p. 273).
- ^ Bryce (1997), pp. 346, 363.
- ^ King (lugal) of Tarhuntassa (Bryce 1997, p. 296); apparently later Great King of Hatti (Bryce 1997, p. 354).
- ^ Nerikkaili married a daughter of Bentesina, king of Amurru (Bryce 1997, p. 294).
- ^ Two daughters of Hattusili III were married to the pharaoh Ramesses II; one was given the Egyptian name Ma(hor)nefrure. Another, Gassuwaliya, married into the royal house of Amurru. Kilushepa was married to a king of Isuwa. A daughter married into the royal family of Babylon. A sister of Tudhaliya IV married Sausgamuwa, king of Amurru after his father Bentesina. From Bryce (1997), pp. 294 and 312.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 332.
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 363. Tudhaliya IV probably married a Babylonian princess, known by her title of Great Princess (dumu.sal gal) (Bryce 1997, pp. 294, 331).
- ^ Bryce (1997), p. 363.
- ^ Great King of Tarhuntassa; son of Mursili, the Great King, who is likely identical with Mursili III/Urhi-Tesub (Bryce 2012, p. 21 f.).
- ^ a b Bryce (1997), p. 361.
- ^ Last documented Great King of the Land of Hatti.
- ^ King and then Great King of Carchemish (Bryce 1997, pp. 384–385).
In the Bible
A number of modern biblical scholars believe that either Tudhaliya I, or the proto-Hittite Tudhaliya, was the same individual as Tidal, king of Nations, who is mentioned in the Book of Genesis as having joined Chedorlaomer in attacking rebels in Canaan.